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Ott E

The paperless building site - legal aspects in an IT-environment

Abstract: At present there is a anachronism using modern IT-Equipment for building projects: Files and data are transmitted between persons, far away from each other, within seconds. But legally binding orders or requests, what to do with this data, are transmitted in a written form on a sheet of paper by registered mail, the delivery takes days and weeks. Or CAD-files are distributed to the building participants for being able to work with them. But legally binding are only the drawings on paper. In a IT-environment the consideration of legal aspects is far behind the level of the achieved technical progress. Up to now only technical aspects have been considered when doing IT-based work. Worldwide ToCEE, funded partially by the European Commission, is the first research project dealing with IT in the construction industry which also addresses the legal aspects, especially when developing the CAD - environment further to a Concurrent Engineering Environment (CEE) using electronic transmission of documents and files. Many legal aspects arise because of using files and electronically stored data instead of paper. This leads for instance to the following problems: * How can legal actions be documented and transferred using electronic media instead of paper? ,Electronic signature" and ,Encryption" is one of the key points in this field. * How is it possible to extract and present evidence from the mass of electronically stored data? * How can defects and relative responsibilities of the parties involved later be reconstructed? * Which of the national laws and which directives of the European Union have to be taken into consideration? * How can AEC-objects be expanded with legal elements in order to be able to avoid the use of paper in a building project? ToCEE tries to give solutions for these problems. The legal part of ToCEE is managed and supervised

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Full text: content.pdf (53,948 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.105956) class.social (0.026189) class.environment (0.018255)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


P. Christiansson, K.B. Sørensen, K. G. Steffensen & K. Svidt

User driven innovative building design

Abstract: During recent years there has been an ever-increasing focus on the possibilities to change the building process to raise quality on the final building products as well as on the activities of actors involved in the building process. One reason for this interest is the new opportunities evolving due to the broad introduction of advanced information and communication technology (ICT). VICMET is a general method for user involvement in every phase of the construction process and with a unique setup for each type of user. VICMET can use already created information in the building process and emphasis that the users are the key to next level of successful building projects. VICMET defines four spaces to support the activities in a innovative/creative design process; The Contextual Inquiry Space, the Conceptual Modeling and Game Space, the Functional Building Systems (FBS) Consolidation Space, and the Solution Space. In addition to these spaces there are supporting artifacts like Idea Bank and Good Story/Best Practice bank as well as Ontology containers and access to Communities of Practice and Interest. The project has so far validated the need for enhanced methods to involve end-users of buildings in a collaborative/participative creative and innovative building design process. The AEC professionals also appreciate development, enhancement and to some extent formalization of existing methods for user involvement in the building process.

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Full text: content.pdf (590,066 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Petrovic I, Svetel I

Architectural computer-aided design systems: an example

Abstract: In 1987, a project was initiated at The IMS Design Research Workshop with the aim to study the effects of the introduction of CAAD methodology on the possible qualitative improvement of architectural design in the Institute's proprietary Building System " GIMS". The system consists of a precast prestressed concrete skeleton structure that incorporates various sub-systems, and has been applied extensively in housing and public building in Yugoslavia and many other countries. Generally speaking, all well-defined and well-structured aspects of architectural design, mainly dealing with the technical aspects and/or graphical presentations, have been successfully modelled and merged with thecomputer application and applied particularly in the detailed design phases. This is not so with the ill-structured problems and fluid situations that dominate the conceptual phase. Many decisions here depend on the subjective judgements of the designer. Knowledge-based systems have been applied in the selected domains to aid decisions based on experience and difficult to model by algorithmic methods. However, how to increase quality of design process is an open-ended question. The semantic aspects of design have not been treated to a great extent in CAAD research projects so far. The paper describes some of the project results - the CAAD methods and tools to be used as aids in conceptual design of the IMS family houses. The tools have been developed to a prototype level, with limited, but adequate testing of their performance.The present versions are applicable on the IBM personal computers.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,132,105 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.030310) class.social (0.011425) class.impact (0.011264)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Pilgrim M, Bouchlaghem D, Holmes M, Loveday D

