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Eilif Hjelseth, Nick Nisbet

Exploring Semantic Based Model Checking

Abstract: This paper is exploring the foundation of semantic based model checking concepts. Development of computable rules in a pure semantic based concept is characterized by “soft coding” by following a pre-defined system (mark-up) methodology for linguistic (text and numbers) analyze, organization, execution and reporting. The software programming of this can be done automatic or semi-automatic based on predefined procedures. This enables an AEC skilled person to develop applicable rules without support of programmers. The rules can be applied on then semantic content BIM file in e.g. IFC format.Whether it is possible to develop a valid and reliable system applicable to rule sources (laws, codes, standards) depends on testing two key hypothesis:The use perspective is basis for the first hypothesis: Can a pre-defined semantic system or toolset be used (by an AEC skilled person, not software programmer) on the variation of how rule sources are expressed. The answer on this is based on the constraints of the systems. Negative experiences by Artificial Intelligence based on natural language and the ambiguity in the language itself (Sowa, 2000 and 2006) indicates that there is not a straight forward procedure. Introduction of prerequisite and constraints indicate that trustworthy results are possible (Hjelseth, 2009 and Bell, Bjørkhaug and Hjelseth, 2009). Whether this will result in too limited area of application is discussed. The ISO/DIS 21542 standard for accessibility and usability will be used as case.The second hypothesis is: A system for automatic, or semi-automatic, generating of applicable rule sets for software implementation can be developed. This must rely on the applicability link predefine commands to adjacent actions for the semantic analyses. Limitations and possibilities will be in focus.A thorough perspective will be about challenges above are related to ICT-systems or the complexity of the semantic of world itself.References: Bell, Bjørkhaug and Hjelseth, 2009. Standardized computable rules. Pilot study of methods for development of computable rules Project at Standards Norway, http://www.standard.no/en/Sectors/Bygg-og-anlegg/Digital-byggeprosess/ISO-BIM-standards/Computable-rule-project/ (Visited: 2010-04-01). ISO/DIS 21542 Building Construction, Accessibility and usability of the built environmentISO standard under development of ISO committee TC 59/SC 16 http://www.iso.org/iso/standards_development/technical_committees/list_of_iso_technical_committees/iso_technical_committee.htm?commid=291991 (Visited: 2010-04-01). Hjelseth, E. 2009. Foundation for development of computable rules. Presented at CIB-W78, Turkey, Istanbul, Oct. 1-3th 2009. http://www.optima.no/BIM/PhD_Eilif_Hjelseth/Eilif_Hjelseth_UMB-Norway_Paper_73_CIB-W78_2009.pdf (Visited: 2010-04-01).Sowa, J. F. 2000. Knowledge representation: Logical, Philosophical and Computational foundations, Thomson Learning. ISBN 0 534-94965-7

Keywords: Model checking, semantic, BIM, IFC

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Ekholm A, Fridqvist S

Ob ject-oriented caad' - design object structure, and models for buildings, user organisation and site

Abstract: In the early stages of the building design process not only building and site but also user activities and experiences are fonned. In this project conceptual models of some fundamental characteristics of building, site and user organisation will be developed and implemented in a prototype CAD-programme. The programming work for the prototypes is done with Smalltalk on Macintosh computers. The tests of the prototype includes spatial coordination of the three systems. The models are based on an ontological framework which is also used for organising the basic object structure of the prototype CAD program. In the design process, information about the design object is gradually developed. Starthg from certain desired properties, the whole and its parts are fonned by successive increase of detail. The project investigates how the data structure of the design object can be formed to serve this working method. The project also discusses possible future developments. One important question is how these models maybe used in the development of the brief and in the building management stage.

