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Yum K-K, Drogemuller R

Managing dynamic life-cycle-dependent buildingobjects in a distributed computing environment

Abstract: Building and construction business processes involve various stakeholders located indifferent locations over the life cycle stages of buildings. In order to develop anyautomated solutions for improving these processes, there is a need to develop a flexibleframework that can deal with two important issues:(a) common data for sharing and access across networked computers over time;(b) management of data for the protection of rightful access and for the reduction ofinformation overloading.While there had been many attempts in the past to provide "logical" industry informationframeworks for integration, they proved to be difficult for a "fragmented" industry like theconstruction industry to adopt. For any integration framework to be useful for collectiveimplementation, this paper argues that the AEC (Architecture, Engineering andConstruction) business/enterprise views should be captured in an open interoperablearchitecture. The gist of the business/enterprise view point is that users can play variousroles (owner/operator, architects, etc.) at various life cycle stages (briefing, conceptualdesign, detail design, construction, operation, etc.); and through these roles, users canconnect to various building model servers and various software tools. Embedded in thisbusiness model is a simple and yet powerful threaded relationship "users - business rolesand life cycle stages - tools and data". It is powerful because it supports a generic datamanagement regime: users can select various permissible roles in various life cycle stagesto access legitimate tools and data within various building model servers. It is simplebecause it is compatible with today's network operating system login procedures and thepassword protection mechanism of files and folders. As people, end users and developersalike are familiar with the basic paradigm of "data manipulation through software tools".The above two features of the business view reinforce each other for gradual acceptance bythe AEC industry. What is needed is a critical mass from an industry alliance to initiate afeasibility study of the interoperable architecture, its business views and other supportingview points (information views, engineering views and technical views) for a quickdemonstration.This paper also presents some usage scenarios demonstrating how a user logs on as adesigner and connects to a design tool accessing data objects in a building model server.

Keywords: Modeling methodologies and technologies; discipline/phase specific models; interoperablearchitectures, business models, information models.

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Full text: content.pdf (84,310 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Yusuke Y

Conceptual models for planning of building and construction systems

Abstract: Presently, Conputer Integrated Construction (CIC) is recognized as a strategy as well as a concept. for associating existing resources, technologies, processes and organizations by information integration and automaton to optimize overall construction activities and functions. However although innovative computer and automation applications to the Architectwall Engineering/ Construction (NFYC) industry are introduced, no efficient approach to implement a full scale CIC has been established. Several attempts have taken place in different areas of the AWC industry depending on specific business characteristics, which also indicate potential applications of product modeling, process inodeling and information modeling to a practical approach to the Iota1 CIC. 'nie aim of this paper is to present results of current research and development issues on conceptual models which enable interactive planning between design and construction planning focusing on building systems and construction systems.Severa1 types of conceptual models are efficiently applied to explore distributed project planning and management in several planning stages. These models also incorporate conceptual product models represented as building system models, and conceptual process models represented as construction system planning models, construction activity planning models and construction facility planning models for CIC.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,568,579 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.047051) class.strategies (0.028122) class.represent (0.015794)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Z Ren, TM Hassan, CD Carter & C J Anumba

Agent-facilitated Trust Building in the SEEM Infrastructure

Abstract: This paper presents an agent-based trust building approach developed for the Single Electronic European Market (SEEM). Intelligent agents, embedded in the distributed SEEM registry and repository nodes, SEEM Certification Authority (SCA), Trust Third Parties (TTPs) and external Certification Authorities (CAs) are adopted to collaboratively seek the trust related information of a potential partner such as user certificate and conformance information, as well as registry information.

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Full text: content.pdf (383,257 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Zarli A, Rezgui Y

A survey of internet-oriented technologies for document-driven applications in construction open dynamic virtual environments

