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Chen Y Z, Maver T W

Supporting interaction within virtual studios

Abstract: In this paper the author describes the development of a virtual studio environment, which is intended for supporting communications for both dispersed human designers and distributed CAD applications. By applying the metaphor of the real world design studio, a virtual studio model has been defined as an electronic locale in the computer networks, which contains distributed resources and is inhabited by dispersed designers. Virtual studio environment (VSE) has then been proposed to refer to such a multi-user environment which supports the creation, operation and management of virtual studios. A distributed implementation architecture, which loosely couples the domain resources with the VSE base system through resource agents, has been designed. Conceptual building design has been chosen as the application domain for prototyping. Several typical scenarios of interaction with VSE will be discussed. One of the prominent features of this system is that the supported interaction takes place within, instead of through or external to, the design systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (131,564 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.033732) class.environment (0.020579) class.communication (0.018678)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Christensen, C.B. and Benson, D.K.

The Energy Performance of Buildings with Distributed Thermal Storage

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Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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Christiansson P, Svidt K, Ove Skjarbek J, Aaholm R

User requirements modelling and design of collaborative virtual reality design systems

Abstract: Advanced Information Technology today gives us the opportunity to implement sophisticated distributed systems for collaborative design. Persons with different interests and competencies in the building process such as architects, installation engineers, structural engineers, clients, builders can all at least theoretically be brought together in a distributed design space where a virtual building will be designed, build, and functionally evaluated. A design space build in a virtual reality environment will enable us to realistically and efficiently simulate the form, function, and construction of the building object under consideration. In this connection we made the following definition of a Virtual Workspace. 'The Virtual Workspace, VW, is actually the new design room designed to fit new and existing design routines. VW may well be a mixed reality environment. The VW will host all design partners from project start with different access and visibility (for persons and groups) in space and time to the project, and will promote building up shared values in projects. The VW thus acts as a communication space with project information support in adapted appearances. VW gives access to general and specific IT-tools ' The paper presents experiences from the early phases of user requirements formulations and design of such collaborative design spaces. The findings are mainly based on collaborative university and consultant engineering company work done in the EU project 'Distributed Virtual Workspace for enhancing Communication within the Construction Industry - DIVERCITY' as well as experiences from student collaboration in distributed learning environments and earlier research within the area. It is extremely important to bridge the gap between the user requirements specifications and the actual interface design and implementation of the underlying operational models of the distributed virtual workspace system. This is certainly true as we actually design a new type of design artefact that will highly influence the traditional working methods and integration of design resources. The early conceptual design of the virtual workspace follows the so called Contextual Design methodology which gives input to the subsequent data modelling work and implementation in an object oriented web distributed environment. The method used is described and examples on resulting Work Models (work flow, sequence and artefact models) are presented and commented on.

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Full text: content.pdf (634,867 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.065624) class.deployment (0.022154) class.environment (0.022092)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansson P

Knowledge communication in the building industry - the knowledge node concept

Abstract: In the paper are given fundamental support to high level structuring and modelling of the building process. The concept of a knowledge node is explained and demonstrated in ongoing research projects together with industry. The enabling technologies accounted for are rich user interfaces in the form of multimedia, the World Wide Web, relational databases, and object-oriented languages as Java. The main conclusions from research projects combining a holistic visionary approach and practical implementations are that the described knowledge nodes with underlying general models act well as both distributed knowledge containers and knowledge communication tools both during the design of the node itself and its later targeted use.

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Full text: content.pdf (223,590 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.060342) class.collaboration (0.033263) class.communication (0.022475)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansson P

IT in distributed open learning environments

Abstract: "The paper describes, accounts experiences, and analyses ongoing open IT supported education's at Aalborg University. The requirements and properties of distributed learning systems are explained as well as available IT-tools support and requirements on underlying application and user models. Pedagogical models are developed to support project organized problem based learning environments. Students are situated at different places in Denmark and meet in person once a month during a weekend seminar. New learning IT tools are introduced to support self study, project work, self tests, project delivery, and course administration. The open Master of IT education and IT courses in the Civil Engineering and Architecture and Design curricula are used as examples for discussions on course information content and structure, and personalized IT tools and their properties. Our conclusions are that we are only in the beginning of development of cross-disciplinary university courses in a global setting with highly communicative IT tools in contrast to traditionally open environments. It is also concluded that IT supported distributed learning provides us with excellent possibilities to advance the learning methodologies suitable for life long learning and to render existing courses more effective. There is a great need to raise the IT competence of the teachers to meet the needs for and carrying through of the changes in education on all levels. We will in the future see a closer natural collaboration between universities in course development and experience exchange."

