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A decision support system for building refurbishment design

Abstract: "Refurbishment work in the EC currently accounts for more than one-third of the total construction output. This market is expected to grow stronger with the progressive ageing of buildings and the environment impetus to retain buildings. A further dimension is the need to adapt buildings for a greying population. There are important differences between refurbishment and new construction works. The existing building constraints the design solutions, construction technologies and work methods. Mechanisation, planning, and efficient organisation of refurbishment work is difficult, due to the small, labour intensive, and ad hoc, dynamic nature of the work. Also due to the relatively small scale of refurbishment projects, there have been no opportunities for standardisation and the applications of prefabrication and industrialisation are limited. Today, larger sized contractors are rapidly moving into the refurbishment market, in response to the shrinking new-build market and the higher technological demands of large scale refurbishment projects. The EC funded Brite Euram project 4670 is titled ‘Decision Support Systems for Building Refurbishment.’ This project has started in August 1998 and will finish in July 2001. Its objective is to develop a socio-technological-commercial framework and corresponding Decision Support Systems (DSSs) for housing refurbishment, to achieve: ? refurbishments which are more focused on user requirements; ? refurbishment designs which take into account the constraints of the existing building structure; ? increased incorporation of industrialised systems and components; ? organisational procedures and production technologies that recognise the unique nature of refurbishment work. The project is divided into three tasks. Task one aims at developing a DSS for the determination of the refurbishment demand and ballpark costs. Task two involves the development of a DSS for refurbishment design. Task three will result in a DSS for refurbishment process planning and control. This paper describes the approach followed for the ongoing development in task two, the DSS for refurbishment design. The main objectives of this task are to provide decision support at the project level. It will develop a database of layouts of representative existing housing estates and a database of preferred refurbishment layouts for these representative existing housing estates. Another database will be developed containing information on building systems and components that are relevant for the refurbishment process. Task two will establish a protocol for refurbishment design support. This protocol, which is implemented in a decision support information system, involves a number of steps that aid the user in selecting an appropriate housing layout and building systems and components that meet the user’s requirements. These steps involve the evaluation of a the user’s refurbishment demands and selection of a matching representative existing housing layout. Based on further dialog with the system, a preferred refurbishment layout is selected, which in turn is used as the basis for the selection of building systems and components that meet the performance requirements as stated by the user. The paper describes the methodology that is implemented in the system for retrieving performance requirements from the user, and the approaches for matching these to the stock of existing and preferred housing layouts available in the system’s database. The system is characterised by a flexible architecture of both the databases and the user interface, which results in a scalable system that allows the expansion of the databases with new graphical layouts and building systems and components, as well as the addition of new kinds of performance requirements. The system is implemented as an Internet application, which allows the database to be maintained centrally and facilitates world wide access to the system. The system’s implementation involves the combination of graphical and non-graphical data that can be queried and matched with only typical Internet browsing software installed at the client-side."

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Full text: content.pdf (465,782 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.029035) class.environment (0.012122) class.impact (0.010657)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


AD Dawson & N Pham

Process Complexity and Cultural Baggage - Barriers to Change

Abstract: Recent research at Deakin University in Australia has focused on developing a highly detailed understanding of current organisational interactions and information flows in the construction industry. This is leading to the development of a detailed process model which is being tested against a field study construction project. The field study reveals highly complex information flows and interdependencies between stakeholders such as designers, project managers, clients, contractors, subcontractors and suppliers. This, combined with the results from a recent project identifying inhibitors to the take up of IT in the construction industry undertaken by the IAI-Australasian Chapter allow conclusions to be drawn as to whether the current construction industry structure lends itself to increased levels of ICT or whether fundamental cultural changes are required before further beneficial ICT implementation is able to be achieved.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,382,166 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Andersson N

Re-engineering of the project planning processstrategic implementation of project management software

Abstract: This paper presents a model for re-engineering of the project planning process frombeing manually performed to be computer supported. The primary objective of thisstudy is to facilitate the implementation of project management software packages inorder to make use of the full potential of the software. Earlier studies show that thecurrent use of computer supported planning among project managers of buildingprojects is focused on print-out of schedules and the use of more advanced planningfunctions is limited. This study shows that only education and support is notsufficiently for project managers to adopt computer supported planning. Successfulimplementation of project management software also requires clear objectives of thecomputer supported planning and specified requirements and requisite level ofplanning details. This paper presents an approach on a strategic implementation ofcomputer supported project planning on basis of the surplus values related to the useof project management software. The results are based upon a case study at one ofSweden's largest construction companies.

Keywords: Computer support, project management, project managers, project planning,scheduling, software implementation, software support, surplus value.

