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A Yurchyshyna, M Léonard

Making a smudge on collective (un)conscious: designing collaborative platforms for construction

Abstract: Collaboration and collaborative environments have been playing an increasingly important role in theconstruction domain. Designing and process modeling, knowledge management and dissemination,communities of practice – this is just an initial list of the building-related activities that benefit fromcollaboration- and services approaches characterizing the construction industry. In this paper, we discuss the phenomenon of collaboration in construction, study the existingcollaborative platforms that are used (or might be applicable) for different building-related activitiesand identify the main challenges that are currently not addressed in the current researches. Wefurthermore underline the role of services-oriented technologies for modeling industry- and businessrelatedprocesses,andshowhowtheyhavebeendefactoimplementedfortheconstructionindustry.Despitea largenumberofdifferentfit-for-purposecollaborativeplatformsforconstruction,weneverthelessunderlinethenecessityofa semanticallyrichcollaborativeenvironmentforheterogeneousconstructionexpertsthatwouldallowthemtokeeptheirownterminologyandworkingpractices,buttoacquireasharedunderstandingofacommontaskwithoutlosingitsintegrity.Inordertodoso,weintroduceourservices-basedapproachforactionalizingthe expert knowledgeand developing an information kernel of a discussed task. This approach forms a theoreticalfoundation for developing a collaborative platform, the Cross-Pollination Space, the semantics ofwhich is dynamically modeled by ontologies and the related interactions are enabled by services. Weshow how this framework allows enriching the collaborative environment during its functioning andsupports expert collaboration without imposing an artificial platform-specific terminology and/orcollaboration patterns.Finally, we canvas the ongoing and future works related to this research and discuss the particularitiesof their contextualization for the construction industry.

Keywords: collaboration in construction, shared semantics, expert knowledge, collaborative platforms, service approach in construction

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A. Dikbas, P. Ercoskun & K. Ercoskun

Enabling Sustainability through SOA within the AEC/FM Domain

Abstract: Sustainability is one of the most important research topics for the Architecture/Engineering/Construction & Facility Management (AEC/FM) domain. Two basic factors which enable sustainability are the technology background and the acquisition capability of this technology to the end users – society. Sustainability requires state of the art technologies which reduce the negative impact of population and affiliation. Key aspects of such technology are; it should depend on renewable resources, without waste, cyclical, based on resource productivity rather than labor productivity, and should even be restorative in its effects on the biosphere. Theproblem is, today establishing such technology is not affordable for the average end user. Development, implication, and acquisition of such technologies takes reasonable time though signs from our earth warns usthat we have no more time. The problem itself contains a lot of interoperability challenges in Information Technology (IT), Process and Organizational levels. Although many governments deploy incentives to promote investments on sustainable technologies, money is not the only measure for the market penetration of a technology. A user oriented approach is developed and a proposal is made to elaborate on the problem as a whole within a reference process model. The model determines the key functions, mechanisms and controls, to enable the design and development of sustainable technologies and facilitate the acquisition of those technologies to the society. The process model basically focuses on the Facility Management processes and addresses many aspects of the problem including financial, legal, and ethical issues. The model benefits from Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions for construction sector from a previous research and promotes a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for tracking the lifetime of sustainable technologies. The model includes decision support functions for the design phase, marketing and competency functions for the implication and acquisition phase, and measurement and evaluation functions for the use phase. The preliminary solution includes business processes rather then IT solutions but interoperability solutions on the IT layer also have been discussed for sustainable development. The model is under development within the joint efforts of a EU funded FP6 project I3CON (Industrialised, Integrated, Intelligent Construction) and a PhD research. It is believed that the model would facilitate the widespread recognition of the requirement of a radical switch to the sustainable technologies.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Aaron Costin and Charles Eastman

Requirements for Ontology Development in the AECO Industry

Abstract: This paper presents and discusses the requirements needed for the development of ontologies in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operation (AECO) Industry. With the increase of information modeling for all aspects of a construction project with a variety of software tools and technologies, there has been a major need of communication and exchange of information. An approach to improve seamless information exchanges is the use of ontologies. One major benefit of using ontologies is that the information and knowledge defined in the ontologies can be shared across domains. However, to do so requires standardized rules and requirements in order to share and promote reuse at the domain level. Significantly, with the increased demand of ontologies in the AECO industry, there needs to be standardization and consensus in the development and use of the ontologies to ensure the seamless transfer of information as well as realizing the full benefits of ontologies.