Visualisation in building design and analysis

Abstract: "Research on data visualisation is undergoing major developments in a number of different fields. These developments include investigating ways of applying visualisation techniques and systems for more efficient manipulation, interpretation and presentation of data. Research into applied visualisation has so far taken place in the fields of Computational Fluid Dynamics, Medicine, Social Sciences, and the Environment. In the built environment field however, the potential of new visualisation technologies to enhance the presentation of performance data from simulation programmes (of the type used by engineering design consultants, for example) has remained almost unexplored. Improvements in this area would lead to a better and more efficient use of these simulation programs and would facilitate the interpretation of such output data by construction industry professionals, leading to better, more informed design decisions. This paper presents an initial study on Data Visualisation and its effective use in the thermal analysis of buildings. Much of the current data visualisation in the engineering and scientific world focuses on very large data sets produced by applications such as FEA, CFD or GIS. As such the tools developed to date are often too expensive or not appropriate for the visualisation of the relatively smaller data sets produced by thermal analysis tools. The objective of the work summarised here was to develop a method of visualising the data produced by the thermal analysis tools which would run on an average desktop PC and be easy to maintain/customise and above all present the data in an intuitive manner. A workplace observational study of several engineers performing such an analysis revealed each was spending a significant amount of time manipulating the output within commercial spreadsheet packages. Further studies revealed the most common tasks were the inspection of predicted internal conditions, location of glazed elements transmitting significant solar radiation and the identification of high internal surface temperatures. Two applications were therefore proposed. The first is designed to automatically process the output within the spreadsheet environment. The second is designed to display the solution in three dimensions to aid spatial recognition and data navigation. The spreadsheet tools were developed over a period of several months and then released to all users of the analysis tools. The 3D tool was developed over a longer period and has been subjected to small group tests. Each tool was developed using Microsoft Visual Basic making them both easy to maintain and freely available. The 3D tool reads in flat text files produced by the analysis and automatically generates a framed HTML page with an embedded 3D VRML world describing the building and its results. This study shows that each of the proposed applications significantly improves some of the attributes associated with usability, namely; learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors and satisfaction. The spreadsheet tool increased efficiency and decreased errors but offered no real satisfaction. The 3D tool offers increased satisfaction but at present does not efficiently present all of the data required. Finally, It is possible to develop low cost Data Visualisation tools to improve the overall usability of a thermal analysis tool within a built environment consultantcy."

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Full text: content.pdf (404,505 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.027102) class.environment (0.018138) class.economic (0.016196)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


R Amor & K Xu

Automated classification of A/E/C web content

Abstract: The amount of useful information available on the web for A/E/C professionals increases inexorably. Numerous search engines allow users to identify potentially useful information in this vast resource, though the majority of these systems work purely on the search terms entered by the user. This means that the web pages which are found are often not as relevant to the user's needs as would be expected. What is returned is certainly far from the promise of the semantic web where the properties of the content can be readily ascertained. To help address this issue the authors adapt the Latent Semantic Indexing algorithm to enable web pages and sites to be automatically matched to codes in a classification system. This paper discusses the issues involved in developing such a system for A/E/C as well as measuring the results in comparison to the general search engines currently available to professionals.

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Full text: content.pdf (308,116 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Rolf Büchmann-Slorup, Niclas Andersson

BIM-Based Scheduling of Construction – A Comparative Analysis of Prevailing and BIM-Based Scheduling Processes

Abstract: The implementation of BIM in construction will have far reaching implications for the organization of construction works, the roles, relations and responsibilities of the actors, business models, risk distribution, etc. At a project level, the application of BIM for management purposes facilitates the integration of management processes, e.g. integration of time and cost, which enables integrated management of labor distribution, procurement and just-in-time deliveries of building materials, on site logistics, cash-flow analysis, and other resource related aspects that connect to time scheduling. However, even though the potential of BIM is generally recognized in industry, the practical application of BIM for management purposes is still limited among contractors. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore and analyze the gap between BIM-based scheduling and the prevailing scheduling process in construction from a general contractor’s point of view. The purpose of the study is to add knowledge and understanding about to what extent BIM-based scheduling can answer to the principal shortcomings of the current scheduling process. The study of the prevailing scheduling process results in five key areas of importance; Improper supply of information, Collaboration supports validation and acceptance of the schedule, Continuous improvements in scheduling is a challenge, Current scheduling methods fail to support time and resource simulation and optimization, Challenging to overview and communicate scheduling output. The study finds that BIM-based scheduling can answer to the identified shortcomings and best practice work methods in the prevailing scheduling process. However, the full use of BIM-based scheduling is dependent on an organization that foster openness, collaboration and transparency. In addition, obtaining full advantages of BIM-based scheduling presuppose standardization of building components, diffusion of the current phase divided construction process and a shift from decentralized to centralized and collaborative resource management.

Keywords: BIM, planning and scheduling, gap analysis, 4D-modeling, implementation

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Sahlin P, Johansson C

NMF-based aspect models in stepexpress forbuilding and process plant simulation

Abstract: Automated design performance assessment through simulation will be an important aspect of future product model technology. The research in this area has so far been focused on traditional simulation tools. However, the rapid development of new structurally different tools calls for a shift of attention. New object-oriented methods of describing simulation models can and should be integrated with the product model itself. In this paper we will briefly review a current development trend in continuous simulation and present a new language for model description, Neutral Model Format (NMF), which in recent years has gained considerable attention in the field of building simulation. The possibility of joining the continued NMF development with the STEP domain is discussed and some examples of NMF based EXPRESS models are presented.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,166,713 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.020316) class.software development (0.018447) class.social (0.011887)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Samuelson O

