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Naaranoja M, Oestman L

Information technology strategies and adaptation of knowledge - a conceptual analysis in the construction industry

Abstract: The goal of this study is to construct an understanding of preparations, made for strategic decisions of information technology. The focus is on adaptation of knowledge and the types of knowledge adapted. The study concentrates on the software and hardware used for producing drawings and specifications in the construction industry - the companies suffer an unpredictable market environment and a large amount of published data. The study is based on two case studies - made in two different companies – a multinational with operations in different countries, the other a medium size, mainly active on the regional market. Both of the companies are forced to make development decisions about information technology by estimating future benefits, costs, risks and intangible values. This should evolve from a thorough reflection based on selected information and an assessment of the situational data. According to their attitude towards CAD development these companies belong to different classes: pioneer and follower. The pioneer makes a broad scope selection of information and organises it for decision making. The follower estimates both the benefits of the software and the actions of the competitors. He calculates the revenues and costs carefully before the decision. There is a large amount of information offered by software developers, scientist and other experts. On the other hand the knowledge needed for strategic decisions has to be inside the company. According to the pragmatist philosophy, knowledge is gained through elaboration of experiences. In a fast developing field - such as software development and communication tools - the possibility of gaining experiences is good. The problem is - due to continuous progress - that new experiences are the only that can help you construct adequate knowledge. Sustainable decisions need to be based on long term experience, but in the case of information technology, the emphasis must

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Full text: content.pdf (50,324 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.026554) class.synthesis (0.015250) class.software development (0.012514)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Nenad _uš Babi_, Danijel Rebolj

Learning About BIM in Early Design Using Inpro Training Environment

Abstract: The paper presents an approach of dissemination of research results from research project to construction industry praxis. It addresses the problem of insufficient skills that prevent adoption of novel methods of working and technology. Presented work originates from European integrated project InPro, which aim is to develop methods and technologies that facilitate industry changeover to a model based and collaborative way of working especially in early design phase of the construction project. To support project goals and facilitate the industrial transformation and industrial technology take-up, the project implemented tools and developed curricula and materials for training and education of management, architects, engineers, and construction workers, as well as university students. The paper presents training environment developed to support training on model based work practices and enhancement of hands-on skills with regard to model based working focusing on early design processes. Technical solutions, content topics and development experiences are described. Content of training courses and curricula is based on experiences from live project demonstrations and use cases.

Keywords: education, training, business courses, university curricula, model based working

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Full text: content.pdf (165,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Newton S,Lowe R,Kember R,Wang R,Davey S

The Situation Engine: a hyper-immersive platform for construction workplace simulation and learning

Abstract: The prospect of being able to place an individual within an entirely interactive, simulated environment has long been held, but only recently is it being realized. Flight simulators were the first to provide a hyper-immersive experience using a combination of very detailed and accurate models of aircraft systems, high-resolution visualization and motion platforms. More recently, advanced video game technologies have been coupled with augmented reality systems and sophisticated tracking technologies to provide hyper-immersive experiences of battlefield conditions, crime scenes, operating theatres, industrial processes, etc. A key problem for developers of any hyper-immersive environment is the significant overhead costs of modeling, programming, display technologies and motion simulation. The Situation Engine is an application platform that provides for specific and managed building and construction experience to be made available using low-cost, advanced digital technologies. The same engine can drive a multitude of learning situations. Multiple users collectively occupy the same simulated workplace but experience that situation individually by individual movement through the space. Head tracking, gesture recognition, voice communication, 3D head-mounted displays, location-based sound and embedded learning resources have all been incorporated into the Situation Engine at minimal cost. The total enabling technology cost per participant is currently around $600 Australian. This paper will focus on the hyper-immersive nature of the Situation Engine. In particular, the distinction between immersion (as a quantitative measure of sensory fidelity) and presence (as a qualitative perception of ‘being there’) will be articulated and clarified. The paper also highlights one of the various ways in which hyper-immersion is manifested in the Situation Engine: gestural control. Gestural control has been implemented using a Microsoft Kinect™ and proprietary gesture detection algorithms to monitor a range of gestures in parallel, including gestures that are context dependent.