Keywords: Ontology, Information Exchange, Semantics, Logic, Taxonomy, AECO Industry

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0149

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Aish R

Extensible enterprise computing for construction as a necessary pre-cursor for collaborative engineering

Abstract: "Our focus is to consider the construction industry as essentially an information processing system. In its ideal form, practitioners (each with an individual internal representation of design intent) interact with other practitioners by first interacting with an information processing system that manages various shared external representation of design intent. The underlying assumption (from an information technologist's perspective) is that design data is held in a sufficiently complete representation, and that changes to this representation are transactions that move the representation from one consistent state to another. We might call this 'enterprise computing' for construction. This ideal of 'enterprise computing' for construction can be compared to the realities of current practice. - Due to its fragmentation, the construction industry generally perceives its use of information technology in terms of multiple discrete 'individual' systems (with the resulting proliferation of discrete documents) rather than as an enterprise systems. - The drawing tradition, which represents building in 2D, with different representations of the same design split across multiple independently editable documents inhibits consistent management of design and the use of analytical tools. While these may be familiar arguments, there are new object oriented and data management tools emerging from key software developer, such as Bentley Systems, that are designed to address the specific needs of a 'construction enterprise', namely geometric generality, multiple application semantics, multi-user access, and transaction management. These systems also address the scalability and reliability issues required for deployment in practice. Again, arguments for (and advantages of) systems of this type have been discussed in the research literature for more than two decades. The difference is that these systems are ready for deployment. But with this prospect for a broader application of 'Enterprise Computing' for Construction, there are associated other significant issues which may concern both the 'strategic' and the 'creative' practitioners, namely: - Semantic completeness: building a sufficiently complete multi-disciplinary representation of design intent - Data integrity: where any intelligent components are used, these should not become 'orphaned', for example, by object ""instance"" data being detached from the definitions of the corresponding class - Data longevity: the integrity of design and other data should be maintained for the life-time of the building, across new hardware platforms and operating systems. Upgrades to the application and any intelligent components should not disrupt or invalidate existing data - Parallelisation of design: individual designers or engineers should be able to work in parallel, and then be able to synchronize their changes to design data with co-workers - Expressibility: architectural design and construction engineering are open-ended domains. Additional intelligent components should be capable of being added on a ""per project"" basis. Within this context, this paper will explore the essential 'tension' that exists within the Architecture and Construction sectors. On the one hand, there is a perceived need by construction managers for computing tools based on clearly defined and agreed schema to control the construction process (thereby giving economic advantage, comparability, etc.). On the other hand, creative designers who are under other competitive pressures, are expecting a different set of computing tools to allow the exploration of new building configurations and construction geometry. While in the former case a standardisation of schema (as the foundation of a traditional ""Enterprise Computing"" system) would appear to be in order, in the later case the essential 'open-ended-ness' of the creative process demands ""extensibility"" as a pre-requisite of any computing system. These differing requirements (and indeed, attitudes) within the user community, presents software developers with interesting challenges. What technologies (for example, object and/or relational) and what 'domain abstractions' are appropriate foundations for solutions for these differing requirements. Or indeed, what technologies and 'domain abstractions' can be used as the basis for broader set of applications whose design is intended to unify across this apparent ""management-creative"" divide…hence the theme of this paper: ""'Extensible Enterprise Computing' for Construction"". Fundamentally, this is not exclusively an issue of technology. We need to address both the technical and cultural issues if we are to realise our collective ambition of providing effective tools with which to support collaboration between the diverse range of interests that occur within the Architecture and Construction sectors."

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Full text: content.pdf (827,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.034023) class.software development (0.019513) class.represent (0.017320)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Akbas R, Fischer M, Kunz J, Schwegler B

Use of domain knowledge, product models and geometric algorithms for generation of construction zones