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Full text: content.pdf (61,829 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Arif A, Karam A

Architectural Practices and Their Use of IT in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

Abstract: The application of Information Technologies (IT) is moving forward with tremendous speed affecting all industries and professions; our building profession is no exception. To identify the extent of IT application in the building construction context of South Africa, a survey was conducted in the year 2000; it included IT as one of the many topics investigated. The Western Cape Province (WCP) was selected as the first subject of the ambitious national survey. The survey provides insight into the particular patterns in IT applications within the local architectural industry of the WCP and tracks its implications in terms of human resources and technical needs. This research paper presents a focused perspective of the findings of the survey on the local practices; their general profile, their computer technology profiles, their particular applications of technology and finally the effect of computer use on the profitability and cost reduction of their practices. The data presented in this paper highlights the high numbers of small-sized offices as a general characteristic of the local profile. Although a good percentage of these small offices seem to have a high need and use for IT applications, larger-sized offices are totally computerised and are all networked as well. The use of computers is clearly concentrated in three areas: administration, communication in addition to the core activity of construction drawings production. The survey reveals a major dependency on computer-aided-design (CAD) software where its use extends, in most cases, to clients' presentations. This dependency makes high demands on staff and principals' literacy and on the high competency levels needed for their use of technology. On the financial effect of IT use, many practices are not fully convinced that there is an actual reduction in their running costs. The exception occurs in the case of practices run by principals who use computers themselves; they have a positive perception of the financial benefits of technology. This research establishes a baseline from which to scale the progress in the use and application of IT in the architectural profession, being a key player in the construction industry. It serves as a measure for future surveys of the other provinces. It is hoped that it provides a foundation for many assumptions made by practitioners, technologists, consultants and educators of this field.

Keywords: Architecture - South Africa, Architectural Practices, Building Construction, Computer-Aided-Design (CAD), Survey - Cape Town

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/2 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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B de Vries

Building management simulation center

Abstract: Introduction to the BMSC In the Building Management Simulation Center new and experienced construction managers are trained. The center is unique because of the use of a virtual building site that can be inspected by the trainees. The actual status of the building and of the building materials and equipment on the building site is simulated by the system dependent on the trainee’s actions. The main part of the center is the simulation hall. Here, ten cabins are located with a view on a large parabolic projection screen. The trainee has to execute tasks in the cabin in an environment that is familiar to him/her. On the projection screen the building under construction can be viewed and it can be inspected by navigation through the full-scale model. Similar VR based training systems can be found in the aircraft industry, the automotive industry [http://www.ttsl.co.uk/home.htm] en de shipbuilding industry [http://thor.sv.vt.edu/crane/]. These examples inspired the initiators of the BMSC to investigate if the same methodology could be used in the building industry. Building site activity patterns Construction process simulation research has mainly been focused on the development of a construction planning analysis tool [e.g. V.R. Kamat, J.C. Martinez in proceedings of CIT2000]. In the BMSC though, interaction between the construction manager and the building on the building site will steer the construction process simulation. Investigations on the building site and discussions with experienced construction managers learned that they work in fixed patterns. A pattern consisting of a list of activities is called a transition type. These transition types describe all kinds of procedures that a construction manager performs to fulfill a specific tasks (e.g. ordering of new material). Transition types also take into account actions required to perform corrections beforehand or afterwards. For a specific case the transitions were entered into the system. The transitions were deduced from the construction managers that had worked on that building project when it was actually built. For the training purposes every possible situation the trainee can end up with has to be covered by the transitions. The interactive 3D training system The trainee’s actions are logged by a kind of Electronic Data Management System. All documents that are created during a training session are stored in the system. The system itself also contains project information that can be consulted. Finally the system offers an interface to communicate with the other participants in the project. After the training session that consists of the execution of a set of tasks, the system has stored all actions, their order and the produced documents. These data are compared with the predefined transitions for the case that was used. The document contents are compared with the predefined activity results. With this method it is easy to detect if the trainee missed certain activities in a transition and if the information is consistent. Finally, a visual feedback can be created be regeneration the 3D model in the VR environment in accordance with the trainee’s actions. The 3D model will show has far the building could have been built successfully. The learning effect After the training session the trainee will be confronted with the (possible) mismatch between has own actions and the preferred actions following from the predefined transitions. Evidently this is discussed during the evaluation after the training. Recognition of the right transition by the trainee to solve a specific task is considered one of the major learning effects of a BMSC training. Paper Outline In the paper the software architecture of the system will be explained. The activity patterns and the management of the system are discussed in more detail. A layout of the building where the BMSC is hosted is presented. Finally some examples of the training sessions will illustrate how the BMSC operates in practice and an overview will be presented of the first experiences.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,053,282 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.027827) class.man-software (0.018630) class.communication (0.013308)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


B Otjacques & F Feltz

Characterizing the visualization techniques of project-related interactions

Abstract: All construction projects can be considered as cooperative undertakings. Their strategic management as well as the daily operations causes numerous interactions to occur, either among persons or among persons and resources. These interactions have been studied from various viewpoints but few researchers have focused on their visualization. The graphical representation of the cooperation is however a powerful tool to help the project participants to get a correct understanding of the situation. This paper proposes thus a structuring framework (IVF - Interaction Visualization Framework) of the visualization techniques used to display such interactions. Three basic axes of classification are used to structure the study. Which objects are visualized? Why are they visualized? How are they visualized? For each axis, several properties have been identified and the admitted values have been specified. This work can be considered as a first step towards a structured view of the 'visualization of cooperation' domain.

