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Al-Tabtabai H, Alex A P, James R

Slab formwork design using genetic algorithm

Abstract: A method to design cost-optimum slab formwork components is proposed in this paper. Genetic Algorithms (GAs), a technique based on the principles of natural selection and evolution, is applied to solve the optimisation problem. GAs search from a population of possible solutions limited by a set of constraints. The cost of form components and labor involved, were considered for the formulation of the objective function of the optimisation problem. The bending moment, shear, maximum deflection, imposed ACI code provisions, etc., were used as constraints for the optimisation problem. Application of GA to the formwork design problem provides optimum design parameters such as the optimum cross section for form members, optimum spacing of form members, etc., while minimising the total cost. Formwork made either from wood, wood-metal composite or metal alone can be designed using the proposed technique. The paper presents the case of general formwork design, however, the method as a whole readily applies to the design of formwok for elevated slabs and high rise concrete elements.

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Full text: content.pdf (84,716 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.011489) class.analysis (0.007703) class.retrieve (0.007266)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Esther Obonyo, Mukund Patil, Chimay Anumba

Towards an Agent-Augmented Virtual Design and Construction Approach

Abstract: There has been a rapid growth in the use of Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) applications for design and functionality analysis in the early stages of the project development cycle. Although significant strides have been made in refining the functionality of such applications, there is still no overall integration scheme that addresses the challenges inherent in knowledge management for organization learning. There are several initiatives directed addressing this challenge through leveraging on Semantic Web technologies, to address these challenges. Some of these efforts are directed at the developing the potential for using software agents to automate some of the tasks inherent in information retrieval through enhancing the implementation of dynamic, domain-specific components. This paper discusses the deployment of an agent-based approach to enhance the modeling and simulation of construction activities. The main body of the paper identifies specific roles that can be delegated to agents in the deployment of an intelligent, virtual architecture. The paper also describes a proof-of-concept application that was implemented to assess the feasibility of using agents within VDC applications. The proof-of-concept models the flow of formwork components in a construction yard. Based on the findings, it is clear that there is a great potential for enhancing VDC applications using an agent-based approach. Given that agents-based systems are by definition software components that exhibit flexible and autonomous action in dynamic, unpredictable context, they can automate functions such as information extraction, structuring and retrieval. These benefits were apparent in the experimental use of the approach. This notwithstanding, the concept of agents is still relatively new and there are some implementations challenges that will need to be address if the approach is to be scaled up. The paper concludes with a concise discussion of the implications of the research and identifies specific components of the agent-based approach that will be implemented as part of follow up activities.

Keywords: virtual applications, organizational learning, knowledge management, agents

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Full text: content.pdf (461,525 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Fang C F, Froese T

Cost estimation of high performance concrete (hpc) high-rise commercial buildings by neural networks

Abstract: Neural network approach is applied to establish relationships between the quantities/cost of the concrete/formwork, which is required for the structural elements of tall buildings using high performance concrete (HPC), and the design variables. Hybrid and hierarchical strategies are proposed for the cost estimation, where the feed-forward networks are adopted. After training, the neural networks are utilized to predict automatically the quantities/cost of HPC wall-frame structures in tall commercial buildings. Verifications are conducted with respect to various sets of the design parameters and a comprehensive discussion is given.

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Full text: content.pdf (441,813 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.077873) class.economic (0.017519) class.communication (0.013234)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Isık Ates Kiral and Semra Comu

Safety Training for Scaffolding and formwork Construction by Using Virtual Environment

Abstract: Scaffolding and formwork activities are the most frequent construction activities that exist in almost every construction project. Common site accidents such as falling from a height, formwork collapses frequently occur during these activities. Previous literature highlight that human-based factors are the major causes that lead to the scaffolding and formwork accidents. In this sense, safety training is crucial to prevent these accidents by improving the safety skills of trainees. Knowing that virtual technologies based trainings have a great potential to provide an effective training, we developed a virtual safety training tool called V-SAFE.v2 which simulates the scaffolding and formwork activities. V-SAFE.v2 supports both single and multi-user training scenarios. In the training stage, trainees interact with the autonomous agents to learn the essentials of the tool and the scaffolding and formwork construction skills. In the testing stage, trainees enter into the virtual environment to test their skills and safety knowledge that acquired during the training stage. Finally, trainees receive feedback based on their safety behavior at the end of testing stage. The preliminary results of this study demonstrate that V-SAFE.v2 is an effective safety training tool for the scaffolding and formwork activities.

Keywords: Scaffolding and Formwork, Virtual Construction Safety Training, Safety Management, Virtual Environment

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0281

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Juergen Melzner, Jochen Hanff and Jochen Teizer

Pattern-Based Generation of 4D-Schedules for Robust Construction Management

Abstract: The creation of construction schedules is a time-consuming manual process. While project planning depends on many tasks and parameters, the quality of schedules highly relates on the engineers' experience and the access to reliable, historical project data. While knowledge applied from software can assist an engineer, the main shortcoming of current tools is the separation in generating building information and construction process models. Proposed is a knowledge-based system that automatically generates 4D-schedules based on building information models. Patterns are used to generate a process model for repetitive work flows, such as placing formwork, reinforcing, and concreting. Pattern-enriched attributes, i.e. the topology of the building structure, are automatically applied to objects in the model. Resource allocation, such as varying the performance factors or the amount of work crews, becomes possible. Such analysis can still be evaluated and exported in the format of traditional Gantt-diagrams or color-coded 4D-schedules and the construction process model can be used for detailed scheduling, construction time control, and time-based quantity evaluations. The developed approach was validated for the concreting work of a 12-story tall office building under construction. Preliminary results indicate gains in accuracy and efficiency of the developed approach compared to the traditional scheduling process.

Keywords: 4D, Construction Schedules, Building Information Modelling (BIM), Simulation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0223

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Leung A W T, Tam C M

Scheduling for high-rise building construction using simulation techniques

Abstract: High-rise buildings are commonly built in densely populated countries or urban areas. A balanced floor construction cycle is critical for construction of the frame structures. The objectives in scheduling the floor cycle are to ensure smooth flows of resources and to optimise the use of formwork and other materials. The floor area is usually divided into zones to allow the labour force and formwork materials moving between zones. The preparation of the floor construction cycle would therefore be a resources allocation exercise. However, the process is complex and difficult when it is done manually. Floats are created deliberately in the schedule to ensure the balance in resources and to provide buffers. Simulation that can demonstrate the real world operations is an effective tool in handling this scheduling problem. This paper examines the constraints in planning the floor cycle and the effects of working period on the overall schedule. Network based simulation model is used to investigate the problems. It is noted that variations in working periods have significant impacts on the time schedule. A saving of 37.2% in time could be achieved when the working period is extended by 20%. The findings indicate that simulation can be used to assist planners to improve their decisions and decide the strategies in scheduling and reviewing the floor construction schedule.

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Full text: content.pdf (132,534 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


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