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Elvekrok D R, Johansen B W, Syvertsen T G, Totland T

World wide web as a coordination technology for knowledge work

Abstract: This paper will bring some understanding of the World Wide Web as an information and coordination technology, and suggest some principles and metaphors for Web working. The suggestions will be underpinned by recent experiences from a collective Web-working project, and a transformation of a technical standard into hypertext format. Some ideas and visions for future developments based on the new medium are presented. World Wide Web is more than a tool or a technology, it is a new medium based on a set of very simple principles that enable us to cope with a vast Ocean of information and knowledge. The basics of World Wide Web and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) will be explained. A small-scale experiment in collective writing in Web will be reported. The task was development of the PAKT Yearbook of 1994, where a dozen of contributors worked concurrently on individual pieces around a shared Yearbook structure. This small project may in some sense resemble an engineering project, where many discipline experts are performing individual tasks around a shared goal and work breakdown structure. The experiment was based on use of Microsoft Internet Assistant which provides a simple add-on that makes Microsoft Word a combined Web reader and writer. Using this interface to the Web, working there is as simple as traditional word-processing. This mode of working can easily be expanded with any kind of tool based on the same concepts of process linking. There is, however, no support for the work processes associated with creating the product (in our case a Yearbook), or the organization of the processes. Based on our experiences, we suggest some metaphors and practical approaches to efficient Web working. Another experiment has been in the domain of technical standards. A couple of existing, paper- based standards from the petroleum industry have been converted to HTML, with cross-references transferred to active hyper-links. Using WWW as a one-way information server and as a shared working space will be illustrated. We see at least three future aspects of Web development; active objects replace static information, information structures will be supplemented by knowledge processes (enterprise modelling), and the information economy will evolve based on integrated flow of transactions.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,745,393 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.065275) class.collaboration (0.038981) class.economic (0.022244)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Esther Obonyo, Mukund Patil, Chimay Anumba

Towards an Agent-Augmented Virtual Design and Construction Approach

Abstract: There has been a rapid growth in the use of Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) applications for design and functionality analysis in the early stages of the project development cycle. Although significant strides have been made in refining the functionality of such applications, there is still no overall integration scheme that addresses the challenges inherent in knowledge management for organization learning. There are several initiatives directed addressing this challenge through leveraging on Semantic Web technologies, to address these challenges. Some of these efforts are directed at the developing the potential for using software agents to automate some of the tasks inherent in information retrieval through enhancing the implementation of dynamic, domain-specific components. This paper discusses the deployment of an agent-based approach to enhance the modeling and simulation of construction activities. The main body of the paper identifies specific roles that can be delegated to agents in the deployment of an intelligent, virtual architecture. The paper also describes a proof-of-concept application that was implemented to assess the feasibility of using agents within VDC applications. The proof-of-concept models the flow of formwork components in a construction yard. Based on the findings, it is clear that there is a great potential for enhancing VDC applications using an agent-based approach. Given that agents-based systems are by definition software components that exhibit flexible and autonomous action in dynamic, unpredictable context, they can automate functions such as information extraction, structuring and retrieval. These benefits were apparent in the experimental use of the approach. This notwithstanding, the concept of agents is still relatively new and there are some implementations challenges that will need to be address if the approach is to be scaled up. The paper concludes with a concise discussion of the implications of the research and identifies specific components of the agent-based approach that will be implemented as part of follow up activities.