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Full text: content.pdf (472,033 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Bester A, Huhnt W

Tendering process model for application of reliability analysis

Abstract: Construction data is a useful source of information for construction project management. The sources of data for various aspects of construction management is, in addition to the current project information and the engineer’s professional experience, also historical data from previous projects. An example of the use of historical cost data is in the application of the Limit State Cost Function (LSCF) model to perform construction project risk modelling. The LSCF-method was developed for assisting the consulting civil engineer to make a quantifiable judgement in the selection of a project tender. It is based on the reliability of estimating the outcome of the cost for a specific tender in terms of the risks involved in a project, by using construction cost data. The way in which this data have been captured has shown deficiencies which limits the utility of it if the scope of the data captured and the processes of both capturing and applying the results are not carefully planned. The application of the data can therefore not be seen without the process in which it is generated. The process is characterised by the generation and processing of data by the co-operation of several groups of persons at the different stages of the project. These groups of persons execute different tasks, for which appropriate subsets of information at different levels of detail are needed. The paper is focused on the specific requirements that have to be supported to model such processes. Tools are presented to support the specification of the process model. These tools enable the investigation of the model with respect to completeness and correctness. In addition, the tools support the implementation of an information system that is used in the execution of tasks during the tender process.

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Full text: content.pdf (234,503 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.052641) class.economic (0.016156) class.impact (0.011672)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bharat D

Building industry and the agents of change

Abstract: The infornmtion technology and the changes it brings about are recent and evolving phenomena. In the absence of established historical perspectives, many previous studies have focused on the information technology issues that are of only immediate concern to the building industry and thus provide only limited perspectives. In this paper, we suggest that it is an appropriate time to look beyond the technological bottlenecks such as incompatibility of software or hardware, prohibitive resource investments, and others that are often cited as the reasons impeding applications of the information technology in the building industry. With the new developments taking place in the information technology, the gradual and paced changes in the building industry organizations will be rephced by changes with a bigger scope and a higher momentum. These changes will not result in simply a new breed of professionals who become another discrete part of the web comprising the building industry; they will affect the very web defining the building industry. Additionally, the technological developments that will bring about such changes are presently being carried out by forces external to the building irtdustty thus further obscuring their potential impacts. Five key information technology advances are submitted here as the agents of significant change in future: networks, groupware, robotics, flexible manufacturing, and microprocessor embedded building components. It is argued that the building industry needs to expand the debate about the role of the information technology by taking account of developments which presently lie outside its immediate and traditional concern. The paper initiates this discussion and describes a number of likely impacts of the new technology on the educational, professional and organizational spheres in the building industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,994,845 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.050231) class.environment (0.047416) class.man-man (0.024687)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Blanca Quintana, Samuel A. Prieto, Antonio Adan and Frédéric Bosché

Scan-To-BIM for Small Building Components

Abstract: Scan-to-BIM works have so far mainly focused on 'structural' components such as floors, ceiling, walls (with doors and windows). But, the control of new facilities and the production of their corresponding as-is BIM models requires the identification and inspection of numerous other building components and objects, e.g. MEP components such as plugs, switches, ducts, and signs. In this paper, we present a novel 6D-based (XYZ + RGB) approach that processes dense coloured 3D points provided by terrestrial laser scanners to recognize such smaller objects that are commonly located on walls. This paper focuses on the recognition of objects such as sockets, switches, signs, and extinguishers. After segmenting the point clouds corresponding to the walls of a building, a set of candidate objects are detected independently in the colour and geometric spaces, and a consensus procedure integrates both results to infer recognition. The method has been tested on real indoors yielding promising results.

Keywords: Object Recognition, Scan-To-BIM, Automatic BIM, 3D Data Processing

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0139

Full text: content.pdf (1,613,364 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Earl G

Post occupancy evaluation planning and implementation

Abstract: The demands of property clients are becoming focused on the needs for post occupancy satisfaction - short, medium and long term. These client demands need to be planned and succesfully implemented into the pruperty development life cycle as a normal course of adon rather than pressure point reaction. Property development professionals need to undertake systematic post occupancy evaluations on a wide rage of projects and track the expectations of clients and users alike. These expectations and past failures to the expectations need exposure to allow rectification in future projects. In order to track the post occupancy evaluations and the consequences it is necessary to develop an integrated international data base which provides anticipated results short and long term for implementation on future projects. This paper outlines the proposals for a global post occupancy evaluation computer model and the anticipated outcomes and benefits.

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Full text: content.pdf (550,249 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.021427) class.roadmaps (0.014144) class.impact (0.013163)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


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