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Aalami F, Fischer M

Joint product and process model elaboration based on construction method models

Abstract: In practice, construction planners need to plan and replan projects at several levels of detail and would like create 4D visualizations to communicate construction schedules. The current construction planning and scheduling process is , however, still largely manual and time-consuming, making it difficult to maintain an appropriate and realistic set of plans, schedules, and 4D visualizations throughout design and construction. Researchers have demonstrated the usefulness of a product model with a decomposition hierarchy and supported-by relationships between project components to generate a construction process model automatically. The product model's decomposition hierarchy supports the generation of hierarchical activities, and the supported-by relationships between components enable automated reasoning. However, the resulting process model is typically not a usable or realistic construction schedule, since activities can only be sequenced if elaborated to the same level of detail, and component-based activity elaboration is limited to the original product model. This paper discusses how a customizable and general representation of construction method models supports the transformation of a design-centric product model into a production-centric view. A formalized hierarchical construction planning process forms the basis of this translation process. The planning process is broken down into method-driven elaboration and hierarchical planning and scheduling steps. User-defined and user-selected construction method models drive the elaboration process by supplying the necessary activity and component elaboration knowledge. The product model undergoes a transformation from a design-centric decomposition to a production-centric decomposition. The elaborated activities are sequenced based on constraints that are passed on to the activities from their construction methods. The output of the planning process is a 4D production model. A 4D production model is a linked representation of an elaborated product and process models. A 4D production model is a flexible representation of the construction process that can support many views for communication and evaluation, e.g., 4D visualization, CPM-network, barchart, or resource histograms.

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Full text: content.pdf (289,626 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.035804) class.processing (0.027755) class.communication (0.018300)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansson P, Modin J

Conceptual models for communicating knowledge in the building industry - implementation of the cube system

Abstract: This paper presents the conceptual models that emerged during the development of the Cube demonstrator in the Cube project at Lund University in Sweden. The Cube project was led by the Department of Construction Management with the systems development being done by the authors, at the KBS-Media Lab of the Department of Structural Engineering. The paper presents the underlying conceptual models for knowledge transfer used in the Cube system. In the Cube system the formalized rules do not apply to the knowledge itself but rather to the way it is conveyed. The goal for these models is to assist a growth of building knowledge that is driven from the building site and the daily situations there. It is showed how knowledge chunks are labeled and stored in answer boxes specific for each project or building site. Existing classification systems, BSAB, are implemented together with a dynamic limited vocabulary and task-oriented headings to form an efficient knowledge communication and retrieval system.

Keywords: knowledge capture; taxonomies; multimedia; knowledge transfer; database

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansson P

Properties of the virtual building

Abstract: The paper discusses properties of future digital Virtual Buildings from the client, design, construction and operation and maintenance perspectives. In this context the author defines a Virtual Building as "a formalized digital description of an existing or planned building which can be used to fully simulate and communicate the behavior of the real building in its expected contexts".The paper focuses on: (1) requirements formulations of future Virtual Building models, (2) the necessity and possibilities to build redundant, overlapping descriptions of buildings and (3) why and how formal temporal building process properties may be included in the descriptions. The author believes that it is not possible or desirable to create a single non-redundant model to represent a building from concept to demolition. In this discussion an account is also taken of the influences of meta level information models, dependencies between multimedia presentation and application model views, the introduction of platformindependent Internet-based solutions, and the IT-support tools in future intelligent and responsive buildings.

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Full text: content.pdf (312,166 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.025760) class.communication (0.024143) class.roadmaps (0.018838)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Engy Serag, Hesham Osman, Moustafa Ghanem

Semantic Detection of Risks and Conflicts in Construction Contracts

Abstract: Various problems facing construction contract administrators can be linked back to lack of understanding, misinterpretation and conflicts among contract clauses. Lack of adequate time to analyze contracts during the biding stage results in contractors entering into contracts without sufficient analysis of contractual risks. Advances in the fields of semantic information extraction, text mining and natural language processing create opportunities for developing semi-automated systems for detection of risks and conflicts in construction contracts. This paper presents a framework for semi-automated detection of risks and conflicts in FIDIC contracts. The system is comprised of four main components: 1) A Contract Ontology acts as the core knowledge repository of the system. The ontology contains a formalized representation of FIDIC general conditions and relevant stipulations from legal code, 2) Text mining/NLP module provides semi-automatic parsing tools for supplementary conditions of construction contracts and provide concept / relationship matching in tandem with the ontology, 3) Problematic Clause Database contains examples of high-risk and ambiguous clauses from previous projects and, 4) Logic Reasoners undertake the detection of high risk and conflicting clauses will take place. The paper presents examples of potential ambiguity and conflicts in construction contracts and showcases how the system can be used to semi-automated the detection process.

Keywords: Contract Management, Semantic Systems, Ontologies, Text Mining

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Fischer M, Aalami F

Model-B ased constructibility analysis: the moca system

Abstract: The recent years have seen the development of several knowledge-based scheduling systems that facilitate the integration of design information with the generation of construction schedules. They have demonstrated a remarkable progress over manual planning systems. For example, these systems are able to generate a set of activities from a project description and to reason about support and enclosure information to determine the sequencing of activities. In a research project sponsored by the Center of Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE) at Stanford University, we extended the idea behind these planning and scheduling systems by adding detailed models of construction methods. Such knowledge is needed in model-based form to enhance the practicality of the schedules that are generated, and to overcome some of the limitations of heuristic systems. While the use of product models to represent design information has been well documented over the last few years, the formalization and implementation of detailed models of construction methods still represents a major challenge and opportunity. When interacting with a product model, such construction method models are able to generate construction schedules and cost estimates almost instantaneously. This will enable project participants to explore more alternatives to a greater level of detail in less time. This will lead to projects that are more constructible than some of today's projects. This in turn will lead to a reduced total delivery time and cost for constructed facilities. This paper describes the current status of the MOCA (Model-based Constructibility Analysis) system which uses formalized construction method models to automate the generation of schedules based on product models.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,222,940 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.012332) class.economic (0.009112) class.analysis (0.007609)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


