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A Cormier, S Robert, P Roger, B Hilaire

Towards a BIM-based service-oriented platform for a collaborative multidisciplinary teamwork

Abstract: With the growing trend in the building industry to usesoftware tools able to handle Building Information Model (BIM), staffs are more and more confronted with workflows conflicts. In order to improve their efficiency, up-to-date techniques for dealing with BIM sharing are required. Attempting to address this issue, a web services platform, especially optimized to deal with the already well-recognized Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) open standard, has been developed.This article describes the platform (architecture, software components, technologies), specially emphasizing on the strategies envisaged for collaborative work support. To illustrate resulting benefits for the building industry,it also gives an overview of the work already performed on a platform service dedicated to dynamic thermal simulation.

Keywords: BIM, IFC, Software-as-a-Service, Life Cycle Support, Design, Simulation

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Löfgren

Socio-technical management of collaborative mobile computing in construction

Abstract: The constant changes of plan and unanticipated events in the production process at construction sites result in communication patterns that are dynamic, spontaneous and informal. Most of the existing ICT tools do not sufficiently support informal communication for powerful collaborative problem-solving, management of site resources, handling of parallel process activities and do not correspond to the basic needs and work patterns at the construction sites. Mobile computing technologies have the potential to provide an inclusive wireless mobile ICT platform (voice and data) that can enable improved support for informal communication and on-demand data at construction sites, which can result in improved project collaboration leading to increased efficiency and productivity in the construction process. Still, an implementation strategy for collaborative mobile computing at construction sites is complex and must consider numerous issues regarding system capabilities, mobility, applications, services, integration of existing ICT systems, user interface and user devices to meet the requirements and behaviors of site workers in the mobile distributed heterogeneous construction environment. A mobile computing platform needs to be designed, implemented and managed with a socio-technical bottom-up approach realizing end user and group needs, understanding the separate issues of adoption on different organizational levels, and recognizing mobile computing as a process integrated enabling technology for improving collaboration and project communication throughout the whole construction process.

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Full text: content.pdf (328,657 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Mhalas, T Crosbie, N Dawood, M Kassem

Assessing Energy Improvement Potential from Efficiency and Renewable Interventions at Neighborhood Level

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Full text: content.pdf (153,844 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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A Redmond, A Hore, R West, J Underwood, M Alshawi

Developing a Horizontal Integrated Life Cycle Costing Analysis Model through BIM

Abstract: Advancing interoperability between design team applications has been a major challenge for advocates of open standards. The buildingSmart alliance and Open Geospatial Consortium Inc in the U.S. have developed and implemented an Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner Operator, Phase 1 Testbed that streamlines communications between parties at the conceptual design phase to establish an early understanding of the tradeoffs between construction cost and energy efficiency. The results of this Testbed combined with an on-going collaborative R&D project ‘Inpro’ co-funded by the European Commission to identify business and legal issues of Building Information Modeling in construction were used as theoretical propositions underlying a 2010 Delphi survey. This paper presents the results of one questionnaire of that overall study. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to (i) identifying the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii) detecting the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii) examining the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, (iv) exploring the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information, and (v) investigating the industry’s perception on whether the development of a Cloud based BIM Life Cycle Costing would be of significant use to the Irish and UK construction industry. The rationale for this research is to refine the results of the initial questionnaire, AECOO-1, and Inpro R&D projects in order to determine if a prototype based on developing a cloud integrated LCC model through BIM could be generated in the UK and, Ireland and if so, what would be the legalities of implementing such a project.

Keywords: Cloud, BIM, Information Exchange, Interoperability, LCC

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A. Hryshchenko, K. Menze

A Comprehensive Vision on Cartography of EU And International Research Initiatives with RTD Gap Analysis in the Area of ICT for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Abstract: This paper analyses the status of current researches in the area of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for the improvement of Energy Efficiency (EE) design and operation of buildings.Currently, research and technology developers focus on different domains and sub-domains in the area of EE, such as the integration of renewable energy sources and related monitoring, simulation, and management software. In order to improve harmonisation between different research and technology developments (RTD) including International and European research projects and scientific programs these activities need to be categorised and analysed. As a result of RTD gap analysis, the challenges, commonalities, deficits, and potentials for collaboration are identified contributing to the development of a “Scientific Road Map”. This paper focuses on development of a comprehensive vision on Cartography of recently completed, ongoing, and recently announced research European projects and International research initiatives for further implementation of its results in global vision of the REEB project [cf. http://www.ict-reeb.eu/index.html], and proposes a systematic categorization approach to identify gaps in the current research agenda in the area of IT for Energy in Buildings.Our RTD gap analysis is based on a qualitative categorization specifying common classification criteria.At the present, there are more than 270 projects worldwide were analysed, five Main Classification Categories (MCC) were developed.The proposed methodology should allow the identification of deficits of the related research activities within the specified (in T3.1, D3.1) categories.

