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Mecca S, Marco M

An IT oriented approach supporting the integration of technical risk, quality, environment and safety management in construction

Abstract: "I.T Context I.T. plays a key role to connect risk management with an integrated three dimension management system integrating quality, environment and safety management. Planning Techniques in construction aims to support the decision integration in the on/off site interfaces of construction processes. Starting just from the design phase the quality management strategies integrated with the performance theory allow to formulate a full list of requirements for project activities which can effectively stored in product models of construction elements. The technical risk analysis aims to operate a large performances analysis in on/off site processes. The risk analysis supports quality management in construction planning for determining a graduation of levels of performance required to the management system, which means identifying the specific project criticality in time, cost and quality fields and combining the most appropriate measures of prevention. Objective The objective for the developing research has been focussed on a planning technique integrating the information flow from the design phase to the construction process, oriented to allow the main contractor and the subcontractors to utilize quality plans schemas and risk analysis deriving from design phases as input in the risk analysis detailing and quality plans refinement. Methodology By a widespread collaborative analysis, dealt with an AI planning methodology applied in the construction domain, it might be possible to identify all actions aiming at reducing and preventing failure risk, intended as specific non conformance risk of elements and activities characteristics, and develop the right organizing strategies to increase the contractor's reactivity toward failure and defects. The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) methodology and the quality management applied to the construction planning are developed by means an intensive data exchange involving the project operators – e.g. designer, owner, contractor and subcontractor – in identifying the failure risk and in planning the prevention and control measures. Results An experimental FMEA system for analyzing risk factors in construction planning is advanced. Based on a schema of integrated tools, the techniques aims to provide a cooperative planning system toward a systematic approach representing a non conformance technical risk analysis in construction management."

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Full text: content.pdf (255,308 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.020367) class.strategies (0.019228) class.environment (0.016653)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Rischmoller L, Fischer M, Fox R, Alarcon L

Impact of computer advanced visualization tools in AEC industry

Abstract: "This paper presents the results of research about the impact of Computer Advanced Visualization Tools (CAVT) in the AEC project development process, carried out during PhD studies of the first author. CAVT are identified as core IT tools and defined in a broad sense, which involve their main feature of provide the ability to visualize the ends (Product models) and means (Process models) for AEC design and construction project development processes, focused in design and construction stages at the operational level. The impact of CAVT include three main dimensions: 1. The first related with the computational “science” aspect, explores how available comercial hardware and software has reached an adequate level of powerful, affordability and ease of use which will allow for a masive application of these tools in the AEC industry in the nearly future. Future demands in hardware and specially software developments are identified, and ways of lead them to the computer (software) industry are also presented. 2. The second dimension of the impact explores how the evolution of Product and Process modeling has played a key role to support with knowledge for the practical application of commercial CAVT and how these two topics must be revisited when studied from a point of view, coming from CAVT widely application to a real life project. 3. The third dimension is related with the actual organizatonal structures supporting design and construction processes development. Here is first demonstrated that actual organizational structures constitute an obstacle for CAVT efficient application, and a completely new organizational structure is needed is order to realize the real impact and take truly advantage of CAVT. An hipotetical organizational structure with high levels of integration and coordination, is then outlined, which need to be tested with further research in real life projects application. The research has an important therotetical background coming from analysis, study and contact with experts in ITC. This theoretical background has however been complemented with the study of CAVT application to a real life project, which has provided with decisive insights. The project has been designed, by first time in Latin America, completely in 3D using PDS software, a powerful Plant Design System provided by Intergraph, Inc. DesignReview software (also from Intergraph) has provided with powerful capabilties for the visualization of the product PDS 3D model. 4D modeling technology has been applied succesfully to the planning and scheduling tasks of the project to simulate the construction process, and has also provided with some important issues about how to improve the design. The study of the impact of CAVT shows that the ability to visualize the digital reality made up of a product model, and that visualization of the construction process (i.e 4D model), stands for a large reduction of the efforts in simplifications and abstractions, which traditionally has formed part of the basic input-transformation-output model for the AEC project development process. Location of the digital reality out of the boudaries of simplifications and abstractions leads to the conclusion that AEC industry is facing and ontological change without precedents in its history driven by CAVT within the ITC context. This paper will describe a bit more in detail this ontologyc change wich is about to revolution completely the way AEC projects has been developed until now."

