Facilities management IT tools: building model, basic information and graphics
Abstract: The need for small easy to use Facilities Management IT tools for the existing building stock has led
to the development of IokalEjdlnFo a windows based managementhnformation system with graphical
navigation. The first version is in use in public institutions and the second version is under
consideration among a broad group of FM experts in DK.
IokalEjdlnFo has been implemented as a database system with graphicdCAD added on.
The paper will discuss the building model used in the system, the sufficient model for FM in
comparison with the necessary CAD model for building and the possibilities for extracting the FM
building model from the CAD model.
Basic information on the property is extracted from public databases and is used for automated
generation of part of the objects in the building model.
Graphic information is extracted from CAD models of the building or created from scanned drawings by
the means of simple CAD tools added to the database tool as extensions. Graphics are used for graphic
navigation in the model, for extracting quantities and for presentation of information. The paper discuss
strategies for FM and CAD.
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.
Amit Dayan and Rafael Sacks
Cognition Enhancement Using Virtual Reality in Apartment Customization
Abstract: The design and construction of customer configured apartments is challenging when customers are unable to interpret construction drawings or lack the knowledge or competence to deliver the decisions and information that is required from them. Builders dedicate significant managerial and technological effort to manage the customization process with their customers, and this process is commonly recognized to be inefficient. Studies suggest that one root cause is the fact that most customers are not construction professionals, hence decision making is often a challenging and sometimes unpleasant task for them due to insufficient product cognition. In this study we developed a virtual reality tool for the facilitation of an immersive presentation of yet to be built apartments to customers, speculating that cognition may be enhanced and facilitate the customization decisions. An experiment was conducted to identify and measure cognition differences. Some areas of measured cognition shown noticeable improvement which imply for significant cognition enhancement. Exploitation of the findings by future adoption of the examined method is discussed and suggested to construction companies.
Keywords: Product Customization, Apartment Design Changes, Virtual Reality, Residential Construction
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Anadol Z, Akin O
Determining the impact of CADrafting tools on the building delivery
Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is intended to change the way design and
construction are carried out. At a minimum, this implies savings realized in
terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. To
test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design
operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders
issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of
construction documents. We compared change orders in projects designed in
the conventional media against ones developed with computers. We found that
there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. Furthermore, in the process of
investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the
management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building
system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs
than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design
Keywords: drawing accuracy; change orders; design errors; as-built drawings; scope
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.
Arif A, Karam A
Architectural Practices and Their Use of IT in the Western Cape Province, South Africa
Abstract: The application of Information Technologies (IT) is moving forward with tremendous speed affecting all industries and professions; our building profession is no exception. To identify the extent of IT application in the building construction context of South Africa, a survey was conducted in the year 2000; it included IT as one of the many topics investigated. The Western Cape Province (WCP) was selected as the first subject of the ambitious national survey. The survey provides insight into the particular patterns in IT applications within the local architectural industry of the WCP and tracks its implications in terms of human resources and technical needs. This research paper presents a focused perspective of the findings of the survey on the local practices; their general profile, their computer technology profiles, their particular applications of technology and finally the effect of computer use on the profitability and cost reduction of their practices. The data presented in this paper highlights the high numbers of small-sized offices as a general characteristic of the local profile. Although a good percentage of these small offices seem to have a high need and use for IT applications, larger-sized offices are totally computerised and are all networked as well. The use of computers is clearly concentrated in three areas: administration, communication in addition to the core activity of construction drawings production. The survey reveals a major dependency on computer-aided-design (CAD) software where its use extends, in most cases, to clients' presentations. This dependency makes high demands on staff and principals' literacy and on the high competency levels needed for their use of technology. On the financial effect of IT use, many practices are not fully convinced that there is an actual reduction in their running costs. The exception occurs in the case of practices run by principals who use computers themselves; they have a positive perception of the financial benefits of technology. This research establishes a baseline from which to scale the progress in the use and application of IT in the architectural profession, being a key player in the construction industry. It serves as a measure for future surveys of the other provinces. It is hoped that it provides a foundation for many assumptions made by practitioners, technologists, consultants and educators of this field.
Keywords: Architecture - South Africa, Architectural Practices, Building Construction, Computer-Aided-Design (CAD), Survey - Cape Town
Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/2 (available to registered users only)
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Bergsten S, Knutsson M
4D CAD- an efficient tool to improve production method for integration of apartments in existing buildings
Abstract: This paper describes an ongoing research project on application of a 4D CAD tool for design and production planning of vertical extensions of existing buildings (over-roofing) in Stockholm city, for creation of a more densely populated city as the demand for apartments in the city centre increases.