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Full text: content.pdf (290,092 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.064533) class.education (0.052856) class.communication (0.041303)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Chuen-Chyi Hsieh, Te-Che Chen, Ting-Wu Ho and Chien-Cheng Chou

Taiwan High-Speed Trains Emergency Dispatching Using Ontology-Based, Multi-Agent Model

Abstract: High-speed rail (HSR) systems have played a more and more important role for todayÕs traveling public. To guarantee punctual, reliable and safe services, modern HSR systems are equipped with sophisticated computerized subsystems for daily operations. However, when a natural or man-made disaster occurs, currently extensive human interventions are needed and, consequently, extended delays and possible injuries may occur if HSR emergency dispatching plans utilized do not accommodate all the conflicts raised. Previous literature shows that multi-agent system (MAS) technology can be utilized to provide decision-making assistance in a distributed and dynamic environment and is often combined with ontology and semantic rules to enhance the reasoning capability. Hence, this research aimed at developing an ontology-driven MAS model for HSR emergency dispatching, and intelligent agents were constructed using JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment framework) and Protˇgˇ with SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language). The proposed model was validated with three real HSR emergency dispatching cases, plus 50 hypothetical cases. Experts from Taiwan HSR company were asked to assess the model performance. The assessment results showed that the HSR emergency dispatching plans generated were similar to those designed by experienced dispatchers, and the time required to develop a plan using the proposed model was significantly less than the time needed in the manual approach. The model is expected to help young dispatchers handle emergency dispatching cases under stress, as well as to strengthen the safety aspect of HSR services. Delays or casualties associated with a train disaster could be reduced if the proposed model is adequately utilized.

Keywords: Multi-Agent System, Ontology, High-Speed Rail, Disaster Response Phase, Emergency Dispatching

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0256

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Daniel G. Beer, Berthold Firmenich, and Karl E. Beucke

A System Architecture For Net-Distributed Applications In Civil Engineering

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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De Grassi M, Giretti A, Caneparo L, Mecca S

Teaching construction in the virtual university: the WINDS project

Abstract: "This paper introduces some of the Information Technology solutions adopted in Web based INtelligent Design Support (WINDS) to support education in A/E/C design. The WINDS project WINDS is an EC-funded project in the 5th Framework, Information Society Technologies programme, Flexible University key action. WINDS is divided into two actions: ·The research technology action is going to implement a learning environment integrating an intelligent tutoring system, a computer instruction management system and a set of co-operative supporting tools. ·The development action is going to build a large knowledge base supporting Architecture and Civil Engineering Design Courses and to experiment a comprehensive Virtual School of Architecture and Engineering Design. During the third year of the project, more than 400 students all over Europe will attend the Virtual School. During the next three years the WINDS project will span a total effort of about 150 man-years from 28 partners of 10 European countries. The missions of the WINDS project are: Advanced Methodologies in Design Education. WINDS drives a breakdown with conventional models in design education, i.e. classroom or distance education. WINDS implements a problem oriented knowledge transfer methodology following Roger Schank’s Goal Based Scenario (GBS) pedagogical methodology. GBS encourages the learning of both skills and cases, and fosters creative problem solving. Multidisciplinary Design Education. Design requires creative synthesis and open-end problem definition at the intersection of several disciplines. WINDS experiments a valuable integration of multidisciplinary design knowledge and expertise to produce a high level standard of education. Innovative Representation, Delivery and Access to Construction Education. WINDS delivers individual education customisation by allowing the learner access through the Internet to a wide range of on-line courses and structured learning objects by means of personally tailored learning strategies. WINDS promotes the 3W paradigm: learn What you need, Where you want, When you require. Construction Practice. Construction industry is a repository of ""best practices"" and knowledge that the WINDS will profit. WINDS system benefits the ISO10303 and IFC standards to acquire knowledge of the construction process directly in digital format. On the other hand, WINDS reengineers the knowledge in up-to-date courses, educational services, which the industries can use to provide just-in-time rather than in-advance learning. WINDS IT Solutions The missions of the WINDS project state many challenging requirements both in knowledge and system architecture. Many of the solutions adopted in these fields are innovative; others are evolution of existing technologies. This paper focuses on the integration of this set of state-of-the-art technologies in an advanced and functionally sound Computer Aided Instruction system for A/E/C Design. In particular the paper deals with the following aspects: Standard Learning Technology Architecture The WINDS system relies on the in progress IEEE 1484.1 Learning Technology Standard Architecture. According to this standard the system consists of two data stores, the Knowledge Library and the Record Database, and four process: System Coach, Delivery, Evaluation and the Learner. WINDS implements the Knowledge Library into a three-tier architecture: 1.Learning Objects: ·Learning Units are collections of text and multimedia data. ·Models are represented in either IFC or STEP formats. ·Cases are sets of Learning Units and Models. Cases are noteworthy stories, which describes solutions, integrate technical detail, contain relevant design failures etc. 2.Indexes refer to the process in which the identification of relevant topics in design cases and learning units takes place. Indexing process creates structures of Learning Objects for course management, profile planning procedures and reasoning processes. 3.Courses are taxonomies of either Learning Units or a design task and Course Units. Knowledge Representation WINDS demonstrates that it is possible and valuable to integrate a widespread design expertise so that it can be effectively used to produce a high level standard of education. To this aim WINDS gathers area knowledge, design skills and expertise under the umbrellas of common knowledge representation structures and unambiguous semantics. Cases are one of the most valuable means for the representation of design expertise. A Case is a set of Learning Units and Product Models. Cases are noteworthy stories, which describe solutions, integrate technical details, contain relevant design failures, etc. Knowledge Integration Indexes are a medium among different kind of knowledge: they implement networks for navigation and access to disparate documents: HTML, video, images, CAD and product models (STEP or IFC). Concept indexes link learning topics to learning objects and group them into competencies. Index relationships are the base of the WINDS reasoning processes, and provide the foundation for system coaching functions, which proactively suggest strategies, solutions, examples and avoids students’ design deadlock. Knowledge Distribution To support the data stores and the process among the partners in 10 countries efficiently, WINDS implements an object oriented client/server as COM objects. Behind the DCOM components there is the Dynamic Kernel, which dynamically embodies and maintains data stores and process. Components of the Knowledge Library can reside on several servers across the Internet. This provides for distributed transactions, e.g. a change in one Learning Object affects the Knowledge Library spread across several servers in different countries. Learning objects implemented as COM objects can wrap ownership data. Clear and univocal definition of ownerships rights enables Universities, in collaboration with telecommunication and publisher companies, to act as “education brokers”. Brokerage in education and training is an innovative paradigm to provide just-in-time and personally customised value added learning knowledge."