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Full text: content.pdf (249,267 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.054473) class.environment (0.053118) class.processing (0.045755)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


S Komorowski & V Berkhahn

Neural networks in the re-engineering process based on construction drawings

Abstract: In this paper an approach is presented to digitize a drawing, to build up geometric and topologic models, to recognise construction parts and to interpret dimension lines and inscriptions. All recognized parts are transformed into a three-dimensional geometric model which provides all necessary geometric information for a product model. The recognition process of construction parts is based on a line search and topologi-cal analysis, which are not suitable for the recognition of drawing inscriptions and hand writings. Therefore, the information of dimension inscriptions has to be neglected in former case studies. Because dimension inscriptions deliver significant information about the dimensions of construction parts, a neural Kohonen network is implemented and adapted in order to recognise inscription text. Finally the gained information about dimensions is related to significant details of construction parts.

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Full text: content.pdf (809,945 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Smeltzer G T, Dijkstra J

A time dimension for computer aided architectural design systems

Abstract: With the aid of CMD-systems several design stages can be recorded. With them the design process that was foIlowed can be set down and reconstructed too. I f these diEerernt design stages originate from one and the same file, they can easily be compared with each other. These were the starting point5 that led to a research into the possibility to record all design data, generated during an architectural derign process, in one infonriation system in a 'temporally' coordinated manner. For this we should be able to record and reproduce the design stages as well as the processes t h t led to them. The central issue in this research is the way in which teinporal aspects of design information can be registered in the architectural data system. The infinity of the size of the information system and the finiteness of the capacity of recording media should be takeri into account here. This initid paper deals with the presentaxiun of an original idea coiicerning the possibilities and restrictions of computer systems as tools for the design process. Before long research results in thi: form uf a fhetional desig and a first prototype can be presented.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,819,697 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.031273) class.analysis (0.029696) class.impact (0.012906)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Turk Z, Bjork B C, Johansson C, Svensson K

Document management systems as an essential step towards CIC

Abstract: Within the context of the construction industry Electronic Document Management (EDM) systems offer the means for rapidly achieving a shallow level of integration by providing process integration and information management on a coarse, document sized level of detail. A question which so far has received little attention is how construction document management (CDM) can provide a smooth transition toward computer-integrated construction, based on full-grown building product data models. An important research question for researchers developing a theoretical basis for CIC is to define hybrid conceptual models which synthesise these two levels of data management and describe accurately in an application independent way the CIC processes where a part of the information is managed by CDM systems and a part using product and project models. As a pre-stage to the definition of formal models of the information manipulated by CDM systems we elaborate the functional requirements that such systems should fulfil. Next we describe a four dimensional CDM modelling space - product dimension (relation to product model and product decomposition), time dimension (document life cycle), organisation dimension and finally presentation dimension. In the end a document classification table which includes generic document properties sorted according to the four dimensions described above is presented and directions for further research are indicated.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,577,647 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.045133) class.represent (0.026119) class.processing (0.010703)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Xiaonan Zhang, Nick Bakis, Song Wu, Mike Kagioglou, Ghassan Aouad, Tim Lukins, Yahaya Ibrahim

Incorporating the progress measurement dimension to an integrated building information system: a research framework

Abstract: The accurate measurement of work in progress on construction sites is important for calculating interim payments as well as for business and project management functions like schedule and cost control. Currently it still takes place using traditional building surveying techniques and visual inspections. However the usually monthly meas-urements are not frequent and accurate enough, incorporating judgement and shortcuts. An EPSRC funded collaborative research is looking at supporting the measurement of work in progress on construction sites using computer vision technology within the context of an integrated building information system. In particular, the research aims to develop a system that automatically measures the progress of construction from digital images captured on site, analyses the progress against the original schedule in order to identify any potential delays and calcu-lates interim payments. The paper presents the initial findings from the research and a development framework for the proposed system.

