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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systems’s disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications’ local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Full text: content.pdf (323,448 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Bingfei Zhang and Zhenhua Zhu

Vision-Based Detection of Falls at Flat Level Surfaces

Abstract: Workers might experience fall accidents even when they are working at flat level surfaces. These accidents plus other types of fall accidents have been reported as one of the major causes for worker-related fatalities and injuries. Currently, it becomes common to set up video cameras to monitor working environments. The video cameras provide an alternative to detect fall accidents. The objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of detecting fall accidents of workers with video. The preliminary focus is put on the fall detection under one single monocular camera. A novel fall detection method is proposed. Under the method, workers in the videos captured by the video cameras are first detected and tracked. Their pose and shape related features are then extracted. Given a set of features, an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier is further trained to automatically determine whether a fall happens. The method has been tested and the detection precision and recall were used to evaluate the method. The test results with high detection precision and recall indicated the method effectiveness. Also, the lessons and findings from this research are expected to build a solid foundation to create a vision-based fall detection solution for safety engineers.

Keywords: Fall Detection, Video Processing, Computer Vision, Safety Management

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0198

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Brien M J O', Al-Biqami N

XML, flexibility and systems integration

Abstract: "O'Brien (1997) outlined the two primary ways in which data can be integrated. One invloves the establishment of a centralised data store that meets all the needs of a construction project; the other recognises the geographical and functional fragmentation of the industry and views data integration as a conceptual process. From a purely technical point of view the first is perhaps the easiest, but it fails to meet the organisational and economic demands of the construction industry. Thus the second approach is more likely to be adopted by the participants of that industry. The problem then becomes one of mapping the meta-data structures of one participant onto those of another. Various efforts at the development of standards have attempted to address this issue. However, standards can be both complex and inadequate. The complexity is a demand of the industry while the inadequacy stems from the impossibility of coping with every eventuality - a severe problem given the essential uniqueness of each building product. This is not to say that standards are not required, merely that their limitations are fully realised from the outset and that expectations are not raised to the point where disappointment sets in and they fall into disrepute. EDI is a perfectly good standard but has failed to make a great impact on the construction industry. The volume of application-to-application communications remains small. This paper argues that while standards such as EDI can form the backbone of data communications - and therefore provide a vehicle for data integration in the construction industry - they are insufficient to cope with the desired flexibility demanded by the industry. The paper then develops this idea by suggesting that something more is required, something flexible. Extensible markup language (XML) is a tool which can help provide the necessary flexibility. XML is a language which provides a common syntax for expressing the structure of data. While it can be seen as an extension of the commonly used Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) this fails to recognise that XML has uses beyond the creation of Web pages. In its broadest sense XML allows systems developers to define the structure of a document. Currently its main uses are for data interchange between humans and machines, but the ability to facility machine-machine interactions is the most exciting concept for construction industry systems. Now EDI is a perfectly good tool for such interactions but in the event of any new requirements the standards need to be extended. This is such a long process that by the time it is completed it is of no use to the original users. XML however provides a dynamic mechanism which can be adapted as required to meet the needs of the users. This is its great strength for the construction industry - an industry that is ""document-rich"". In effect by using XML to specify meta-data structures one overcomes the differences between the data structures of different trading partners. No longer will we require all parties to conform to the tramlines of a strictly enforced standard, but rather those parties will be able to exchange data merely by changing the XML description of their documents. Thus in conclusion this paper shows that the use of XML within the construction industry will facilitate data, and hence systems, integration. O'Brien, M.J. 1997. Integration at the limit:construction systems, International Journal of Construction Information Technology, Vol 5, No 1,pp 89-98."

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Full text: content.pdf (154,537 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.051918) class.standards (0.032166) class.software-software (0.030798)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Doherty P

Facility knowledge environments: ebuildings, culture and technology

Abstract: "The convergence of emerging cultural analysis tools and knowledge management solutions are creating facility knowledge environments. This environment combines web-based cultural and technological solutions that are assisting corporate and government agencies with substantial life-cycle time and money savings. The ability to map the traditional corporate hierarchy with the new reality of internal cultural networks provides a roadmap that ""target markets"" internal knowledge. Experience how Silicon Valley-based high tech corporations and United States government agencies are combining these cultural maps with computer networks, portable Palm devices and the life-cycle design of facility environments, providing an enterprise the enabling mechanism toward controlling traditional corporate cost centers like operations and facilities. These initiatives are being measured through an array of metrics that will be shown. These initiatives (both private and government) began in the Fall of 1998."