Keywords: information and communication technologies, energy efficiency, research and developments, RTD, categorization, gap analysis

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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A.K. Jallow, P. Demian, A.N. Baldwin & C.J. Anumba

BPM-driven Construction Client Requirements Change Management

Abstract: Changing client requirements is one of the principal factors that contribute to delays and budget overruns of construction projects which as a result causes claims, disputes and client dissatisfaction. Change management ensures that such changes are handled through a properly coordinated and controlled process and retained throughout the project life cycle. This paper presents an empirical study that investigated the potential for an automated process of managing changes to clients’ requirements in construction projects. An initial focus group meeting was set up as a preliminary study which was followed by two case studies. Participant observation was used to conduct the case studies during which technical documents were also reviewed. The results show that current requirements change management process lacks efficiency. The paper concludes that business process management (BPM) approach could be a solution to better manage the requirements change process

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Agger K

Geneobjectclases in construction IT

Abstract: The Geno project intent to participate in the development of the next generation of construction IT systems. Goals for this research should be to: * loose the design process from the production of design documents * free the geometry from orthogonal projection * make possible a full, variable, complete detailing without loosing consistency * move the development of building component specific IT modeling * tools closer to the end user * improve the efficiency and capability of these modeling tools The Geno project works with three developer / user layers: * GenoObjectClasses, the basic standardized data and functional structure, developed by IT specialists in a close dialog with the IAI IFC development. * ProtoObjectClasses: IT tools for modeling spaces, construction elements and parts. Developed by IT specialized architects,engineers, on the bases of Genotypes. Made available to the end user through Internet by component vendors. * PhenoObjects: spaces, construction elements and parts, specified, dimensioned and placed and interrelated by the designer, to be analyzed and supply project information for all participants in the construction and management process. Modeling, analyzing and information seeking and presentation done by Prototypes. The idea of this structure is to improve dynamic and user influence in IT modeling tool development. The standardized class structure for this, the GenoObjectClasses has to support three concurrent models, namely the: * SpaceModel, an interrelated surface model, a non detailed division of the project space in functional spaces (living room, kitchen,bath etc.) and construction spaces (foundation, wall, roof, slap etc.). * ComponentModel, a successive partitioning, ore filling theSpaceModel with building elements, components (facing wall, inner wall, insulation, window, door, ceiling, roof construction, inventory, furniture etc.), interrelated and related to the SpaceModel. * EntityModel, a similar fill to the Componentmodel with buildingparts (brick, joint, plaster, fitting, gutter etc.) to make a complete consistent productmodel possible. The "three model structure" to be filled out successively, add flexibility to the designprocess. When calculations and visualizations is performed the detailed model is used, but in areas with no detailing the model on the lower detailing level is used. This means that the total model will be "complete", if only the SpaceModel has been modeled. The development of GenoObjectClases will build as close as possible on IFC, and seek to expand IFC where it is nessesary. Status for the Geno project is that implementation has been started with AutoCAD ObjectARX.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,484 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026583) class.represent (0.015546) class.synthesis (0.015011)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Alain Zarli, Eric Pascual, Daniel Cheung

Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent and Integrated Controls in Buildings: Current Developments and Future Research