Abstract: We present a layered approach for automated generation of construction zones from 3D CAD models for construction planning and scheduling. The existence of 3D models and product models provides an opportunity for planners and schedulers to consider zoning alternatives and represent and visualize production information in detail. Construction zones are spaces, or groups of spaces, which serve as units of work in the construction planning process. Failure to define construction zones properly may increase overall project duration and impact workflow adversely. Today, zone definitions are generally ad-hoc. Formal definitions and mechanisms to generate construction zone information are not available in commercially available software.We have defined a three-layer computational framework in a prototype construction management software tool to generate detailed information about construction zones. The framework separates the construction-based information from the product model representation and geometric information. Each layer is extensible and testable without the other layers. The highest layer (Layer3) contains domain knowledge about zones, i.e., types of zones and factors or constraints affecting construction zone definition. For example, a shape factor takes into account the changes in production rates due to local variations of geometry. The shape factor also allows the representation of an idle crew because of a nearby activity, missing support or unavailability of materials. Layer 2 manages the changes in the product and process models that are necessary to generate zones. Additionally, it uses zoning knowledge to maintain consistent schedules at multiple levels of detail. Layer 1 is the geometric level that contains the geometric algorithms to create the subdivisions and aggregations using the geometric shape representation of the building components. Instead of considering a fixed geometric representation for a component, we provide a flexible triangular mesh shape representation, breaking-up or aggregating component geometry as necessary. With the results of this research, professionals will be able to simulate and visualize construction processes more accurately and link design and construction data more tightly to explore design-build scenarios rapidly and communicate them effectively.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,076,021 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.028985) class.environment (0.026386) class.represent (0.022098)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Alain Zarli, Abdul Samad (Sami) Kazi, Matti Hannus, Marc Bourdeau, Anders Ekholm, Ronny Andersson

A strategic and comprehensive vision for future R&D in construction ICT

Abstract: The tremendous development in the past ten last years of the Internet and ICT at large (whether it be in general technologies like semantic modeling, knowledge mining, RFID or mobile technologies, or domain-oriented ones like e-commerce, collaborative spaces, digital mock-ups, etc.) has opened a large spectrum of potential applica-tions of ICT in the Construction sector. The real adaptation and deployment of ICT in Construction has indeed just started, and there is a high need to organize and plan future R&D actions for Construction ICT, while at the same time to better evaluate the benefits and thereby convince Construction actors. This is the role of the Strat-CON and BICT projects, respectively, which are introduced in this article in terms of their aims and major results.

Keywords: strategic research agenda, construction processes & industrialisation, ICT

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Alekhin V,Antipin A,Gorodilov S,Khramtsov S

Numerical simulation of wind loads on high rise buildings

Abstract: Article presents a methodology of the numerical simulation of the wind on high-rise buildings, which was developed by the Department of Computer-aided design of structures of the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. Paper includes the results of researches on development of a technique of determination of wind pressure upon high-rise buildings by means of numerical modeling in an ANSYS package. The investigation was carried out within the grant of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences. The results are applied to calculation of wind pressure upon a number of high-rise buildings under construction in Yekaterinburg City (Russia). Simulation is performed in the program ANSYS. The simulated building is placed in a domain that is the numerical analogue of wind tunnel. Domain sizes are chosen in such a way that simulated buildings do not affect the flow of air on its boundaries. Shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model has been used. This model effectively combines the stability and accuracy to the standard k-? model in the areas, which are placed near the walls and the effectiveness of the k-e model at a distance from the walls with a smooth transition between them (input expansion functions). For the numerical solution of the governing equations the finite volume method was used (FVM). The scale of the turbulence is assumed to be 200-300m. Use of the developed technique is shown on the example of calculation of wind pressure and wind velocities in pedestrian area for high-rise building under construction in the City of Ekaterinburg.

Keywords: high-rise building,wind impact,simulation,wind loads

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Alonso J M, Alvarruiz F, Hernandez V, Vidal A M

HPC in the building construction sector

Abstract: In the context of the HIPERCOSME project (1) (ESPRIT project 20059), the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) in collaboration with Spanish partners, developed a new High Performance Computing (HPC) demonstrator to calculate Reinforced Concrete Building Structures. Starting from a sequential software package, the objective of that project was to develop a portable parallel software package, able to cope with large scale problems and more realistic models (more information could be obtained in http://wwwcopa.dsic.upv.es/copa_eng.html). The performance of the prototype was analysed by means of a test battery composed of 4 real buildings. The performance of the prototype was compared to that of the original sequential package, showing that the former was from 20 up to 60 times faster than the latter. Besides, since a trial and error process must be carried out, the best and cheapest structural solution can be obtained. This leads to a reduction of the cost of the constructive elements and an increase in safety. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the code performance, a 3D approach to the problem of computing the building structure can be performed. Hardware and software requirements for this prototype are very common.The parallel platform can be a cluster of Ethernet linked PC's running under an easily available operating system such as LINUX (public domain) and the PVM passing message environment (public domain also). Moreover, the application is portable and can be run on other computers and parallel systems. Thus, in the context of the project, five Workshops were organised to promote the results in the European regions where the project partners belonged to. In these Workshops, Demonstration Actions were carried out with the presence of different small and medium size construction enterprises of each region. Co-operation among the partners led to contacts with new construction companies interested in the HPCN framework. As a consequence, six Assessment Studies were developed with European construction companies from Spain, Portugal, France and Greece, in order to understand the needs of the European market. UPV is the Valencian Community node of HIPERTTN. This technological Transfer Node is part of the METIER action in the HPCN PST activities of the IV ESPRIT Programme. TTN's try to stimulate the technology transfer and dissemination of the results of the HPCN projects in Europe. As a consequence, a Construction Sector Group has been recently created in this TTN Network. In the full paper, we will describe the technical work developed in the project, both from the point of view of the computational tools and the experience of transference of technology to the Construction Sector.