A study of the use of IT in the construction industry

Abstract: The rapid development in the IT use in Construction during the last two decades has not been systematically studied in Sweden. A few wide-ranging surveys were carried through by Byggtjänst during the eighties. After that, our knowledge of the use of IT is partial. Big changes in the use of IT have occurred lately. For example, the use of CAD is far more frequent than a few years ago, the access to Internet and computer communication has increased, and the use of common administrative software’s that is not trade specific, has also increased greatly. This paper describes a survey method and a survey tool, to be used for broad and recurrent investigations of the IT situation in the Swedish Construction sector, and the result of the first implementation of the survey, 1997/1998. The survey provides a possibility to make comparisons over time and between countries. The survey will be performed by some other countries in parallel and can be repeated with two or three years interval. The result of the survey can be used by everyone who in some way invests in IT, those who sell, buy and use IT-tools as well as those who work with research and development. The survey is divided in two parts, one postal questionnaire and one more extensive interview questionnaire. Totally the survey is send to almost 3000 statistically chosen companies in the Construction industry, which includes contractors, architects, technical consultants, property managers, manufacturers, property developers and town planning offices. The questionnaire is divided into three main areas, where the first handles the quantity, quality and distribution of different types of IT tools in the sector. The second area will provide information about the extent, distribution and sophistication and trend of use of different types of IT tools. The last area handles the impact of IT on the companies business, such as the outcome of IT use in terms of cost, time and quality, the effect of IT on the business areas, and the attitude and expectations to IT. The result of the survey is going to be described in the paper but the result is, at this moment not finished

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Full text: content.pdf (23,221 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.047154) class.strategies (0.046885) class.environment (0.039349)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Sandakly F, Kloosterman S, Poyet P

PerDiS: persistent distributed store for virtual enterprise concurrent engineering *

Abstract: The availability of a host of software systems for the architects, the engineers and more generally for the construction practitioners has changed the business practice and modified the construction processes. Most of the project data are stored in some electronic form and most of the activities from the brief down to facility management resort to these data. The term Virtual Enterprise (VE) is more and more used to refer to this new complex information technology infrastructure. Exchange and sharing of technical data between construction project's partners, all along the project life cycle, is an important requirement for all participants in a VE. During the last few years an important effort has been undertaken in different research projects to define the software infrastructure of the future VE. While data modeling was mainly based on STEP methodology and norms, software solutions in these works were extremely varied. Studies cover distribution of data and applications, concurrent access as well as security, authentication and data ownership. Among these works we can cite those of NIIIP (and its derived works in SHIIP and SPARS) in US and European ESPRIT projects like VEGA and GENIAL. Nevertheless, the problem of sharing and concurrently accessing data by different partners during a product life cycle still far from being solved. In this paper we present a new approach to build a software infrastructure for the VE. It is based on a platform of persistent-distributed and shared memory called PerDiS. In this approach memory is shared between all applications, even located at different site or running at different times. Coherent caching of data improves performance and availability, ensures that applications have a consistent view of data, and free developers from manually managing object location. Persistence by reachability, based on a distributed garbage collector frees programmers from dealing with explicit data storage. PerDiS offers transactional mechanisms and checkpointing as well as notification when data is dirty. Applications can defines their security policy and data access right based on a task/role model. Distribution granularity can be tuned at application level and/or PerDiS platform level. This allows an easy porting of existing applications where default distribution granularity can be adopted and shift this delicate problem from programming/object level to the applications/VE level for new application development. To port STEP existing applications, we implement the STEP Data Access Interface (SDAI) on the top of PerDiS after extending its main concepts to meet the requirements of distribution, concurrent access and data security. We will show some experiment results and performance measurements. * This work is partially sponsored by PerDiS Esprit Project (22533).

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Full text: content.pdf (92,319 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.051509) class.software-software (0.010990) class.software development (0.009899)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Sarshar M, Finnemore M, Haigh R, Goulding J

Spice: is a capability maturity model applicable in the construction industry?

Abstract: Currently the UK construction industry is in search of continuous process improvement mechanisms, in order to improve quality and reduce construction time and costs. Likewise the software industry has been in search of process improvement frameworks, in the past decade. The Capability Maturity Model (CMM), developed by the Carnegie Mellon University, is one of the most widely adopted process improvement initiatives, within the software industry. Many of the basic process improvement concepts in CMM appear generic and could potentially be applied in construction. A recent research project at Salford University set itself the task of investigating if CMM is applicable in the construction industry. The project is titled SPICE (Standardised Process Improvement for Construction Enterprises). SPICE is in search of a systematic step by step process improvement framework for the construction industry. It investigates whether the CMM framework and concepts can be reused in construction. SPICE has conducted several experiments to assess the applicability of CMM to the construction industry. So far the results show that most of the basic process improvement concepts of CMM are applicable. However, the CMM framework is not applicable in its current form. Much further research is needed to integrate the appropriate process improvement concepts from CMM and other research to develop a process improvement framework for the construction industry. In general the construction industry appears a more mature industry in its shared understanding of customs and working practices. Industry standards and data are more readily available. However, major problems stem from the supply chain arrangements. Also the cost of process improvement initiatives such as CMM may be too high for the construction SMEs, on most projects. This paper discusses the SPICE experiments undertaken to date. It high lights why the CMM framework can not be applied in construction in its present form and suggests future research directions.

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Full text: content.pdf (75,285 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.013182) class.economic (0.009967) class.impact (0.009877)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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