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E Santos, E Toledo Santos

Design Coordination with Building Information Modelling – BIM: A Case Study

Abstract: Despite some isolated initiatives using 3D CAD or BIM (Building Information Modeling) tools, project processes in the Brazilian AEC industry are still essentially developed using 2D technology, especially in the design development phases. There is evidence in the literature that 2D representations are prone to difficult-to-detect design errors and representation mistakes. BIM is an emerging paradigm based on object oriented, parameterized 3D CAD tools that promises an even better performance in design coordination processes than standard 3D CAD. This work aims to identify the potential for using BIM tools in the design coordination process as a more effective alternative to two-dimensional methods (abstraction and overlaying of drawings for interference checks and clash detection among different design disciplines). The research was based on the execution of a case study involving a complex residential building. Its design was developed as usual, with 2D CAD, as was its coordination process, by professional firms hired by the owner. Afterwards, using the same documents provided to the coordination firm, the first author independently developed the architectural, structural, plumbing, and HVAC BIM models for the standard floor plan of the building, simulating both the Schematic Design (SD) and the Design Development (DD) phases. During and after this process, detected interferences and information errors or omissions were documented in order to be compared with those reported in the traditional process of design coordination. The comparative analysis of both reports in this case study showed that the methodology with BIM detected 75% more design interferences and inconsistencies than the 2D-CAD supported method. This was partly due to the easier visualization of the virtual model, and to the software features for automating interference checks. On the other hand, the analysis of the interferences found in both processes demonstrated that the modeling procedure alone can affect design perception and evaluation, allowing the detection of a greater number of incompatibilities during the process.

Keywords: Design Coordination, BIM, Clash Detection, Case study

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Eastman C, Lee G, Sacks R

A new formal and analytical approach to modeling engineering project information processes

Abstract: A current research project within the North American Precast Concrete Industry aims to integrate information both within precast producer companies and between the companies and their suppliers, consultants, contractors, and clients. The first step was to undertake a process modeling study of the activities performed within each consortium company, so as to form the basis for the software specification and later data model. Existing process modeling methods and tools were considered . They do not support: · extraction of information used in the activities, · analytical validation of the process model and its information flows, · comparison of models collected from separate companies across an industry sector, · effective use of process model information in deriving a product model. To these ends, we developed an analytic modeling methodology, and implemented a new tool for its use.

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Full text: content.pdf (298,706 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.044021) class.represent (0.012790) class.software-software (0.004154)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Eden J, Eng C S, McGeorge D

Directions in construction IT strategies in Australia

Abstract: "There is a growing awareness of the value of information and communications technology to bring together the major parties in the construction process and share information in a meaningful way. A number of organisations in Australia are providing leadership and direction through the development and implementation of policies on the use of information technology in the construction industry. These include NSW Government, the Australian Procurement and construction Council (APCC) and the International Alliance for Interoperability ? Australasia Chapter (IAI-AC). In April 1998 the NSW Government launched its discussion paper, Information Technology in Construction setting out propositions as to how information technology could be effectively used to provide value for money for NSW Government capital works procurement by improving communication and teamwork during all phases of design, construction and facilities management. A policy document is to be prepared during early 2000 to further develop and implement the ideas and strategies in the discussion paper. The Australian Procurement and Construction Council with representatives from Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia, is drafting a framework to provide industry and government agencies with an awareness of issues and to set directions for the take up of information technology. The IAI-AC has adopted a new direction for a broader role in information technology usage rather than just concentrating on the technology tools such as Industry Foundation Classes. This strategy should be developed by February/March 2000. The combined strategies of the NSW Government, the APCC and the IAI-AC crystallise time frames and objectives for the construction industry in terms of IT take up, and what can be achieved by effective communication and information sharing through the whole of a project's life cycle. This paper reviews the current aims and strategies of the three organisations in promoting IT uptake in the Australian construction industry."