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Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.034496) class.analysis (0.018928) class.represent (0.014989)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Elvekrok D R, Johansen B W, Syvertsen T G, Totland T

World wide web as a coordination technology for knowledge work

Abstract: This paper will bring some understanding of the World Wide Web as an information and coordination technology, and suggest some principles and metaphors for Web working. The suggestions will be underpinned by recent experiences from a collective Web-working project, and a transformation of a technical standard into hypertext format. Some ideas and visions for future developments based on the new medium are presented. World Wide Web is more than a tool or a technology, it is a new medium based on a set of very simple principles that enable us to cope with a vast Ocean of information and knowledge. The basics of World Wide Web and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) will be explained. A small-scale experiment in collective writing in Web will be reported. The task was development of the PAKT Yearbook of 1994, where a dozen of contributors worked concurrently on individual pieces around a shared Yearbook structure. This small project may in some sense resemble an engineering project, where many discipline experts are performing individual tasks around a shared goal and work breakdown structure. The experiment was based on use of Microsoft Internet Assistant which provides a simple add-on that makes Microsoft Word a combined Web reader and writer. Using this interface to the Web, working there is as simple as traditional word-processing. This mode of working can easily be expanded with any kind of tool based on the same concepts of process linking. There is, however, no support for the work processes associated with creating the product (in our case a Yearbook), or the organization of the processes. Based on our experiences, we suggest some metaphors and practical approaches to efficient Web working. Another experiment has been in the domain of technical standards. A couple of existing, paper- based standards from the petroleum industry have been converted to HTML, with cross-references transferred to active hyper-links. Using WWW as a one-way information server and as a shared working space will be illustrated. We see at least three future aspects of Web development; active objects replace static information, information structures will be supplemented by knowledge processes (enterprise modelling), and the information economy will evolve based on integrated flow of transactions.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,745,393 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.065275) class.collaboration (0.038981) class.economic (0.022244)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


FL Ribeiro

Using experience based cases to support construction business processes

Abstract: Many business processes in the construction supply chains involve creation and consumption of massive amount of knowledge. Some construction organisations may use such knowledge as a competitive differentiator. The benefits that an organisation in the supply and value chain reaps from relevant experiences will also be beneficial to the organisation's clients, suppliers, and business partners. However, there is normally a lack of explicit knowledge about their business processes.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitt Dresden.


Fruchter R, Demian P

Knowledge management for reuse

Abstract: Managing and reusing knowledge in architecture, engineering and construction firms can lead to greater competitive advantage, improved designs, and more effective management of constructed facilities. We define design knowledge reuse as the reuse of previously designed buildings, building subsystems, or building components, as well as the knowledge and expertise ingrained in these previous designs. This paper introduces the notion of knowledge in context. We argue that in order for knowledge to be reusable, the user should be able to see the context in which this knowledge was originally created and interact with this rich content. We call a repository of such knowledge in context the corporate memory. We describe empirical observations of designers reusing knowledge from their personal design experiences. Based on these observations, we formalize two key activities in the process of knowledge reuse: finding reusable items and understanding these items in context. We formalize six degrees of exploration that lead to understanding. We describe a prototype knowledge management system, CoMem (Corporate Memory), that supports these activities. CoMem is distinguished from the document-centric state-of-practice solutions by its approach of "overview first, zoom and filter, and then details-on-demand."

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Full text: content.pdf (269,521 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.017227) class.bestPractise (0.011535) class.education (0.007733)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


G J Brewer, T Gajendran & S E Chen

The use of ICT in the construction industry: critical success factors and strategic relationships in temporary project organisations

Abstract: This paper describes the application of a previously developed model of critical success factors for ICT-mediated chains to three construction project supply chains. These cases drew on the experiences of key stakeholder organisations within each in order to firstly, identify the extent to which features of a previously developed, generalised model of ICT success factors were present in each case, and secondly to extend the model in respect of those aspects relating to pre-existing relationships, strategic relationship formation, and the expectation of a continuing business relationship into the future. The paper is structured to describe the protocols and analysis used, and to report a summary of the findings across the three cases.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitt Dresden.