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Full text: content.pdf (323,258 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.046266) class.economic (0.029334) class.environment (0.022272)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


H Jebelli, C R Ahn, T L Stentz

The Validation of Gait-Stability Metrics to Assess Construction Workers' Fall Risk

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Full text: content.pdf (517,747 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Haque M E

3-D visualization and animation techniques in structural design education

Abstract: As technology rapidly changes, the importance of educating and training diverse populations of civil/construction engineering/science students becomes more critical. With the advances in information technology over the last decade, the traditional teaching format of having an individual lecture to an audience has been supplemented, and in some cases, replaced by the rapid development and implementation of new distance learning methods. Traditional lecture format teaching methods sometimes fall short of conveying the complex analysis and design principles that need to be mastered in structural design. However when the theories are exemplified in a virtual environment with multimedia, animation, interaction, and manipulated image visualization techniques, students' conceptual understanding are enhanced. The important advantages of the virtual reality environment over other computer-based design tools, are that it enables the user to interact with the simulation to conceptualize relations that are not apparent from a less dynamic representation, and to visualize models that are difficult to understand in other ways. The interactive nature of virtual environments made it a natural extension to the 3-D graphics that enable students to visualize real life structures before actually building them. The main objective of this research was to create an innovative structural design concept visualization methodology on a web-based interactive virtual environment. The approach adopted in this research was to create the interactive learning environment using Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Languages (VRML). VRML was the primary language used to create a virtual environment and 3-D simulation, and Java applets were created for interactive analysis, design and structural behavior animation over the World Wide Web (WWW). The presented paper illustrates the design concept visualization techniques for reinforced concrete structure analysis and design.

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Full text: content.pdf (446,018 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.062502) class.education (0.055487) class.man-software (0.034286)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Helena Johnsson, Linus Malmgren, Stefan Persson

ICT support for industrial production of houses – the Swedish case

Abstract: The Swedish construction sector is currently undergoing great changes. The large costs for labour have forced the construction companies to rationalise and minimise labour intense work operations. Therefore, the current trend in construction to adopt the principles of lean production and transform it into lean construction, suits the Swed-ish way of working and the entire Swedish construction sector has caught on. A growing market is the prefabrication of building elements that are transported to site and then erected. The development has been taken so far that modular houses i.e. vol-umes/rooms are prefabricated. Companies in the prefabrication industry within construction fall between two sectors; the construction industry and the manufacturing industry. In terms of IT support the contradiction between the two sectors become evident. Software developed for the construction sector seldom provide enough detailing to suffice as a basis for industrial production, while software supporting the manufacturing industry are incapable of delivering standard construction documenta-tion. The current study presents a multiple case study where six Swedish industrial manu-facturers of timber houses were studied. The process from tender acceptance to mod-ule delivery is described. Alongside, a survey of the building sys-tem revealed that much still needs to be done in terms of documenting a building system. The results show that the ques-tion of IT support is more a question of consequent information strategies than eloquent IT tools. The pressing need for a method for documenting building systems is stressed and different methods are discussed.

Keywords: timber houses, industrial construction, lean construction, timber buildings

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Full text: content.pdf (462,549 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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J Wang, N Pradhananga, J Teizer

Automatic Fall Risk Identification Using Point Cloud Data in Construction Excavation

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Full text: content.pdf (275,949 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Kathryn Davies

IT Barometer New Zealand – A Survey of Computer Use and Attitudes in the New Zealand Construction Industry

Abstract: Building productivity in New Zealand lags other countries and industries which invest more heavily in technology. Improved productivity of the construction sector is widely touted as a significant factor in boosting the performance of the country as a whole. Application of IT has for some time been hailed as the key to implementing such productivity gains. International initiatives such as BuildSmart and Integrated Design & Delivery Solutions (IDDS) are very strongly oriented around improving construction through IT. To use their findings, and to allow informed decision making in IT investment, development and education, the New Zealand construction industry needs more information on the current state of IT use.This paper reports on a national survey undertaken in 2009/2010, based on the IT Barometer questionnaire. Elements of a 1997 New Zealand survey of construction IT use, were also incorporated to allow longitudinal analysis.The target population was the construction and facility management sector, in this case including the whole of New Zealand. A wide range of professions fall into this population, including architects (architectural designers and draughtspersons); technical consultants (engineers, quantity surveyors, project managers); contractors and sub-contractors; property owners and managers; and the materials industry (manufacturers and suppliers). The questionnaire was delivered to 388 companies, and 81 completed responses were received, a response rate of 21%.Results show that while most companies use computers, for many it is primarily a business tool for administrative functions, rather than a tool in the construction process. Use of specialist construction-focused programs has increased, however, and interest in project webs is also growing. A fundamental barrier to increased use of IT is the cost of investment, with several respondents commenting that this is due to the staff time and disruption involved and not simply the financial cost of the hardware and software required.

Keywords: survey, IT barometer, computer use, New Zealand

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Full text: content.pdf (239,646 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Koutamanis A

From design information management to virtual design prototyping

Abstract: Architectural practice is currently characterized by intensive (if not always intelligent or efficient) use of computerized tools for rather strictly defined tasks. Especially in areas like representation computerization is rapidly becoming the obvious solution, even though the efficiency and effectiveness of existing tools has yet to match the requirements of current architectural problems or the performance of related disciplines. Attempts to improve on existing representations fall under two main approaches. The first is the bottom-up development of structure and meaning in the representations used for each application area and bilateral correlation of these representations. The second is institutional classification and standardization of design information for all application areas. Both approaches aim at design information management using a central representation that integrates partial descriptions. The true potential of this representation is virtual design prototyping. The demands and possibilities of virtual design prototyping generate specific expectations for the evolution of design information management. A promising solution is the derivation of entity standardization and correlation not from conventional (apparent) domain knowledge and current computer practices but from the cognitive principles which provide a comprehensive yet compact basis for a radical re-consideration of architectural representation.

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Full text: content.pdf (347,575 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.060982) class.analysis (0.025641) class.represent (0.015089)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


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