4D CAD is a concept, which combines an object oriented 3D CAD model with time. 4D CAD is a kind of information visualisation that is easier to understand than traditional methods, such as 2D drawings and time schedules, which are used to manage construction projects. 4D CAD is a logical way of imaging a construction management tool. It is a tool that is conceptually much closer to an intuitive picture of a construction process than 2D drawings and time schedules.
The 4D concept is developed at Stanford University and to support the concept researchers at Stanford have developed a prototype that is being used in some complex construction projects in California.
The focus of the research project “Integration of apartments in existing buildings by use of Light Gauge Steel Framing”, which this paper is a part of it, is to improve production methods in order to reduce design, planning and construction time for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings in the city centres. A way to improve the production methods is by utilising a 4D planning process in combination with industrialised production of building components.
Extensions to existing buildings are due to the demand for new apartments in attractive locations in the city centres and shortage of land for housing in city centres.
The Light Gauge Steel constructions have many benefits for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings. According to research results the Light Gauge Steel Framing system is suitable for industrial production. This building system results in a very light weight building compared with traditional materials e.g. concrete which makes it suitable for over-roofing extensions. The materials used in the Light Gauge Steel Systems is thin steel members, plaster boards and mineral wool.
Many of the problems, which occur during vertical extensions of existing buildings today, are solved when they are discovered, that is sometimes on the site. Some examples of these problems are poor compatibility between the existing building (structural components and material) and the Light Gauge Steel Framing, detail solutions of the building components, shafts and piping for ventilation, water, sewage and drainage etc. It is less expensive to discover and to correct errors at an early stage compared to solving them on the site. Further a lot of construction time will be saved, which will decrease the disturbance on existing surroundings.
Several problems have to be considered in the planning process in order to minimise the disturbance on existing activities and surroundings. This could be done by the use of a 4D CAD planning tool.
An over-roofing project located in the city means that the land to use during the production period is limited and expensive. Thereby is the logistic to and from the site more complicated. Consequently the site management and logistic of building components to the building site and their storage on the site is most important.
In fact the 4D concept is an efficient planning tool to organise the logistic of the site during the planning phase instead of as today during the production. The site layout can be simulated and visualised with a 4D CAD tool for the actors in the project which in particular will help the site engineer to organise the activities, material flow and site logistic.
The value of using the 4D CAD concept is studied by comparing the traditional planning process of a number of over-roofing projects in Sweden with the planning process of the 4D CAD concept. This paper discusses how a 4D CAD tool together with an industrialised production method can be used for improving the production process for an over-roofing project in order to reduce the construction time and with secured quality. The reader will understand and appreciate the added value in form of a more efficient way of managing construction projects.
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.
Berkhahn V, Esch C
Re-engineering of objects in constructional drawings
Abstract: A lot of drawings of existing or new buildings in civil engineering are only available in an analogous version. In order to realize a computer aided process during the planning, construction, building and utilization phases drawings in digital version are indispensable. Algorithms and software tools are available to convert a digitised paper based drawing into a vector plot. But these systems did not prove in practice to be suitable for the recognition of constructional objects within the drawings. In this paper an approach to convert digitised drawing data into lines and curves with topological information is presented. Based on this topological information the semantics of the drawing objects is recognised and is translated into building objects. The theoretical background as well as the practical use of the developed various algorithms are explained in detail. This approach is applied to a realistic example of ground-floor plan for a detached house. The results of this example show the suitability of the developed software tool for a medium sized drawing.
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.
Brandon Bortoluzzi, Daniel Sobieraj and J.J. McArthur
Automating the Creation of Facility and Energy Management Building Information Models
Abstract: Building Information Models (BIMs) are widely recognized as being valuable asset management tools, however the resources required to develop BIMs of existing buildings for Facilities Management (FM) purposes are a recognized barrier to entry. Significant developments have been made for generating geometrically complex models using scanning technologies, however the resultant models are often extremely large, requiring significant computational resources. This paper presents an automated process that uses 2D floorplans and elevation drawings to generate semantically-rich, BIMs with adequate geometry for energy simulation and integration of semantic data of specific value in day-to-day building operations management. The proposed approach is limited to the information available regarding the building and develops a model requiring minimal resources to both develop and maintain, while providing the flexibility for incorporating complex geometry when such information becomes available. A case study of a university campus is presented where 20 buildings were modelled using available 2D architectural CAD files (floorplans and elevations) to demonstrate and evaluate this approach. Process speed, accuracy, and resultant model quality are discussed, along with automation process limitations.
Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Automation, Case Study, Existing Buildings, Facility Management
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Properties of future building hyper documents
Abstract: The paper describes and exemplifies how modem information technology may
impact the properties of future computerized building documents and models. It is
now possible to practically handle large quantities of data in the form of color
pictures, film, sound recordings, animation sequences, drawings etc. The systems we
formulate today are better suited to capture information putting higher pressure on
the users concerning formulation of demands on user interface, model descriptions
and model building tools.
A group of projects under the label KE3S-MEDIA, knowledgebased systems - media, are
aiming at integrating advanced software (knowledgebased systems, Hyper Card from
Apple computer. etc) with new distribution and storage media. The hyper documents
which are created possess powerful man-machine interface and dynamic model
The system forms a demonstrator environment used in different applications to
capture, test and communicate ideas and admitting fast prototyping. New tools are
defined, developed and tested. Tools which support conceptual modeling activities,
use and building of hyper documents in a multimedia environment. The following
building applications are at the moment included in the research: The City Advisor,
Window Renovation Advisor, Advanced Information Technology in Building
Maintenance Support (the Delphi project) and Advanced Material and Vendor
Information, (the AMVI project)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.
Côté S,Barnard J,Snyder R,Gervais R
Offline spatial panoramic video augmentation for visual communication in the AEC industry
Abstract: Renovation of existing buildings is a type of construction work that requires a very good understanding of the existing built environment. Accurate bidding and proper planning for such construction projects requires detailed information both from the 3D CAD model and of the existing building. The problem is both sources of information are heterogeneous: one is in the form of digital data (2D CAD drawings, 3D CAD models), while the other is the actual physical world. The CAD model and drawings deliver the designer’s construction intent, while the physical world provides integration context. A user must do significant mental efforts to merge the 2 types of data and form a mental image of the work that is actually required. In this paper, we present a technique that enables the visualization of augmented scenes, packaged in a visualization application that can be used on site or off site by construction bidders, planners and workers. The building environment is first captured by walking in the area holding a panoramic video camera. The panoramic video stream is then post-processed to align each of its frames with a 3D model of the building. A user can then use the viewer to navigate the pre-recorded photo-realistic scene at any location and orientation along the camera paths, and augment it with the 3D model, to reveal hidden structure represented in the model, or 3D elements showing future portions to be added. Our method was tested on a building for which a detailed 3D CAD model (BIM) was available. Results show that the system could enable a better communication between the designer and the builder by displaying the designed construction intent in its real context, and therefore could allow more accurate bidding and work planning, and generally, could facilitate better understanding of the work to be done.
Keywords: Augmented Reality,environment,panorama,CAD model,BIM,construction,renovation
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Côté S,Trudel P,Snyder R,Gervais R
An augmented reality tool for facilitating on-site interpretation of 2d construction drawings
Abstract: Two-dimensional drawings are the only type of design document that is legally approved for construction. For large construction projects, because of the drawings’ high level of abstraction and because of the very large number of drawings, interpretation and correct understanding of drawings is identified by some construction firms as their greatest single challenge. To do the building work as designed, the builder must understand the meaning of the drawings, and this comes from establishing a visual correspondence between the abstract 2D drawings and the physical environment. Unfortunately, that correspondence may not be easy to obtain when the structure of interest is not clearly visible from the user’s position (occlusion, differences between the model and the actual building, etc.). In this paper, we propose a technique that enables the display of 2D drawings into the real world using augmented reality in a way that can overcome those kinds of limitations. The tool enables users to browse the real world in search of drawings, or to request the real location that a specific drawing represents, and to view each drawing within a context composed of a combination of captured photographic reality and designed virtual modeling. Augmentation is achieved by displaying the drawing using either an animated sliding plane that shows it being inserted into the real building, or a clipping technique that displays the drawing inside a clipped 3D model which in turn is inside the real building. The 2 techniques were implemented and tested in a situation where section drawings are visualized from the outside of the building. Our results show that those visualization techniques provide good 3D perception in a representation that is easy to understand visually. They also enable quick localization of the drawing in its environment, and provide a better understanding of the drawing with respect to its context: the 3D model and the built environment.
Keywords: Augmented reality,panorama,construction,2D drawings,design,3D model
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