Keywords: virtual applications, organizational learning, knowledge management, agents

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Full text: content.pdf (461,525 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Fadhil Che Wan Putra C W, Alshawi M

Building space analysis for integrating design and construction

Abstract: "Space analysis for a building is very important analysis whereby it can provide details of the space, i.e. room which has been analysed, including the space boundaries, space separator (including wall, ceiling or floor), total area and volume. Such information are very important whereby these parameters can be used for other applications such as calculating the heat-loss, designing a lighting system, ventilation system, air-conditioning system, etc. However, such analysis, although has been provided by several commercial packages (with some constraints), it still not yet being fully utilised by integrating with other downstream applications such as estimating, planning and site layout planning for further analysis. Therefore, a standardised building space data model need to be developed in order such integration can be achieved. Considering the importance of developing such data model for building space, several proposed generic models have been developed including RATAS Model, GSD Model, De Waard’s “House Model” and the COMBINE Integrated Data Model. However, most of the models did not fully been implemented for integrating design and construction. Such models have purposely been developed for solving a particular domain only. For example, COMBINE Integrated Data Model for HVAC application, positioning building components in architectural design in GSD Model and reasoning about building regulations in the De Waards House Model. A study have been done at the University of Salford, UK for integrating design and construction. Building space analysis has also been accommodated in this study whereby the building space has been analysed. All the parameters required for further analysis such as space boundaries, space separator and space functionality have been captured during design application and later will be integrated with other applications such as estimating, construction and site layout planning. The objectives of this paper are two-folds:- 1. to present the Building Space data model. 2. to show how the implementation of this building space model has been developed and how this implemented model has been integrated with other data models within an integrated construction environment. The paper will outlined the study on developing the building space data model and how such concepts have been implemented and developed in an integrated construction environment."

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Full text: content.pdf (900,082 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.017951) class.environment (0.015061) class.analysis (0.011629)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Faraj I, Alshwai M

A Modularised Integrated Computer Environment for the Construction Industry: SPACE

Abstract: This paper outlines an overview of the SPACE project. SPACE (Simultaneous Prototyping for an Integrated Construction Environment) is a rapid prototyping environment which supports a subset of a construction project life cycle. Its main objective is to develop a future intelligent integrated design and construction system for the civil and building domain through which a number of solutions can be generated and analyzed. This is accomplished through the use of a comprehensive project data model capable of supporting a range of applications. The data model consists of an independent data model and application specific data models. The research concentrates on establishing a project data infrastructure and tools for managing the information exchange that occurs during a project life cycle, with emphasis on the design, site layout and construction planning, cost estimating and maintenance applications. This will enable better, more efficient and more cost effective buildings to be designed. The output generated by the prototype are very detailed which can improve the decision making process, different constraints can be applied and their consequences can be simulated. The prototype was tested with a number of case studies, some of which can be viewed by downloading the demo file attached with this paper.

Keywords: Computer Integrated Construction, Project Model, Integration

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1999/3 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1999 (browse)
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Frank P. Schley, B. Markus Brüggemann, K.-Peter Holz, Frank Rackwitz, and Stavros A. Savidis

Multilevel Information Management Between Diverse Domain Models In Geotechnical Engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (1,218,546 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Froese T M, Yu K Q

Industry foundation class modeling for estimating and scheduling

Abstract: Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs) developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) are general models of a building project that support project information sharing and exchange among different types of computer applications used in the project. The IFCs are developed based on the information requirements from industry processes. The Project Management Domain Committee of IAI's North America Chapter has developed process models of cost estimating, scheduling, and their integration for the purpose of generating the IFCs to support data sharing throughout estimating and scheduling applications. The goal of this paper is to present the models relevant to estimating and scheduling in the IFCs. The paper discusses various modelling issues covering subjects such as costs, construction processes, resources, products, and project documents for work plans and cost estimates.

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Full text: content.pdf (96,047 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.070183) class.standards (0.028891) class.represent (0.025646)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Froese T, Grobler F