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Full text: content.pdf (51,870 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.030939) class.bestPractise (0.026703) class.communication (0.025338)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Turk Z, Hyvarinen J, Finne C

CONNET: a gateway to Europe's construction information

Abstract: "The EC funded project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/) has developed a set of Internet-based information services for Europe. These services are linked through a European gateway for the construction industry which provides a ""virtual technology park"", accessible to the whole industry regardless of national boundaries. The gateway provides mechanisms to link all information services for the construction industry, and to establish national gateways to services which can then inter-operate across Europe. The CONNET consortium is moving to establish the existing services in all European nations, and to encourage further existing or planned information services to be linked. A suite of five Internet based services has initially been developed, comprising: a technical information centre; a waste exchange centre; manufactured product services; a calculation and software centre; and an electronic news service as described below: 1. The Technical Information Centre provides a single point of entry to locate technical information from quality providers, initially in the UK. The centre draws upon information held by the major publishers in the UK, with over 200 identified to link into the service. Once a publication is identified a user is able to place an order to purchase, or browse, the item. An automated notification service for users, based on their areas of interest, is also available as part of this centre. 2. The Waste Exchange Centre extends the current UK based system to better enable the disposal and reuse of site waste across organisations Nationally and in Europe. Availability of, and requests for, waste materials are automatically matched in order to broker greater reuse of materials. 3. The Manufactured Product Service enables Finnish and export-market users to identify manufactured products which match their design specification by incorporating product attributes into the selection system. Users are able to identify certified products and drag-and-drop CAD information into their designs. 4. The Calculation and Software Centre provides the European entry point for information on all software products available for the civil engineering domain (over 3,900 collated to date). Online demonstrations, online purchase, and even pay-per-use software is available. 5. The Electronic News Service enables members of the construction industry to register an interest in specific topics and to be notified of any Internet published news that matches their interest. The news sources are drawn from the main information providers and professional institutes in the industry, both within the UK and Internationally. Currently over 14,300 Internet sites have been identified and indexed for this service. This paper describes the infrastructure which has been developed for the European gateway and the benefits it can offer to linked services within a single nation, or across Europe. The virtual technology park infrastructure developed in CONNET provides for user identification, centralised user profiling and profile management, automated and periodic user profile servicing, classification system management and mapping, discussion groups, secure communication and service validation, etc. The way in which these technology park services are able to be used and adapted in independent, but linked, national services is highlighted in the paper. The five individual services are also described briefly, highlighting the benefits they offer to the European construction industry and the possibilities they offer in terms of ensuring national services are inter-operable across all of Europe."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.014414) class.communication (0.010000) class.man-software (0.007679)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Amor R

A UK survey of integrated project databases

Abstract: The UK network of experts in objects and integration for construction has now been in existence for a year. In this time it has built up to over a hundred members drawn in almost equal parts from industry and research. The initial meetings of this network have strived to identify areas of concern in the domain as well as to provide feedback to the supporting government agency in terms of policy issues, and to inform its members of the range of issues in the domain. The first published output of this network is to be a survey of integrated project databases (IPDB) in February 1998. This initial survey, analysed and described in this paper, looks at IPDB development and use in the UK. Preliminary work of the network determined a set of criteria to be used to measure the development and impact of various IPDB. These criteria were then used to survey a range of EC supported, UK developed, and commercial implementations of IPDB. Though not comprehensive in terms of the total number of IPDB developments in the world, it gives an initial benchmarking of the state of this domain. The results of this survey, and the ongoing surveys of IPDB developments, are being used to inform the network and government of the state of play in this area. It provides a point to determine: what work has previously been done; which data models might be re-used; where tools reside that could be re-used; where commercial developments have taken place which implement portions of the surveyed projects; what the problems of commercialisation have been; where there are gaps in research; and what life-cycle stages are poorly addressed by IPDB development.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,311 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.035336) class.environment (0.032167) class.strategies (0.031179)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


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