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Aizhu Ren, Chi Chen, Liang Zou, and Fangqin Tang

A Virtual Reality-Based System For Fire Fighting And Emergency Response

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Chorier Julien, Mangin Jean-Claude

A Decision Making Method For Fire Safety Level Assessment In Buildings

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Frye M J, Olynick D M, Pinkney R B

Development of an expert system for the fire protection requirements of the national building code of Canada

Abstract: In Canada, the standard for fire safety for new buildings, reconstruction of buildings including alterations and additions, and buildings involving a change in occupancy, is established in Part 3, Use andOccupancy, of the National Building Code of Canada. While the fire protection requirements contained in this section of the Code are very explicit, inexperienced or infrequent users of the Code often find it confusing and overwhelming because of the number of requirements which apply or seem to apply to a given building. An experienced code user or expert understands what information is relevant and will generally use a systematic process to determine the fire protection requirements that are applicable. Because the human approach to fire protection analysis is, in fact, systematic and logically sequential, and because the knowledge contained in codes and standards is largely in the form ofrules, an expert system can be developed to effectively simulate human competence in fire protective design. This paper describes the development of a user-friendly expert system that closely mimics the human approach used in the fire protection analysis of those buildings regulated by Part 3, Use and Occupancy of the National Building Code of Canada. The principal fire protection requirements of the Code have been incorporated into the expert system. The resulting expert system will be useful to the experienced code user as a code assistant, and to theinexperienced or infrequent code user who requires code information when no expert is available.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,290,837 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.097966) class.analysis (0.040004) class.legal (0.022945)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


G. Cagdas

Agent-Based Modeling of User Movements: A Case Study in a Museum Building

Abstract: This study aims to analyze relationships of users and spatial configurations using agent-based simulation systems under certain circumstances in a virtual environment with agents that represent users of a museum building. Multi-agent simulation methods are used to study patterns of user movements. Today, it is feasible to simulate the movement patterns of human societies at catastrophes like fire and earthquake within the buildings. Exposing the dynamics of user-space relationships will help both architectural students and professionals in practice, to observe and solve design problems in design process of museums.

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Full text: content.pdf (955,988 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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J Shi, P Liu

An Agent-Based Evacuation Model to Support Fire Safety Design Based on an Integrated 3D GIS and BIM Platform

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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K Schatz, U Rüppel

Visualization of a Fire Risk Index Method with Combined Deferred Maintenance Cost Estimation within a BIM Environment

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Full text: content.pdf (281,126 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Koch C,König M,Neges M,Abramovici M

Performance study on natural marker detection for augmented reality supported facility maintenance

Abstract: The operation and maintenance phase is the longest and most expensive life-cycle period of building facilities. Operators need to perform activities to provide a comfortable living and working environment and to upkeep equipment to prevent functionality failures. For that purpose they manually browse, sort and select dispersed and unformatted facility information before actually going on the site. Although some software tools have been introduced they still spent 50% of the on-site work on inspection target localization and navigation. To improve these manual, time consuming and tedious procedures, the authors previously presented a framework that uses BIM-based Augmented Reality (AR) to support facility maintenance tasks. The proposed workflow contains AR supported activities, namely AR-based indoor navigation and AR-based maintenance instructions. An inherent problem of AR is marker definition and detection. As introduced, indoor natural markers such as exit signs, fire extinguisher location signs, and appliances’ labels were identified to be suitable for both navigation and maintenance instructions. However, small markers, changing lighting conditions, low detection frame rates and accuracies might prevent the proposed approach from being practical. In this paper the performance of natural marker detection will be evaluated under different configurations, varying marker types, marker sizes, camera resolutions, and lighting conditions. The detection performance will be measured using a pre-defined metric incorporating detection accuracy, tracking quality, frame rates, and robustness. The result will be a set of recommendations on what configurations are most suitable and practical within the given framework.