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Full text: content.pdf (203,274 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.030126) class.man-man (0.029118) class.communication (0.025878)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Euthimios Glymis, Athanasios Kanelakis, Georgios Aretoulis and Theodoros Mastoras

Predicting Highway Projects' Actual Duration Using Neural Networks

Abstract: The current study predicts the actual duration of highway projects, based on the initial planned schedule. Highway projects suffer from delays and deviations, which in Greece are more often associated with law disputes, project financing, archaeological findings, environmental issues and private land acquisition procedures. In this research, data were obtained from 37 road projects in Greece and the purpose was to estimate the construction duration, using an artificial neural network. The Fast Artificial Neural Network (FANN) Tool program was used. FANN based on the available data, identifies the optimal training algorithm. The training algorithm and the activation function with the lowest mean square error (MSE) are selected. In order to achieve the best possible solution, numerous trials were made, applying different input data combinations, different variations in the architecture of the network, and different data values were used. This paper presents the three more reliable and effective networks produced from the current study. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks, employing the appropriate parameters do provide a relatively high accuracy in predicting actual construction time and more specifically appear as one of the most optimal methods for actual highway construction time prediction.

Keywords: Highway Projects, Actual Project Duration, Estimated Project Duration, Artificial Neural Networks

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0260

Full text: content.pdf (758,236 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Faisal Manzoor Arain

IT-based approach for effective management of project changes: a change management system (CMS)

Abstract: In a perfect world, changes will be confined to the planning stages. However, late changes often occur during construction, and frequently cause serious disruption to the project. The need to make changes in a construction project is a matter of practical reality. Even the most thoughtfully planned project may necessitate changes due to vari-ous factors. The fundamental idea of any variation management system in a building project is to anticipate, recognize, evaluate, resolve, control, document, and learn from past variations in ways that support the overall viability of the project. Learning from past variations is imperative because the professionals can then improve and apply their experi-ence in the future. Primarily, the study proposes six principles of change management. Based on these principles, a theoretical model for change management system (CMS) is developed. The theoretical model consists of six fundamen-tal stages linked to two main components, i.e., a knowledge-base and a controls selection shell for making more in-formed decisions for effective management of variations. This paper argues that the information technology can be ef-fectively used for providing an excellent opportunity for the professionals to learn from similar past projects and to better control project variations. Finally, the study briefly presents a knowledge-based decision support system (KBDSS) for the management of variations in educational building projects in Singapore. The KBDSS consists of two main components, i.e., a knowledge-base and a controls selection shell for selecting appropriate controls. The KBDSS is able to assist project managers by providing accurate and timely information for decision making, and a user-friendly system for analyzing and selecting the controls for variation orders for educational buildings. The CMS will enable the project team to take advantage of beneficial variations when the opportunity arises without an inordinate fear of the negative impacts. By having a systematic way to manage variations, the efficiency of project work and the likelihood of project success should increase. The study would assist building professionals in developing an effective variation management system. The system would be helpful for them to take proactive measures for reducing variation orders. Furthermore, with further generic enhancement and modification, the KBDSS will also be useful for the man-agement of variations in other types of building projects, thus helping to raise the overall level of productivity in the construction industry. Hence, the system developed and the findings from this study would also be valuable for all building professionals in general.

Keywords: CMS, information technology, KBDSS, changes, management

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Faraj I, Alshwai M

A Modularised Integrated Computer Environment for the Construction Industry: SPACE

Abstract: This paper outlines an overview of the SPACE project. SPACE (Simultaneous Prototyping for an Integrated Construction Environment) is a rapid prototyping environment which supports a subset of a construction project life cycle. Its main objective is to develop a future intelligent integrated design and construction system for the civil and building domain through which a number of solutions can be generated and analyzed. This is accomplished through the use of a comprehensive project data model capable of supporting a range of applications. The data model consists of an independent data model and application specific data models. The research concentrates on establishing a project data infrastructure and tools for managing the information exchange that occurs during a project life cycle, with emphasis on the design, site layout and construction planning, cost estimating and maintenance applications. This will enable better, more efficient and more cost effective buildings to be designed. The output generated by the prototype are very detailed which can improve the decision making process, different constraints can be applied and their consequences can be simulated. The prototype was tested with a number of case studies, some of which can be viewed by downloading the demo file attached with this paper.