Keywords: progress measurement, integrated building information system, computer vision

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Full text: content.pdf (367,114 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Zarli A, Rezgui Y

A survey of internet-oriented technologies for document-driven applications in construction open dynamic virtual environments

Abstract: "Various technologies ranging from standards for data exchange and product / process modeling, to integration through the use of object-oriented technologies, have been experimented and used in order to highlight the benefits of information and communication technologies in the construction domain. In particular, this last decade has seen a tremendous activity in new specifications and developments of standards and architectures for enterprise application integration. Indeed, integration and seamless communication between software applications (proprietary and commercial) are increasingly becoming fundamental issues tackled by a variety of emerging technologies. However, all these latest IT developments didn’t have the expected impact on the construction industry. This is due to several factors, including poor investment in construction IT by SMEs, and mismatch between IT innovations and Construction industry needs. In fact, behind the global issue of application integration within the (real or virtual) enterprise, appear a lot of architectural problems (along with the “right” selection of tools, toolboxes and infrastructures) that take a critical dimension in the case of open systems and standard issues. The building sector is essentially characterised by its fragmentation, with a high proportion of SMEs involved in the design and build process of Construction projects: this means, from a macroscopic point of view, that designed infrastructures must be adequate to support Extranets and Virtual enterprises. Consequently, the problematic is not only to ensure internal communication between systems as in a single, even large, company, but to provide the required capacity to exchange information and collaborate outside the boundaries of the information systems constituting the IT infrastructure of a company, including means to organise the flow of information and the co-ordination of tasks. To address the issues of communication and interoperability, several routes have been explored and are still under development: after an initial phase related to bulk exchange of documents, middleware has become the focus, with investigations around CORBA or DCOM (for middleware-oriented application integration), and MOM (for the routing and formatting “on-the-fly” of messages). More recently, new architectures have been suggested, especially the now well-known 3-Tier based architecture and application servers (Client desktop – middle-tier Web or application server – DBMS/persistent storage). Eventually, technologies dedicated to the Web has risen, particularly the XML technology, and Java-oriented technologies like JSP and servlets. Driven by the identification of intra- and inter-company business processes and information / process requirements of the Construction domain, and also on case studies and experiments conducted in previous European projects, including VEGA, GENIAL and CONDOR, this paper proposes a survey and first evaluation of open Internet-oriented technology and standards for use in open dynamic virtual environments, and analyses the potential usefulness of some current technologies, specifically MOM, CORBA, XML, and application servers (for the handling of business objects). The paper also highlights the benefits of using XML, as a technology for flexible and dynamic representation of complex objects (including documents) and their stream-based interchange, along with distributed object frameworks such as CORBA for remote access to data. Finally, the paper concentrates on the need related to the design of an infrastructure for application integration and tasks collaboration, and elaborates on how recent IT fit into architectures required for the specific needs and peculiarities of the construction industry. 1. Message Oriented Middleware. 2. Java Server Pages. 3. This work is realised in the scope of the OSMOS European project: Open System for inter-enterprise information Management in dynamic virtual envirOnmentS, IST-1999-10491 project."

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Full text: content.pdf (308,492 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-software (0.082384) class.communication (0.039950) class.collaboration (0.028661)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Zhu Z

Effectiveness of visual features on as-built building indoor environments modeling

Abstract: As-built information of building elements (e.g. element dimension, geometry, material, etc.) could be used to facilitate multiple building assessment and management tasks, including project progress monitoring, productivity analysis, construction inspection, etc. However, the current process for retrieving as-built information of building elements from remote sensing data is labor-intensive and time-consuming. This is especially true for modeling the building indoor environments prevalent with occlusions and partitions. In order to address these limitations, the use of RGB-D mapping has been proposed and shown a promise for modeling building indoor environments. One fundamental part in the RGB-D mapping is to select an appropriate combination of visual feature detectors and descriptors. This paper investigates the effectiveness of different visual feature detectors and descriptors on modeling 3D building scenes. Several visual feature detectors and descriptors (e.g. GFTT, SURF, SIFT, ORB, and BRISK) have been evaluated. The evaluation criteria considered in the paper include accuracy and speed. The feature detectors and descriptors have been tested in multiple building scenarios with the same hardware configuration. Based on the evaluation results, it could be found that the combination of a SURF feature detector and a BRISK feature descriptor is more accurate than the others. Meanwhile, the use of the ORB feature detector and descriptor could get the fast speed.

Keywords: As-built building information,automation,comparative studies,RGB-D mapping

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Full text: content.pdf (522,409 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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