Keywords: Augmented Reality,Facility Maintenance,Natural Markers,Building Information Modeling,Detection Performance

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Full text: content.pdf (1,537,786 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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M Laasonen, M Heinisuo, J Outinen, E Lehtimäki, D Pada

Planning environments of structures in fire

Abstract: The design of structures in fire has usually been based on ISO standard fires. For higher quality design the real situation should be analysed more carefully. This would improve the safety level of the structures and in many cases help avoid redundant fire protections. The method discussed in this paper is the natural fire design documented by [DIFISEK, 2005] where the gas temperatures are based on simulations of realistic natural fires. Fire simulations in this study are done using the FDS program by NIST. The method follows the European standard [EN, 2005] but the design process is still complex. The same building parts should perform smoothly in four different tasks: product modeling, fire simulation, heat transfer from gas to structures, and structural analysis. The utilization of building information models as initial data of fire simulation has been described e.g. in [Dimyadi et al., 2007] and in [Heinisuo et al., 2009]. This paper discusses how different kinds of structural analysis programs can be integrated to the design process and what requirements those programs set for data transfer. The final goal of the research is practical structural design for entire buildings in fire. In this phase, especially fire simulations need computation time but, for example, accurate and continuum finite element models will not be used for the entire building because of the laborious generation and analysis of the model. The most suitable solutions found so far include structural analysis programs where the members can be modeled as one-dimensional elements, beam elements. The heat transfer from gas to members is solved in the analysis program by applying Eurocode rules. At present, no standard data transfer form used in building projects includes all the entity data needed in these tasks. Very different data are needed in the analysis than, for example, in using continuum models for members.

Keywords: BIM, natural fire design, steel structures

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Full text: content.pdf (375,154 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Maissa1 S, Frachet J P, Lombardo1 J C, Bourdeau1 M, Soubra1 S

Regulation checking in a virtual building

Abstract: Use of virtual buildings is a good way to get a concrete idea about future projects. It may allow avoiding errors discovered after the construction start and thus expensive to correct. In the near future, virtual environments should allow taking into account the whole constraints linked to the construction project (e.g. architectural, technical, regulations, financial, etc.). This is the purpose of CSTB's Enriched Virtual Environments project (EVE), which aims to offer users the possibility to couple 3D representation of the built environment with physical simulations (thermal, acoustic, etc.) within a Virtual Building. Moreover, EVE integrates a code compliance checking module, which provides users an easy and quick code compliance access. This access to regulation documents enables the user to query in an intuitive way the regulation database that applies to his project, and more particularly according to his interest (fire security, accessibility, etc.). This paper focuses on possible solutions to manage this last issue, which rely on the building data structure and the database containing French building code compliance and documents. The main objective for this work is to conceive a matching to bind these two concepts. Data structure is based on the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), and some tools have been implemented upon these classes, to allow code compliance access. The French regulation database is the CD-REEF one.

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Full text: content.pdf (735,399 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.055113) class.represent (0.025817) class.synthesis (0.024690)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Meissner U F, Rueppel U, Greb S, Theiss M

Network-based co-operation processes for fire protection planning

Abstract: To avoid personal and property damages a building has to be planned in accordance with the valid fire protection guidelines. Also with respect to structural alterations the fire protection is a dominant aspect. In order to guarantee the protection objectives in all planning phases, the planning information has to be provided to all designers. Each designer supplies planning information which must be incorporated and considered by other designers. In every building project a new composition of planning partners, processing the distributed information, has to be established. The research project, presented in this contribution, supports the fire protection oriented collaboration between planning partners through the creation of a co-operation network on the basis of software agents. A networkbased co-operation platform to support the process-oriented planning activities has been developed. With regard to the dynamical communication between planning participants a system design with Petri-Nets is presented for process modeling. In addition, the verification of planning steps is enabled by decentralized communication methods in the network. In accordance with their characteristics software agents are well qualified to support the co-operative planning in this network-based environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (469,445 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


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