Horne, Margaret and Thompson, Emine Mine
Virtual Reality and 3D Modeling in Built Environment Education
Abstract: This study builds upon previous research on the integration of Virtual Reality (VR) within the built environment curriculum and aims to investigate the role of Virtual Reality and three-dimensional (3D) computer modelling on learning and teaching in a school of the built environment. In order to achieve this aim a number of academic experiences were analysed to explore the applicability and viability of 3D computer modelling and Virtual Reality (VR) into built environment subject areas. Although two-dimensional representations have been greatly accepted by built environment professions and education, three-dimensional computer representations and VR applications, offering interactivity and immersiveness, are not yet widely accepted. The project builds on previous studies which focused on selecting and implementing appropriate VR strategies and technologies (Horne and Hamza, 2006) and offers an approach on how three-dimensional computer modelling and virtual reality may be integrated into built environment teaching. It identifies the challenges and perceived benefits of doing so by academic staff and reports on the systematic approach which was adopted by Northumbria University, School of the Built Environment, to raise awareness of VR technologies across the spectrum of built environment disciplines. A selection of case studies is presented which illustrate how VR and 3D modelling have been integrated to extend traditional forms of representation and enhance the students’ learning experience. The attitudes perceptions, opinions and concerns of academic staff in regards to use of 3D and VR technologies in their teaching are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual Reality, 3D computer modelling, built environment, curriculum
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J Gao, M Fischer, T Tollefsen & T Haugen
Experiences with 3D and 4D CAD on Building Construction Projects: Benefits for Project Success and Controllable Implementation Factors
Abstract: From our experience of a wide range of questions that A/E/C professionals are asking, the AEC industry is facing the challenge to determine the benefits of 3D and 4D CAD and what it takes to implement this advanced technology. This paper focuses past experiences of using 3D and 4D CAD on building construction projects.
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.
J. Porkka, J. Kojima, K. Rainio & K. Kähkönen
Utilizing 4D Technology in Supply Chain Management
Abstract: During the last decade the role of technology in supporting the project execution and management has increased. However, the real impacts to supply chain have not been considered. This paper introduces a study utilising 4D technology for supply chain management. We explore how the interactive 4D application can be used for testing alternative supply chain scenarios. We describe experienced challenges when developing 4DLive Linker environment, which enables simulations of multiple scenarios in large construction projects. We demonstrate the research approach in a residential housing case that has two supply chain alterations. Our experiences show that decision making benefits from interactive environment. The end result enhances existing 4D applications to direction where alternative plans can be easily incorporated into applications, studied further interactively and presented in a communicative manner for decision making and construction site training.
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Impact of Construction Technologies on Education in Denmark
Abstract: An increased interest for the use of BIM in the Danish construction industry and an expressed need for students with knowledge on ICT have had impact on what students are taught in at the Technical University of Denmark. This is partly due to the Danish state started to require the use of BIM-models and handover of models in IFC-format in 2007. Since 2008 students at BSc. and MSc. level are taught more in interoperability and in BIM tools than in the past. To fulfil this demand a multidisciplinary course in "Advanced building design" has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The goal of the course is through project work to provide training in transprofessionalism and teamwork as well as using building information models at the final stage of the engineering education. Both students from the Architectural Engineering and Civil Engineering study lines have follow the course. The students had in teams to develop an outline and project proposal of building complex with a volume of about 40,000 square meters. In addition to prepare drawings according to the present requirements which are valid in ordinary projects, the students should as in Danish state projectshand-in BIM models in IFC-format and document results from the use of clash detection tools. Several experiences from the course have been gained. It is difficult for the students to work in multidisciplinary teams and make an outline and a project proposal without direct guidance from the teachers. The students underestimate the effort it takes to integrate components from different disciplines in a BIM model. The evaluations of the course by the students have been very ambiguous, since some have seen this as a good opportunity to learn about carrying out projects which simulate real building construction projects while others are very sceptical about working in multidisciplinary teams and see modelling as unworthy work for an engineer.