Keywords: Simulation,Hyper-Immersion,Cost,Situation Engine,Gestural Control

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Full text: content.pdf (820,250 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Ozsariyildiz S S, Tolman F P

First experiences with an inception support modeller for the building and construction industry

Abstract: Inception and very early design of complex building and construction projects requires a large number of decisions to be made, considered, rejected, changed, or confirmed. Many views on the project co-exist at the same time, requiring complex communications and access to complicated knowledge covering the complete project and product life cycles.Balancing the results of this non-monotonic decision taking process is (1) not a trivial task and (2) very important for the project outcome, as most of the product and construction process characteristics (like performance and cost) will largely be fixed. Further optimizations in later design stages will only be marginally possible.In order to support the inception and very early design of complex construction project we are developing an Inception Support Modeler (ISM) that guides the user through the decision taking process. Decision taking is supported by a combined PDT (Product Data Technology) and KT (Knowledge Technology) approach. The focus of the current modeler is on the inception of technical buildings, like Power or Process Plant Buildings, Factory Buildings, Hospitals and such. The product model and the knowledge base are developed in co-operation with the Brite- Euram CONCUR project.The paper reports about the first test case of the ISM. As part of a demonstration in CONCUR, the ISM has been filled with Business Objects and Business Logic concerning the inception of a simple Turbine Building.

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Full text: content.pdf (435,817 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.017970) class.processing (0.012190) class.represent (0.011874)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Patrick Suermann, Raja R.A. Issa

United States Air Force Milcon Transformation: Building Information Modeling Case Studies

Abstract: The United States Air Force manages approximately $2B of traditional military construction (MILCON) per year in a typical portfolio of 100-150 projects. In Fiscal Year, 2010, the Air Force’s MILCON authority having jurisdiction, the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) revised its standard design instruction to supplement how it managed and directed MILCON. One of the primary differences was a requirement for all vertical construction to be designed through a Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach. There were two pilot projects to assess Air Force BIM implementation. First, one project case study explored impact on typical MILCON project management practices. The HQ CENTCOM facility implemented a BIM-based approach on a standard design-bid-build project at MacDill Air Force Base, FL. A second project case study explored cutting edge research methodologies that used the BIM for facility optimization on a LEED-platinum facility. Specifically, the Tyndall Air Force Base Fitness Center targeted energy efficiency. The facility’s Electronic Management Control System (EMCS) monitored pure consumption, solar photovoltaic (PV) power meter pulse output, and solar hot water recovery systems using Digital Energy Monitors (DEM) tied to the BIM via an exported database file via the EMCS server. Lastly, AFCEE partnered with Onuma to manage and leverage their new BIM-based designs to afford greater collaboration from inception onward for USAF facilities worldwide. This research investigates owners’ lessons learned and designers’ experiences related with the initiative under MILCON Transformation, as well as the implications for shaping future USAF MILCON management and design optimization.

Keywords: Air Force, MILCON, BIM, Prototype, Collaboration, Control Systems

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Full text: content.pdf (634,937 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Penttilä, H., Talonpoika, R., Hult, S., Tiainen, P. and Björk, B-C.

RATAS Building Product Model: Experiences with Prototypes

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Full text: content.pdf (6,087,443 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1990 (browse)
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Popova M, Johansson P, Lindgren H

An integrated platform for case-based design

Abstract: This paper investigates methods for information management through the rational application of IT within design. Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process since previous experiences help in understanding and solving new problems. Therefore, we intent to integrate the platforms of case-based reasoning (CBR) and information structures into an information management system for case-based design (CBD). In order to be of practical use, a CBD-system ought to handle all kinds of information created and used during the design process. Although the significance of standard product models is largely recognized today, heterogeneous weakly structured information e.g. construction briefs, calculation documents, 2D-drawings, and raw data: images, audio and video data, is still necessary in a CBD-system. We combine existing techniques (CAD-tools, word processors, WWW, etc.) and standards (IFC, XML, etc.) into a prototype of a tool for supporting the activities of architects and structural engineers. Structured information is represented by IFC; XML manages weakly structured information, while WWW deals with raw data. In this way, the heterogeneous information used in design can be managed and reused and CBD-systems can become a natural and valuable tool for designers.