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Full text: content.pdf (417,738 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.088602) class.deployment (0.042591) class.bestPractise (0.035370)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


de Vries B, van Leeuwen J P, Achten H H

Design studio of the future

Abstract: New communication media enable new design technologies. To investigate the mutual influenceof a new medium like Virtual Reality (VR) and architectural design technologies, a laboratorycalled 'the design studio of the future' is established. In due time a design system will bedeveloped offering different design technologies in an integrated environment. Interfaces withinVR will support various approaches to the design problem. A large research program (VirtualReality - Distributed Interactive Systems) is carried out to provide state-of-the-art tools fordesigners to experiment and to give feed back on the results.

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Full text: content.pdf (59,111 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Debras P, Zarl A, Amar V, Poyet P

The distributed information service in the VEGA project: an approach towards the harmonisation of STEP, SGML and EDIFACT informationstandards for the support of integrated and distributed construction projectinformation systems.

Abstract: Over the past two decades, the complexity of engineering projects has increased. In such a context, havingaccess to the right information at the right time is often crucial. In the area of Information Management,numerous efforts have already been made under the auspices of various major institutes towards theelaboration of Information Standards. Whether it be STEP for Product Data representation and exchange,SGML for documentation structuring and support or EDIFACT for Electronic Data Interchange, thesestandardisation efforts all address complementary aspects related to the representation and communication of engineering project information. However, both at the conceptual and technological levels, end-usersnowadays face a lack of integration among these various existing or emerging Information Standards.Building upon the on-going specification and implementation of a CORBA based middleware layer allowingthe distribution of any STEP SDAI models, the Distributed Information Service of the VEGA EuropeanEsprit Research project addresses the integration and distribution of construction project information systemsat two different levels. First, the conceptual level is concerned with the elaboration of STEP EXPRESSproduct data models supporting SGML documentary models and documents but also EDIFACT messagesmodels and messages. The implementation level is then concerned with the development of dedicatedconverters supporting the back and forth translation of SGML documents and EDIFACT messages towardsthe STEP format, finally providing a remote access to any kind of information for all the actors involved in a construction project.

Keywords: Distributed Information System, STEP, SGML, EDIFACT.

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