Abstract: "Various technologies ranging from standards for data exchange and product / process modeling, to integration through the use of object-oriented technologies, have been experimented and used in order to highlight the benefits of information and communication technologies in the construction domain. In particular, this last decade has seen a tremendous activity in new specifications and developments of standards and architectures for enterprise application integration. Indeed, integration and seamless communication between software applications (proprietary and commercial) are increasingly becoming fundamental issues tackled by a variety of emerging technologies. However, all these latest IT developments didn’t have the expected impact on the construction industry. This is due to several factors, including poor investment in construction IT by SMEs, and mismatch between IT innovations and Construction industry needs. In fact, behind the global issue of application integration within the (real or virtual) enterprise, appear a lot of architectural problems (along with the “right” selection of tools, toolboxes and infrastructures) that take a critical dimension in the case of open systems and standard issues. The building sector is essentially characterised by its fragmentation, with a high proportion of SMEs involved in the design and build process of Construction projects: this means, from a macroscopic point of view, that designed infrastructures must be adequate to support Extranets and Virtual enterprises. Consequently, the problematic is not only to ensure internal communication between systems as in a single, even large, company, but to provide the required capacity to exchange information and collaborate outside the boundaries of the information systems constituting the IT infrastructure of a company, including means to organise the flow of information and the co-ordination of tasks. To address the issues of communication and interoperability, several routes have been explored and are still under development: after an initial phase related to bulk exchange of documents, middleware has become the focus, with investigations around CORBA or DCOM (for middleware-oriented application integration), and MOM (for the routing and formatting “on-the-fly” of messages). More recently, new architectures have been suggested, especially the now well-known 3-Tier based architecture and application servers (Client desktop – middle-tier Web or application server – DBMS/persistent storage). Eventually, technologies dedicated to the Web has risen, particularly the XML technology, and Java-oriented technologies like JSP and servlets. Driven by the identification of intra- and inter-company business processes and information / process requirements of the Construction domain, and also on case studies and experiments conducted in previous European projects, including VEGA, GENIAL and CONDOR, this paper proposes a survey and first evaluation of open Internet-oriented technology and standards for use in open dynamic virtual environments, and analyses the potential usefulness of some current technologies, specifically MOM, CORBA, XML, and application servers (for the handling of business objects). The paper also highlights the benefits of using XML, as a technology for flexible and dynamic representation of complex objects (including documents) and their stream-based interchange, along with distributed object frameworks such as CORBA for remote access to data. Finally, the paper concentrates on the need related to the design of an infrastructure for application integration and tasks collaboration, and elaborates on how recent IT fit into architectures required for the specific needs and peculiarities of the construction industry. 1. Message Oriented Middleware. 2. Java Server Pages. 3. This work is realised in the scope of the OSMOS European project: Open System for inter-enterprise information Management in dynamic virtual envirOnmentS, IST-1999-10491 project."

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Full text: content.pdf (308,492 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-software (0.082384) class.communication (0.039950) class.collaboration (0.028661)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Zarli A, Richaud O, Buckley E

Requirements, barriers and trends in advanced technologies for the large scale engineering uptake

Abstract: Corporations are today becoming largely distributed, and deeply founded on networking technology allowing to share and access information in different locations. In the same time, information systems have become the spinal chord of the modern enterprise, appropriate information tools satisfying fast reactive business requirements and offering a strategic corporate advantage. One of the main issues now is to ensure that the vital information, for which the virtual enterprise has a special dependency, is easily accessed and manipulated by multiple actor-oriented applications, thereby satisfying the need for improved customer service, on-time delivery, quality management and project co-ordination. With the popularity of the Web and its use in productive industry environments, the coupling of suppliers, manufacturers, and customers seems an attractive and reachable goal. Applications are requested to authorise employees, business partners and customers to access critical data from their desktop anywhere in the world over the Internet, supporting the browsing of data and documents contained in large electronic vaults by connecting to the server from any supported WEB browser client, provided they have appropriate access privilege. This paper aims at identifying, with a focus on the Building Construction sector, the current major requirements and barriers along with the possible use of new standard based technology in order to foster a better industrial exploitation of the large information sources located both on the WEB and in enterprises databases accessible through the WEB. Needs can be: * End-user and process oriented needs, like information modelling, persistent and coherent data storing, data exchange and distribution, availability and interoperability issues, concurrent access, security (i.e. data protection and confidentiality levels configuration), uniform access to any type of databases, uniform presentation on client side (i.e. not from any tool-oriented point of view), coupling of WEB data with internal corporate information, etc. * Needs in terms of computer-based systems, as open architecture, scalability, reusable components, integration of legacy systems, flexibility, and so on. Despite advances in computer technology providing more reliable and relevant mechanisms and tools for information management in the large, companies still deal with intricate and non flexible corporate information systems, with an increasing complexity in software development and use. To mask this complexity, we promote the concept of business objects (BO), which are software components encapsulating business rules and aiming at providing secure sophisticated access to diverse electronic content and applications. BO (*) are defined as components of the information system representing the enterprise business model, and are to be promising enablers to build information systems meeting end users and customers requirements, thus revealing critical to the success of the enterprise. BO will be managed in the WONDA (**) project, which aims at extending the infrastructure and services of current wide area networks towards a broader industrial and commercial usage, for the deployment of the information and communication infrastructure in the industry. WONDA will be a framework of open and interchangeable BO enabling configurability according to business solutions. It will offer an industry-wide and enterprise-wide framework for the development of WEB solutions to construction industry business needs, thus turning the WEB into a viable infrastructure for industrial manufacturing and commerce.