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Full text: content.pdf (813,740 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.standards (0.090244) class.represent (0.085789) class.software-software (0.021536)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Psunder I, Rebolj D

Product model based quality management system

Abstract: The idea of this research is to build an integrated computer aided quality management system of building projects. Making use of expert knowledge, we are building an information system which will supervise, in each phase of a building project, the fulfilment of the required conditions for undisturbed and quality project continuation. Finally the quality control system will be supported by a computer program which is based on an expert system. In the basic version of the program the user will be guided through the control sheets so that the required control data will be collected. In the case of unfulfilment of quality conditions, the system will suggest possible solutions based on experiences. The program will compare present project to past ones and determine weak points of the project to assure total quality. The program will also help to evaluate statistically the project success, to compare it to other projects and to determine the weakest points of the project to assure total quality. In the upgraded version of development the program will be supported by a product model of the building with aim to reach integrated quality management of building projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (74,082 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.036443) class.analysis (0.019744) class.software development (0.017198)
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Sound: read aloud.

Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


R Kenley, T Harfield, C Ouyang

LOCATION-BASED MICRO-MILESTONES FAIR SUB-CONTRACTOR PAYMENT

Abstract: This paper introduces the new concept of location-based micro-milestones and argues for their use in achieving fair payment for subcontractors. It integrates location-based management (LBM) theory and Business Process Management (utilising YAWL: Yet Another Workflow Language) to illustrate how location-based BIMs can be utilised for the effective and fair payment systems. It outlines the rationale for linking LBM and YAWL methodologies to develop a BIM alternative solution to a traditional industry problem of late payment for sub-contractors. Location-Based Management methodologies are now available in the powerful scheduling and control software (Vico Office by Vico Software). Originally developed in Finland, it has now become part of the BIM movement through integration into 5D environments (3D + time + cost), using location-based quantity data (from 3D BIM) and location-based scheduling (4D). While LBM is being rapidly adopted in industry, expansion of theory in workflow knowledge based on data from real projects remains limited. YAWL has a well-established foundation based on concurrency theory and workflow patterns derived from research. It is informed by experiences with languages supported by contemporary BPM systems and it has a formal semantics. Linking these two methodologies could provide a BIM solution to the problem of late payment to sub-contractors. The YAWL support environment could be extended to provide a workable interface for auto-generating construction payment processes from digital models based on LBM defined micro-milestones. The visualisation of the YAWL interface and related workflows could be used to both inform the analysis and to communicate the results. This paper suggests a study to obtain proof of concept that LBM and YAWL can create an auto-generated certification and payment system for sub-contractors. Results could be configurable reference process models and workable prototype tools that trigger immediate payment of completed work according to the completion of location-based micro-milestones.

Keywords: Fair payment, location-based management, micro-milestone, BIM

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Full text: content.pdf (99,189 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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R. Myllymäki

Business-driven IT Strategy in Multi-Business and Multi-National Companies

Abstract: The complexity of IT strategy preparation grows when the company has more than one business and more than one operational country. This situation is common among big construction companies. This paper divides the strategy process into three parts (the Trend Work, the IT Mapping and the Strategy Work) and the entity of IT strategies to four parts (IT Utilisation strategies, the Corporate IT Strategy, IT Service Strategies and IT Principles) to ease the preparation. The approach is based on the development of relationships between business and IT and it concludes other modern IT strategy preparation systems. This paper contains also experiences about preparation of IT strategies earned in YIT Corporation in 2001-2008. Keywords: IT Strategy, IT Utilisation Strategy, Business-IT Relationship, Business IT, IT Infrastructure, Trend Work.

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Full text: content.pdf (369,989 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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