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_. Jarský

Modelling of buildings and projects with utility assessment

Abstract: The paper describes the methodology of computer modelling of the building process of facilities and projects with utility assessment and the main principles of the integrated cost estimation, project management and quality assurance microcomputer based system developed recently. This expert system is based on quick modeling of the building process by use of typical construction technology network diagrams, which can be prepared in advance. The typical network diagrams can be modified according to the spatial conditions of a certain building and to the amount of construction works and materials. For utility assessment a vector of 10 main aspects (criteria) was created with a common measure unit and certain level of importance each. A database of construction processes was created including the aspects for utility assessment. Thanks to these features the model of the building process can be made about 50 times quicker than current project management systems and it can be used for bidding, project planning and management and utility assessment.

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Full text: content.pdf (586,023 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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A Kiviniemi, M Fischer & V Bazjanac

Multi-model Environment: Links between Objects in Different Building Models

Abstract: The current IFC specifications include relations between objects and enable representation of complex structures in a building product model. However, several research projects have addressed the problem of one integrated model by pointing out the different content and structure of different design domains. The existing software products cannot support all features of the IFC specifications, and because of the structure of AEC industry there are no potential customers for applications which would cover all different information needs. We believe that there will be several instantiated models representing a building project, and these models share some parts of the information which must be linked between the models. However, IFC specifications do not enable links between objects in separate instantiated models. This paper will (1) discuss the reasons for the separation of instantiated models, (2) present the necessary extensions of the IFC specifications, (3) include examples of the links between the requirements model and architectural design model, and (4) discuss some possibilities how to implement this link in a model server environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,237,245 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


André Borrmann, Stefanie Schraufstetter, Christoph van Treeck, Ernst Rank

An octree-based implementation of directional operators in a 3D spatial query language for building information models

Abstract: In a current research project, our group is developing a 3D Spatial Query Language that enables the spa-tial analysis of Building Information Models and the extraction of partial models that fulfil certain spatial constraints. Among other features, the spatial language includes directional operators, i.e. operators that reflect the directional relationships between 3D spatial objects, such as northOf, southOf, eastOf, westOf, above and below. The paper pre-sents in-depth definitions of the semantics of these operators by means of point set theory. It further gives an overview on the possible implementation of directional operators using a new space-partitioning data structure called slot-tree, which is derived from the objects’ octree representation. The slot-tree allows for the application of recursive algorithms that successively increase the discrete resolution of the spatial objects employed and thereby offer the possibility for a trade-off between computational effort and required accuracy.

Keywords: spatial query language, building information modelling, direction, octree

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Full text: content.pdf (1,046,272 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Anshuman S, Kumar B

Architecture and HCI: a review of trends towards an integrative approach to designing responsive space

Abstract: Recently, trends in integrating dynamism and response in Computer Aided Architectural Design have been in vogue. Attempts to attach dynamic forces to vector objects and thereby breeding amorphous elements and responsive environments are demonstrated through numerous design proposals in recent times, where design concepts are represented as active systems of forces affecting CAD objects; turning them into responsive amorphous organisms. This intention is compromised once such active forms are translated into built objects from the simulations, which largely remain inert. On the other hand, recent concepts in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and pervasive computing, have demonstrated relevance in physical objects and spaces; turning them into elements of physical interface to mediate particular human actions, aspects of communication, entertainment and aesthetic expression. While responsiveness grows as a concern amongst architects, allowing HCI features and computational schemes to become integral processes and parameters within architectural design may provide design processes with new approaches to architectural production. This may, in turn, alter the resultant architectural schemes and their behavior. This paper reviews relevant developments that contribute to such potential to inform physically responsive environments and scopes their integration in heterogeneous architectural design processes.

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Full text: content.pdf (319,733 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Bakis N, Sun M

Intelligent broker for collaborative search and retrieval of construction information on the WWW

Abstract: "CONTEXT In recent years, the construction industry began to use the World Wide Web (WWW) as an information dissemination vehicle. The amount of construction information available on the WWW is increasing exponentially, ranging from product data to technical publications, from building regulations to best practice guides. However, the task of finding the right information becomes more and more difficult. At present, users rely on two types of solutions to the information discovery and retrieval problem on the Internet, “yellow pages like information gateways” and “robot-based Internet search engines”. While acknowledging the success for both solutions so far, the authors will discuss their growing evident limitations in supporting construction specific information retrieval on the WWW. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY The aim of this study is to develop an intelligent information broker for the construction information on the Internet, which will facilitate collaboration between users for the benefit of improved information search and retrieval on the WWW network. The objectives are: ·to examine the information needs of different types of users in the construction industry; ·to capture these information needs conceptually as user profiles and information context models; ·to incorporate construction domain knowledge into the information network; ·to improve speed and accuracy of users search for construction information by developing a information network that facilitates the sharing of search results and knowledge; ·to develop a hierarchical distributed client/server architecture to enable the most efficient service both Intranet and Internet users. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The intelligent information broker described in paper has a client/server architecture based on software agents technology. It has two distinct features: (1) supporting user collaboration; (2) applying construction domain and user profile knowledge to improve the information search. Collaborative Information Searching Collaborative searching or social filtering is often the most effective method of ranking Internet documents. The developed information broker enables users with the same interest to share the results of their search and their rating of each document’s quality and relevance. Construction knowledge and User Profile The information broker server is in essence a construction oriented WWW searching engine. What distinguishes it from other searching engines is its evolving knowledge base of construction specific keyword sets and construction user profiles. Using the knowledge base, the information broker server is able to answer intelligent queries other than simple keyword matching."