Keywords: Computer Integrated Construction, Project Model, Integration

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1999/3 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1999 (browse)
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Finch E F, Flanagan R, Marsh1 L E

Electronic document management in construction using auto id

Abstract: The construction process relies upon the effective management of a variety of project information including drawings; specifications; bills of quantities; and other technical data. The method of information transfer determines the ease with which information can be assimilated and used into the construction process. Despite the widespread use of computers for the generation of project information, hard copy documentation remains the primary method of information transfer withn the construction industry. Electronic Document Management (EDM) systems offer a'level of control over information flow within the construction process, whether documents are in hard copy or in electronic format. However, many of the existing methods of information transfer undermine the performance of EDM systems in two respects; (1) they require the user to re-enter information to register incoming documents into a data base; (2) they cannot interpret and manipulate information contained in or supporting the document. Ths paper describes a method of bar coding hard copy drawings in order to electronically transfer document information from designer to contractor. This approach is designed to improve the functionality of EDM system where hard copy documents predominate. The paper also considers the requirements for bar code application standards which would further improve the data exchange process concerning documents.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,255,849 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.044653) class.store (0.039576) class.education (0.029936)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Fischer M, Stone M, Liston K, Kunz1 J, Singhal1 V

Multi-stakeholder collaboration: The CIFE iRoom

Abstract: The CIFE iRoom is a collection of linked software and hardware that allows users to readily structure, display and manipulate the various information used to design and implement a large construction project. The objectives of this research are to define and evaluate new ways for project teams to interact with and visualize project information to facilitate fast and effective decision-making. This paper summarizes the CIFE iRoom infrastructure and gives examples of its use. It shows the importance of separating a model from its view and from its control and of visualizing relationships across different views to conveniently view and compare alternative states of a project model simultaneously.

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Full text: content.pdf (966,473 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.036680) class.man-software (0.023192) class.man-man (0.009241)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Flood I,Nowrouzian V

Construction process modelling: a constrained graphics approach versus conventional construction simulation

Abstract: Effective construction project planning and control requires the development of a model of the project’s construction processes. The Critical Path Method (CPM) is the most popular project modelling method in construction since it is relatively simple to use and reasonably versatile in terms of the range of processes it can represent. Several other modelling techniques have been developed over the years, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Linear scheduling, for example, has been designed to provide highly insightful visual representations of a construction process, but unfortunately is largely incapable of representing non-repetitive construction work. Discrete-event simulation is generally agreed to be the most versatile of all modelling methods, but it lacks the simplicity in use of CPM and so has not been widely adopted in construction. A new graphical constraint-based method of modelling construction processes, Foresight, has been developed with the goal of offering the simplicity in use of CPM, the visual insight of linear scheduling, and the versatility of simulation. Earlier work has demonstrated the modelling versatility of Foresight. As part of a continuing study, this paper focuses on a comparison of the Foresight approach with discrete-event construction simulation methods, specifically Stroboscope (a derivative of CYCLONE). Foresight is shown to outperform Stroboscope in terms of the simplicity of the resultant models for a series of case studies involving a number of variants of an earthmoving operation and of a sewer tunnelling operation. A qualitative comparison of the two approaches also highlights the superior visual insight provided by Foresight over conventional simulation, an attribute essential to both the effective verification and optimization of a model.

Keywords: Construction process,Foresight,process modeling,construction simulation,Stroboscope,model complexity,visual insight

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Forest Flager, John Haymaker

A comparison of multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization processes in the building construction and aerospace industries

Abstract: Advancement in computer-based product modeling and analysis tools now allows diverse disciplines to simulate product performance in the early stages of Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) projects. How-ever, the capability of this technology to permit AEC professionals to quickly create, represent and rigorously analyze design options from the perspective of multiple disciplines has not been fully realized compared to other industries such as Aerospace. This paper compares Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis (MDA) and Optimization (MDO) processes in the AEC and aerospace industries based upon case data gathered on recent projects in each industry. Case study re-sults are then generalized by industry to highlight the respective strengths and limitations of current practice in each industry to support effective MDA and MDO. Finally, the appropriateness of adapting methods and technology devel-oped in the aerospace on AEC projects is discussed.

Keywords: product modeling, design options analysis

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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