Abstract: A common and acknowledged vision today is the one that, in the future, buildings, along with their components, equipments, and their environment will communicate and be able to provide information on their status ubiquitously. This real-time available information will be interoperable via common protocols for holistic automation & control. The whole building will be supervised by intelligent systems, able to combine information from all connected devices, from the Internet or from energy service providers in order to efficiently control HVAC (heating & cooling), lighting, and hot water systems along with energy production, storage and consumption devices inside the building, taking into account the users' needs and wishes. In such a context, ICT is recognised as key for empowering people in the (built) universe in which they live, with smart e-metering and new smart e-devices – as well as becoming fully pervasive in the future optimization of energy in the built environment - where “Energy-efficient smart buildings” are to be buildings which contain systems that manage information for an optimal operation of building energy flows over the whole building lifecycle.In such a context, CSTB has developed an open framework for data collection and processing, to be installed in any built environment. It supports networked heterogeneous sensors and actuators (with appropriate communication protocols technology), allows assembling various “business” functions (with easy evolution and extension capability thanks to a concept of service composition and event-driven management between modules), can accommodate any hardware platform constraint (memory, computing power), and can be executed in any environments supporting a Java SE implementation. The framework is itself based on an OSGi platform. The notion of “sensor” is to be considered in a comprehensive way: physical sensor (analogic or logic), complex sub-system or meta-sensor (e.g. Agilent data acquisition system or alike), or even external services (e.g. getting weather data via the Internet). Fields of applications are energy-efficiency in the built environment, but also Ambient-Assisted Living (AAL), internal air quality assessment, collection of data related to inhabitants behaviours, etc..The REEB coordination action (European strategic research roadmap to ICT enabled Energy-Efficiency in Buildings and construction), as a European R&D technology roadmap initiative (achieved in the context of an EC-funded Coordinated Action - http://www.ict-reeb.eu) has identified ICT contributions to the energy efficiency of buildings mainly via improvement (and corresponding RTD) in integrated design (and indeed ICT tools for Energy-Efficient design and production management), integrated and intelligent control, user awareness and decision support to various stakeholders throughout the whole life of buildings, energy management and trading, and integration technologies. As far as the integrated / intelligent control field is concerned, REEB has fundamentally identified the following areas for future investigation:• automation & control: system concepts, intelligent HVAC, smart lighting, ICT for micro-generation & storage systems, predictive control;• monitoring: instrumentation: smart metering;• quality of service: improved diagnostics, secure communications;• wireless sensor networks: hardware, operating systems, network design.The paper will first introduce to expectations, requirements and potential future scenarios for ICT to support integrated and optimised control in future so-called smart buildings. It will then introduce to the current trend of developments at CSTB in this area, and will present the CSTBox as a tool federating and/or complementing functions (potentially relying on already installed systems) in the built environment. After a short presentation of the REEB project, the paper will follow up with exhibiting the outcome of the REEB project in terms of roadmapping RTD activities in this technological field, also providing with a first insight of their potential impact in the future.Acknowledgement: the authors wish to thank the European Commission (DG INFSO) for its financial support to the REEB co-ordinated action. Moreover, the authors are also grateful to the REEB Consortium partners, namely ARUP, ACCIONA, CEA, LABEIN, TUD, UCC & VTT.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Intelligent and Integrated Control, REEB project, CSTBox framework, Data collection and storage

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Alexander J, Coble R, Crawford J, Drogemuller R, Leslie H, Newton P, Wilson B, Yum Kwok-Keung

Information and communication in construction : closing the loop

Abstract: Both nationally and internationally, the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector is highly fragmented : it is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the nature of information and knowledge can be dispersed among firms and organisations, and consortia are frequently formed from geographically dispersed firms. In recognition of the potential improvements to be gained through an integrated approach to project information used throughout the design, documentation, construction and operation processes, substantial research is underway in Australia to "close the loop" of information flows between designers and constructors. The paper will explore and discuss both the technology platform in terms of information and communications technology (mobile, high-speed and wide area networking linking the design and engineering offices with the construction site) and the information platform in terms of the content of communications between project stakeholders and the requisite information (traditional spatial as well as non-spatial data) of key concern to the stakeholders at various stages of the project lifecycle. The paradigm shift that has occurred over recent years from stand-alone personal computing (which reinforced fragmentation) to mobile and Wide Area networked computing now provides a platform capable of promoting integration, accessibility and co-operation within the sector with attendant gains in efficiency. A minimum requirement to achieve these gains is access to the right information (not just simple data) at the desired level of scale and detail for a particular stakeholder’s view - information which once collected can be stored and refined and then held for use elsewhere on the project without loss and without the need for subsequent re-entry. The information needs to be available quickly and easily, that is at the right time and in the right location for maximum benefit and project efficiency. Demonstration collaborative systems to support interactive Computer Aided Design and information exchange between project stakeholders such as architects, various engineers (electrical, hydaulic, mechanical, structural) and project managers, in an innovative collaborative manner have become available to bring dispersed project members together electronically. Such systems allow project members attached to a network to undertake a range of information access and exchange from simple e-mail; through on-site access to central project data sources via handheld computers; right through to the use of optional live (or pre-recorded) video to enhance collaboration. Using communications infrastructure, this functionality can be shared in various ways - in a corporate-wide environment between regional and/or interstate offices within a company, or in a consortium situation (between offices of a consortium working together on a specific construction project). The questions then arise as to how such systems fit into industry practice, and how the industry might adapt to embrace new opportunities provided by such technological advances. Ease of access to up-to-date, accurate project information for a range of project stakeholders is being extended through research in the US and Australia to close the loop between some of the stakeholders, and this will be discussed in detail in the paper. As well, the progress of industry-based support for a level of interoperability for building and construction information by organisations such as the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI Australasian chapter) will also be discussed, plus the likely impact of the adoption of Industry Foundation Classes in the Australian building and construction industry in areas such as the design life for buildings based on durability of materials.

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Full text: content.pdf (719,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.057235) class.environment (0.023003) class.synthesis (0.022896)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


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