Keywords: MSc. education, BIM, mandatory use of BIM, choice of tools
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Janne Porkka, Kalle Kähkönen
Software development approaches and challenges of 4D product models
Abstract: Experiences from projects utilizing 4D have been promising. Several companies together with researchers have seen 4D applications as potential products for lucrative business. The promising business prospects have resulted in numerous more and less intuitive attempts to develop such products. This paper draws commonalities from various approaches and reviews 4D applications from the viewpoint of product models. It is considered that now it is an appro-priate time to look at the development strategies and achievements so far, and, based on lessons learned show the way forward. First the principles for reaching 4D product models are covered. Various approaches in current commercial 4D appli-cations are considered. One of the solutions used as ground information is Visual Product Chronology (VPC), devel-oped by VTT. Second the paper addresses the obvious challenges of 4D product models. There are obstacles waiting to be resolved before 4D is comprehensively harnessed for project management purposes. One of these obstacles is standardization, or more specifically the lack of it. One of the most potential formats for open BIM standard is Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs). The use of IFCs for scheduling and 4D purposes is discussed. Finally new approaches from on-going research project 4DLive are addressed; preliminary results recognized are 1) open communication protocol for application integration, and 2) building site scenery linkage to product modelling. Possibilities and benefits exist on advanced designing and marketing solutions.
Keywords: BIM, 4D, scheduling, data exchange
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Jordan M,Jeffrey H
Experiences of implementing BIM in Skanska facilities management
Abstract: The benefits of BIM (Building Information Modeling) in design, construction and facilities management (FM) are well documented. However, the adoption of BIM in the construction sector is slow, with BIM implementation in facilities services lagging even further behind. Several reasons have been offered for the slow uptake of BIM, such as issues with IT interoperability, lack of understanding of BIM and variable expectations of the system. Difficulties with clearly articulating FM BIM requirements and the inevitable changes to long-established work processes could be the key to the slow progress of BIM in facilities management. Detailed case-studies of BIM implementation in UK FM organisations are not forthcoming. The facilities management team at Skanska has embraced BIM and this paper describes the challenges the team faced when it prepared the business for a ‘BIM way of working’, and some early benefits achieved from the fledgling BIM implementation. The paper highlights the importance of clarifying BIM aspirations and identifying and understanding information requirements before focusing on technology, and the importance of only selecting information that can be beneficially utilised. Once information requirements are agreed, identifying when in the building lifecycle the information should be made available requires careful consideration. These timing decisions require close collaboration with and an understanding of other participants, particularly in the design process. The paper highlights the need to review existing work processes and the time dedicated to the task should not be underestimated. The paper also describes the inevitability of having to change existing work processes (not just in the FM team), the associated challenges and how these challenges were approached by the Skanska facilities Services team. One of the benefits of BIM that is difficult to quantify is this greater co-operative approach and reciprocal understanding of each stakeholder’s needs and constraints. Engaging with people first, adapting existing processes and then using IT systems intelligently are the keys to successful BIM implementation.
Keywords: BIM,Building Information Modeling,Standards,Data,Information,Implementation,Benefits
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The use of step product data technology in two AEC pilot
Abstract: The paper describes two pilot AEC projects in the area of standardised exchange of
product model data. The application areas of the projects are: the exchange of piping
system data between piping CAD packages, and the exchange of steel structure data
from the structural designers to the manufacturers. The enabling technology for both of
the projects is STEP product data technology emerging from IS0 T C l W C 4 work. The
paper describes the methodologies used, developed implementations, achieved results
in data exchange and experiences from the two projects.