H-J Bargstdt & A Blickling

Implementation of logic for earthmoving processes with a game development engine

Abstract: In modern industry for example the assembly of a car can be done in different ways or sequences. All may lead to success. Nevertheless manufacturers decide on one specific order of processes for the assembly. This order is designed and managed properly and is the result of deeper studies of the logic of the assembly. In the construction industry experiences on site have shown that logic of processes is difficult to be identified. Although there are areas where a logical order of processes can be presumed. This paper tries to setup logic for earthmoving processes and implement it within a computer game development engine. The result is an interactive computer game that allows the user to play the simulation of excavation in real-time.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitt Dresden.


Hannus M, Heikkonen A, Laitinen J

Internet in construction projects and research

Abstract: This paper describes experiences from using Internet as an environment for distributed teamwork between various actors in construction and research projects. Evolving commercial Internet services to construction industry are also described.

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Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.123837) class.collaboration (0.042663) class.environment (0.025470)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Harrison D, Donn M, Skates H

Applying web services within the AEC industry: enabling semantic searching and information exchange through the digital linking of the knowledge base

Abstract: The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is fragmented by professions separated by skill, stigma and distance. This fragmentation has created a dispersed knowledge base with knowledge gaps occurring within and between the professions. These knowledge gaps can only be overcome through the exchange of information and past experiences. Presently this exchange is reliant on manual communication, which has proven inefficient and open to misinterpretation. Web Services have been developed within the Information Technology industry to allow the crossplatform exchange of complex data. The application of this technology within the fragmented AEC industry holds significant potential. Research at the School of Architecture, Victoria University is exploring the integration of Web Services within existing databases to enable the searching, exchange and flexible presentation of relevant AEC information. Following industry feedback the aecBEDRock concept has been proposed which would enable the digital exchange and searching of valuable AEC data between professionals. The aecBEDRock concept utilizes the properties of Web Services and Industry Foundation Classes to create a digital AEC information framework that could bind the knowledge base of the industry. A stronger knowledge base would increase quality levels within the construction process through increased professional awareness and efficiency

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Hartvig S, Ersen T

Teaching computing in civil engineering: knowledge systems.

Abstract: "After decades of research and development in ""advanced"" IT, the picture of IT usage in construction remains the same - industry in general is not taking proper advantage of commercially available IT-technologies, as for example knowledge systems. We and others [Raphael 99] think this is caused by the fact that technical universities do not include teaching in advanced computing for civil and building engineers, despite the outspoken need for it. At Department of Planning at the Technical University of Denmark, we have acknowledged this need, and we offer an intensive class in knowledge engineering. Experiences from that course have been presented in [Andersen98]. It is clear to us that this class is valuable, because it enables a fraction of the new generation of professional engineers to cope with 1) knowledge and problem solving and 2) more advanced use of IT. However, it is equally clear that we need to do more - that is: offer teaching in a broader field than just narrow scoped expert systems. We [Andersen98] have pointed out that the relatively narrow scope of the intensive class present a risk of giving the student a too narrow minded attitude to knowledge systems. We are in the process of renewing and possibly expanding our teaching in knowledge systems. To be able to move in the right direction a survey is about to be performed: we are in the process of tracking ""old"" students, now working in industry, in order to learn how our teaching have impacted their professional life and workplace. We seek empirical support for our idea that handling of ""knowledge"", ""problem solving"" and ""concepts"" are key skills for engineers rather than abilities in specific computer applications. The paper will present the results of our survey and considerations, and will include an outline of an improved teaching programme for knowledge systems in civil and building engineering. [Raphael99] Raphael B, Shea K, Smith I, A task and software independent CAE course, in proceedings AICIVIL-COMP99, civil-comp press 99. [Andersen98] Andersen T, Hartvig S, Teaching Knowledge Engineering: Experinces in: Artificial Intelligence in Structural Enginneering, Springer 99"

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Full text: content.pdf (315,577 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.056740) class.impact (0.029838) class.environment (0.027163)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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