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Full text: content.pdf (197,260 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.054837) class.retrieve (0.047943) class.social (0.030880)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Bento J, Azevedo J, Oliveira C S

Predicting ground otion descriptions through artificial neural networks

Abstract: "The present paper addresses the problem of predicting the description of an expected earthquake through the associated ground motion record that would be recorded at a given site. For that purpose, a number of previous ground motion records referring to 100 different earthquakes occurring within a reasonably small geographic area (Northern California) have been acquired and processed in order to extract some of the features that could describe them more synthetically than the full records. The attributes thus generated were used to train a feedforward network in order to map them into what can be called higher level descriptors of each earthquake, such as the magnitude or the peak accelerations, for example. Once such mapping is obtained, one may infer a number of attributes that would allow the artificial generation of the accelerograms corresponding to ""expected earthquakes"" described resorting to those higher level descriptors"

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Full text: content.pdf (408,837 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.031791)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Bingfei Zhang and Zhenhua Zhu

Vision-Based Detection of Falls at Flat Level Surfaces

Abstract: Workers might experience fall accidents even when they are working at flat level surfaces. These accidents plus other types of fall accidents have been reported as one of the major causes for worker-related fatalities and injuries. Currently, it becomes common to set up video cameras to monitor working environments. The video cameras provide an alternative to detect fall accidents. The objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of detecting fall accidents of workers with video. The preliminary focus is put on the fall detection under one single monocular camera. A novel fall detection method is proposed. Under the method, workers in the videos captured by the video cameras are first detected and tracked. Their pose and shape related features are then extracted. Given a set of features, an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier is further trained to automatically determine whether a fall happens. The method has been tested and the detection precision and recall were used to evaluate the method. The test results with high detection precision and recall indicated the method effectiveness. Also, the lessons and findings from this research are expected to build a solid foundation to create a vision-based fall detection solution for safety engineers.

Keywords: Fall Detection, Video Processing, Computer Vision, Safety Management

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0198

Full text: content.pdf (1,275,832 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Bjork B C

The impact of electronic document management on construction information management

Abstract: This paper deals with the introduction of electronic document management (EDM) technology in the construction industry, and our current research knowledge about this topic. EDM has the potential to enhance the information management in construction projects considerably, without radical changes to current practice. Over the past fifteen years this topic has been overshadowed by building product modelling in the construction IT research world, but at present EDM is quickly being introduced in practice, in particular in bigger projects. Often this is done in the form of third party ASP services available over the World Wide Web. In the paper a typology of research questions and methods is presented, which can be used to position the individual research efforts which are surveyed in the paper. Questions dealt with include: What features should EMD systems have? How much are they used? Are there benefits from use and how should these be measured? What are the barriers to wide-spread adoption? Which technical questions need to be solved? Is there scope for standardisation? How will the market for such systems evolve?

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Full text: content.pdf (84,211 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.036219) class.environment (0.033025) class.impact (0.032159)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Björk B-C

Document management - a key IT technology for the construction industry

Abstract: The IT infrastructure of today offers excellent opportunities for the construction industry to workmore efficiently by managing its documents in a digital form on the Internet. Nevertheless IT has sofar had more effect on the production of documents than on their efficient transfer and retrieval. Inthis paper the historical developments in construction computing over the last decades are outlined;how technical innovations such as photocopying, the fax, the personal computer, local areanetworks and finally the Internet have effected the production, storage, duplication and transfer ofinformation. Key features in current web based document systems are shortly described, withspecial emphasis on alternative search methods such as hierarchical folders or meta datarepositories. The integration of document management systems with other Internet based ASPservicesin vertical construction industry portals is also discussed. The paper finishes by outliningsome current trends, which seem to be leading towards the survival of a few dominant systems.

Keywords: Construction, document management, Internet, ASP

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Full text: content.pdf (361,292 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Bond A J

An object-oriented program for retaining wall design

Abstract: The paper describes the underlying architecture of an object-oriented computer program for embedded retaining wall design. The requirements of different codes of practice are implemented in a series of classes derived from an abstract base class Designstandard. Two intermediate classes define the particular features of limit-state and working-stress design standards. Each concrete class in the hierarchy represents a single code of practice. The paper explains how the program routes its calculations to the relevant derived class.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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