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Kartam N, Al-Reshaid K, Askar H
Constructability knowledge-intensive database system
Abstract: Generally, lessons learned in the construction, operation, and maintenance
of a facility are not effectively fed back as input to the design and
construction phases of new projects. Traditional methods of collecting and
disseminating lessons-learned in the construction of projects have enjoyed
limited success due to: (1) the unreliable communication channels between
construction experts and practitioners, (2) the lack of a meaningful
classification system, (3) the unmanageable format that made it difficult to
access, retrieve and update the potentially enormous volume of lessons, (4)
the difficulty of integrating new systems into existing operations and
procedures, and (5) the focus on failures or incidents, rather than on both
positive and negative experiences with constructed facilities. If the
experience and lessons learned at the construction site could be captured and
incorporated into a dynamic, interactive, knowledge based information
system, then great benefits could be realized as this information is utilized
in the design and construction of future facilities. Constructability and
maintainability can be enhanced, more efficient construction methods can
be utilized, facility quality and safety can be maximized and total life cycle
costs can be minimized.This paper presents a knowledge-intensive database
system for constructability improvement. Construction lessons were
collected; a framework for classifying, storing and disseminating lessons
was designed; and a prototype system was developed, tested and validated.
This system can be used: (1) as an assistant and decision-making tool by
engineers and foremen of contractors, and (2) as an educational and training
tool by undergraduate and graduate students of civil engineering at Kuwait
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Class: class.deployment (0.213871)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.
Kjeld Svidt, Per Christiansson
REQUIREMENTS ON 3D BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION – EXPERIENCES FROM AN ARCHITECTURAL COMPETITION
Abstract: In 2007 the public clients in Denmark started implementing new requirements on information handling in their construction projects. In the full implementation they will demand that all construction data on public construction projects are digitally managed and interchanged. Tendering shall be effected electronically over the Internet. Design will be based on 3D building models, which are gradually specified to reach different levels of detail. The parties involved in a specific construction project must share and interchange data and documents about the construction project on a common document management system accessed through the Internet. When a construction project is finished, the parties will hand over relevant operation and maintenance data electronically to the client. Detailed requirements have been developed on behalf of the public clients within four main areas: 3D models, Digital Tendering, Project Webs and Digital Handover. Within each of these areas, initial requirements have been tested in specific construction projects. This paper describes experiences from the test of the suggested requirements on 3D models. The requirements were used in an architectural competition on modernizing a cluster of university buildings. Four selected architects were invited to the competition. The proposals from the architects should be prepared as a 3D model in IFC format supplemented with a number of 3D visualizations chosen by the individual architects.
Keywords: 3D building models, BIM, electronic communication, requirements, architectural competition
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The emergence of second generation knowledge management in engineering consulting
Abstract: Knowledge Management (KM) has matured in the sense that there is a widespread
consensus that KM is much more than information systems. This contribution
discusses how engineering consulting can transcend the first generation of
relatively technical oriented support for knowledge management into integrating
information systems and soft management tools such as organisation, training and
office design. Utilising their respective strength in enabling knowledge production.
Results from a study of an engineering consulting company, which has adopted a
KM-strategy, are analysed. The first activities had a strong focus on IT. Later
efforts however integrate the IT-component with a set of other tools. The
experiences are discussed and two main conclusions drawn: First KM is enabled by
a bundle of information systems as well as soft management tools. Second there is,
in the bundled KM-strategies, still a relative overemphasis on "circumstantial"
frames for knowledge production and too little focus on dynamics in knowledge
producing processes, which in the engineering consulting company predominantly
runs, in customer oriented projects, relatively decoupled from corporate
management. The information system architecture might possibly need to continue
to be bundled in a kind of forced best of breed strategy, since the construction
industry operates with a strong element of temporary cooperation. Moreover it is
characteristic that basic tools, such as spreadsheets, prove to be relatively powerful
in supporting specific knowledge production. It is recom-mended to shape the
second generation of knowledge management by focusing on communities of
practices and their intersection in project pro-cesses. IT continues to play a
balanced and synchronised role with other tools.
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class.software development (0.012093)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.