Developing data standards for construction--An IAI perspective

Abstract: This paper will discuss the potential role of information technologies (IT) in general and data standards in particular for improving work within the construction industry. As an example, it will focus on the work of the Project Management Domain Group of the North American Chapter of the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI/NA). The paper will have two main parts. The first part will focus on describing a vision for how IT can improve the construction industry. The role of data standards within this overall vision will be discussed. The paper will look briefly at the "tangle" of emerging standards, and will examine the role of data standards relative to research effort, relative to software development, and relative to end users. Having positioned data standards within the overall outlook for IT in the construction industry, the second main part of the paper will focus on one particular data standards effort as an example, that of the Project Management Domain Group of the IAI/NA. The work of this group will be presented. First, the paper will describe the development methodology followed by the group. Second, the paper will give an overview of the specific data standards projects underway within the Project Management group. Both authors are directly involved in the activities of the IAI/NA (one is the group chair) as well as being active researchers in the area of IT for the construction industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (68,651 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.032358) class.communication (0.011190) class.synthesis (0.009961)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Froese T, Q YU K, Liston K, Fischer M

System architectures for AEC interoperability

Abstract: "This paper discusses several issues relating to computational system architectures to support interoperability among distributed, model-based AEC/FM applications. The approach is based on tiered layers where applications interact with local “Building Objects” software components that, in turn, interact with a variety of distributed data repository alternatives in a data layer. International Foundation Classes (IFCs) models are used as the primary data model in each of the layers and communication between layers uses several XML standards. One issue is an approach to multiple meta-models within the many components of a distributed system. IFCs focus on strongly-typed models that describe AEC concepts and objects in an explicit manner. One of the requirements for applications that implement IFCs is that they must understand the semantics of the IFCs and map the IFC models to the application internal application models. However, software applications used in AEC processes are not always based on an internal model that can be explicitly mapped to a strongly-typed model such as the IFCs at development stage. Instead, it is common that some of the applications are either purely generic without an explicitly defined domain schema, or generic enough so as they must deal with run-time databases whose schemas cannot be pre-defined during the development of the applications. In order to allow this type of software to share and exchange data with other applications through the models such as the IFCs, data schemas must be mapped at a higher and abstract level that allows for run-time model schema configurations and mappings. The Interactive Workspace for Project Management (IWPM) is a CIFE (Center for Facilities Engineering) project that integrates several research decision support systems, commercial project management systems, and advanced collaborative human-computer interaction approaches using emerging industry data standards and internet technologies. To illustrate an example of using the meta-model approach, the paper applies the use cases in IWPM to demonstrate how meta-models can be used to implement IFC project management related models in such an integrated software environment."

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Full text: content.pdf (595,267 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.049095) class.standards (0.036666) class.communication (0.035658)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


G Gudnason, P Katranuschkov, C Balaras, R J Scherer

Framework for Interoperability of Information Resources in the Building Energy Simulation Domain

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Full text: content.pdf (177,077 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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G Kapogiannis, F Khosrowshahi, J Underwood

Digital Services for Construction Small and Medium Enterprises: A Conceptual Business Model

Abstract: The rapid deployment of web technologies delivers information from diverse sources in the world of digital business in a unified way. Within the construction industry the demand for investments in the digital dimension has raised very fast indicating a trend towards on-line collaboration services usually offered through a web portal. The main purpose of this research is to examine how the use of a web portal enhances the mission of construction Small Medium Enterprises (SME) in the local, national and international economy. Therefore, features and services captured from existing construction web portals are listed quantitatively to indicate those that are important to support the enterprise needs of construction managers and directors. Additionally the common practical and essential features considered in the technical and contextual design of a web portal geared for the use within the domain of construction SMEs in order to promote enterprise continuity in digital business are briefly presented. Results indicate potential support of interaction and collaboration among partners in the construction industry due to direct information accessibility as well as an attractive web platform developed based upon their daily needs. Therefore the need to develop a web business model is suggested to enhance the role of construction SMEs with a focus on online collaboration (online services). This model aspires to provide potential practical on-line dissemination of knowledge within construction SMEs to help the world of construction managers and directors in order for them to be more efficient, effective and creative when developing new businesses, new ideas and new projects. This model is partitioned to accommodate for flexible and scalable technological infrastructures that offer the necessary web services addressed to construction SMEs.

Keywords: Construction SME, Web Portal Technologies, Web Services, Virtual Organisation, Communication

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Full text: content.pdf (330,893 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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