I. A. Mutis

Semantic tags for collaboration in construction formalized within a social network framework

Abstract: As construction projects require tracking an ever-increasing number of parameters to operate with suppliers, vendors, and the entire organization of a construction firm, particularly in exchanging, sharing, and integrating information, a semantically rich form to represent information is required. Semantic tags for interoperable construction workflows represent a novel approach to support the exchanging, sharing, and integrating of information. This approach proposes a semantic main form of representation of construction concepts to assist in the communication between actors. The proposed approach is based on the notion of the social network framework. The assumption is that construction actors’ relationships in communicating information can be expressed by patterns of relationships defined in a social network structure. Semantic tags leverage the communication of information within the dynamic social network grid by employing a concept-description that contains metadata. The purpose is to semantically enrich the product or project data. It is expected that the inclusion of additional semantics will overcome inefficiencies within interoperability.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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J Zeb,T Froese, D Vanier

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PROCESS MATURITY MODEL IN THE DOMAIN OF INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT

Abstract: As information systems continue to expand their reach into the work process of the construction industry, communication and information exchange that traditionally occurs between humans is increasingly being replaced with automated or semi-automated information exchange between computer systems. These computer-based communications must be more formally defined and designed than the human-based communications that they replace. We are researching techniques to formally represent design information transactions within the construction industry. As part of this work, we are interested in assessing the degree to which information exchange processes are formalized and managed. This paper focuses on the development and application of an Infrastructure Management-Process Maturity Model (IM-PMM) to benchmark the degree of formalization of work and communication processes in the infrastructure management field. The proposed IM-PMM evolved through reviewing a set of relevant maturity models. It uses a scale of five levels of process maturity and is based on three core dimensions (process, actor role, and information definition) to benchmark work processes, plus one dimension (message definition) to benchmark communication processes. The proposed IM-PMM has been applied in the domain of infrastructure management and attempts to benchmark only the asset inventory and condition assessment reporting processes using researcher-administered structured interview approach. From the results of the survey, it is concluded that communication processes in the area of infrastructure management are typically accomplished in an ad hoc (undefined and unstructured) manner, emphasizing the need for improvement if advanced information systems are to be deployed to support efficient management of infrastructure systems.

Keywords: Process Maturity Model, Benchmark, Maturity Stage, Process Formalism, Transaction, Message, Actor-Role, Asset Infrastructure Management, Asset Inventory Management, Asset Condition Assessment

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Jin Zhu, Ali Mostafavi and Jennifer Whyte

Towards Systems Integration Theory in Megaprojects: A System-of-Systems Framework

Abstract: Megaprojects are large-scale, complex projects composed of various interconnected constituents. Recent research suggests that effective systems integration is one of the major challenges affecting the success of their delivery and that we hence need new taxonomies to characterise and evaluate integration in this context. This paper draws on and contributes to a growing literature on systems integration in megaprojects by proposing a formalized framework for characterization and evaluation of integration between constituents of megaprojects. In this study, megaprojects are conceptualized as systems-of-systems (SoSs). Based on this conceptualization, a SoS framework towards a systems integration theory in megaproject SoSs is proposed. The proposed framework includes two aspects. The first articulates the different dimensions of systems integration. It identifies the types of integration; focuses of integration; integration at different levels; and integration in different phases in megaproject SoSs. The second aspect is related to the indicators of systems integration. Seven indicators are discussed for evaluating the degree of integration in megaprojects. The proposed SoS framework provides a theoretical basis for future research on systems integration in megaprojects and can be used as a guide for developing corresponding empirical studies.

Keywords: Megaprojects, Systems Integration, System-Of-Systems

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0251

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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K K Han, M Golparvar-Fard

Multi-Sample Image-Based Material Recognition and Formalized Sequencing Knowledge for Operation-Level Construction Progress Monitoring

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Nora El-Gohary

Model-Based Automated Value Analysis of Building Projects

Abstract: Axiology is a theory about values and value measurement. Axiology addresses two key questions: 1) What are the ‘things’ that we value? (What is of worth, merit, utility, or importance?) and 2) How to measure the value of the ‘things’ that we value? Axiology-based construction is defined in this paper as a theoretical-based approach to the planning, design, and construction of buildings and infrastructure systems that accounts for human (clients, stakeholders, etc.) values, in a formalized and holistic way. In this context, ‘value’ is viewed as a complex concept that carries rich and varied meaning depending on the type of value being considered (economic, environmental, social, technological, ideological, etc.) and the assessor of the value. This paper focuses on introducing the theory and method of axiology-based construction of building projects. The approach for axiology-based building construction entails: 1) developing a formal (computer-understandable) axiology for building projects and 2) integrating the axiological model with the building model (the Building Information Model (BIM)). The formal representation, along with the integration with BIM, will facilitate the automation of the value analysis process. The paper starts by discussing the need for formalized and comprehensive solutions for value analysis and follows by introducing axiology in the context of building value representation and measurement. Then, the paper presents a preliminary axiological model for building projects. Finally, the paper discusses the approach for integrating the axiological model and the BIM model.

Keywords: value analysis, axiology, BIM, knowledge modeling, model-based construction management tools and systems

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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