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Full text: content.pdf (86,086 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.041943) class.collaboration (0.031481) class.strategies (0.021536)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Zarli A, Richaud O

Requirements and Technology Integration for IT-Based Business-Oriented Frameworks in Building and Construction

Abstract: Key challenges nowadays facing industry are increased competition, increased complexity and wider market reach, and in such a context, the information infrastructure of an enterprise determines its strengths and weaknesses. As a consequence, this infrastructure has become vital to enterprise competitiveness, though the diversity of enterprise databases and the heterogeneity of strategic applications are still a barrier to industrial exploitation of the opportunities offered by this infrastructure. Modern enterprise information systems must interoperate in Inter/Intranets and with the WEB in a quite interactive, reliable and secure way, and have to be flexible enough in order to quickly adapt to today's fast moving business environment. This paper first gives a synthesised investigation of the requirements for a standardised open infrastructure, relying on now available distributed objects systems, and integrating in a flexible way the enterprise business model through the emerging concept of Business Objects (BOs), that allows systems designers to put the stress on the business they model and no more the data they exploit. It then focuses on a specific part of the work undertaken in the context of the Esprit project, relying on the OMG Business Object Component Architecture (BOCA) proposed by the BODTF. This was finally not accepted by the OMG board. Nevertheless, at the time we started our work, this proposition was the only one meeting requirements for distributed business objects, and especially the Component Description Language (CDL) and its concepts: a short presentation is given of a CDL compiler that produces IDL, according to the BODTF recommendations for CORBA-based implementations, and Java code, on the basis of a framework we developed. The originality of this approach resides in the fact that it takes into account most of the needs when developing BOs and gives an automated implementation whenever possible. Hence, we automated the generation of factories, event typed dispatching, and relationship handling. This approach lets the BO developers concentrate on the business and relies on improved solution backed by design patterns. This research is regarded as a solid foundation for designers to set up information systems that are a better fit to business user requirements, and expected to be a major step towards the forecast delivery of WEB-oriented software components for the Building Construction and other sectors as well.

Keywords: distributed client/server architectures, communication middleware, business objects, CORBA, CDL, open and standardised industrial business objects frameworks.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1999/4 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1999 (browse)
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Zhou W,Tah J,Heesom D

A distributed virtual reality application framework for collaborative construction planning using Bimserver

Abstract: As the architecture/engineering/construction (AEC) industry proceeds in the direction of digitalisation, computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) enhanced by building information modelling (BIM) becomes realistic for multidisciplinary collaboration in construction. Networked virtual reality (VR) supported by BIM servers, though showing great potentials in connecting multidisciplinary teamwork, is still less clarified for geographically dispersed construction teams to achieve collaboration. Taking the advantages of networked VR through the BIM server connection, this paper discusses a BIMserver-based VR application framework for distributed teams to perform real-time collaborative 4D construction planning and simulation. Through the analysis of current 4D modelling approaches, BIMserver adoption for collaborative 4D planning, as well as enabled VR platform technologies, the paper highlights availabilities of the interactive definition method for collaborative 4D planning underpinned by BIMserver. This method supports CSCW activities like co-navigate, so-sort, co-plan, co-simulate and co-talk for the 4D planning teamwork, together with power wall based semi-immersive VR platform for accommodating group users. On the basis of these discussions, a BIM-VR groupware system named Co-Studio is depicted from system architecture and application features. These discussions lay a foundation to develop a full functioned Co-Studio system as a next step. The system’s applicability will be verified and validated in its subsequent implementation and industry projects.

Keywords: BIMserver,collaborative 4D planning,groupware,virtual reality

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Full text: content.pdf (474,554 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Zhu Y, Issa R

Construction information access throuth a "malleable frame"

Abstract: Information management is critical to the success of a construction project. Because of the fragmentation of construction information and the volatility of construction projects, information sharing and collaboration are important measures to achieve successful project information management. However, many current research projects focus only on shared project information. A gap between the shared project information and the nonshared project information still exists. This paper shows models and methodology to bridge the gap and make a document "malleable" according to user's needs by using contemporary computer technologies such as XML (eXtended Markup Language) and WDDX (Web Distributed Data eXchange). Some details about specifications for implementation are also presented.

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Full text: content.pdf (72,776 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.038578) class.software-software (0.032553) class.represent (0.023820)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Zoran Pučko, Dražen Vincek, Andrej Štrukelj and Nataša Šuman

Planning of Maintenance Cost for Business-Storage Facility Using BIM

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present case study of the use of BIM approach for planning of maintenance cost of a facility in the operation time of a real business-storage facility in Slovenia. The first part outlines general principles of FM and BIM. Next, the features of facility maintenance are described according to the current Slovenian legislation. In addition, several standards used in other countries, as the result of the mutual development of the FM and BIM, are introduced. After that, step-by-step procedures for planning of maintenance cost are exposed, namely from Element list for maintenance, determination of the lifetime, service measures and cost analysis to development of cost plan in tabular form. The presented cost plan is designed in a unique way in which cost analysis is performed by using BIM approach with linked data to 3D BIM model. Moreover, Construction Project Management Software (Vico Office) is applied. For the purpose of appraisal maintenance costs over the entire life of 60 years, cumulative costs are distributed over the years. Thus, the cost plan is made in tabular form in Excel, presenting visual overview of planned maintenance more explicitly.

Keywords: Facility Maintenance, Building Information Modelling, BIM, Cost Analysis, Cost Plan

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0016

Full text: content.pdf (1,793,243 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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