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Karumo Jari, Majahalme Tapio

Database approach to cost effective design of a frame system

Abstract: In structural design, there are plenty of analysis software which handle individual building components, but there are only few programs that view the individual components as comprising a system needing a conceptual solution. The general trend in software development has been to concentrate on case dependent solutions incapable of general use or data transportation to other applications. This study has attempted to address these short comings. The goal of the research was familiarization with modeling of computer application for structural design. The focus was the choice structure to be used during project planning phase of the frame systems in an ofice building. Part of the research project was to create new application software, which was used to test the presented models. In this research the modeling of the frame systems was carried out using activity and conceptual models. The activity model was used to describe the actions and decisions made in the process of choosing of the frame system. The emphasis was in the search for the situations where choices are guided by economical factors. The conceptual modeling was realized using the ER model. In it, the frame system was presented in three segments. Each segment formed its own independent part. The main idea was that frame systems are constructed of building components attached together; and each of those has it' own manufacturing, transportation and assembly costs, depending on the type of the component. The application created in the research project was used in testing the models. The basic requirement for the demonstration of the software was the need for a graphical representation of the modeling of the frame systems. The interface of the application was a CAD system. A relational database system was used to store the information. Both graphical and alphanumeric libraries of the main building component types of the frame were made. The design of the frame systems was carried out by choosing the types of the component instances from the library. The equivalent instances in the graphical and the relation database were linked together: Thus the databases of the systems could be used as a whole, even though the information was located in different databases.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,341,714 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.021390) class.economic (0.017714) class.store (0.010036)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Kilar V, Krstuloviè-Opara N

Seismic behavior of high-performance fiber reinforced composite frames

Abstract: The paper explores the possibilities to use a High-Performance Fiber Reinforced Concretes (HPFRCs) for design of seismic resistant cost-effective and durable buildings. Composite frame buildings are made through selective use of different HPFRCs: Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON), Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete (SIFCON) and High Strength - Lightweight Aggregate Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HS-LWA FRC) which further minimizes dead and seismic loads. The first part of the paper briefly describes used HPFRCs and proposed composite building system consisted of composite columns, beams and specially designed fuses that connect the two. In the second part of the paper the results of the nonlinear static analysis of an isolated composite beam as well as of the nonlinear dynamic analysis of a whole four-story example composite building are presented. The response in terms of forcedisplacement relationships and rotational ductility factors as well as in terms of base shear, top displacements and global damage index histories is compared to the response of an identical classical four-story building made of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, high performance fiber reinforced concrete, composite building structures, seismic behavior, frame structures, nonlinear analysis

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Series: itaec:2003 (browse)
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Koch C,König M,Neges M,Abramovici M

Performance study on natural marker detection for augmented reality supported facility maintenance

Abstract: The operation and maintenance phase is the longest and most expensive life-cycle period of building facilities. Operators need to perform activities to provide a comfortable living and working environment and to upkeep equipment to prevent functionality failures. For that purpose they manually browse, sort and select dispersed and unformatted facility information before actually going on the site. Although some software tools have been introduced they still spent 50% of the on-site work on inspection target localization and navigation. To improve these manual, time consuming and tedious procedures, the authors previously presented a framework that uses BIM-based Augmented Reality (AR) to support facility maintenance tasks. The proposed workflow contains AR supported activities, namely AR-based indoor navigation and AR-based maintenance instructions. An inherent problem of AR is marker definition and detection. As introduced, indoor natural markers such as exit signs, fire extinguisher location signs, and appliances’ labels were identified to be suitable for both navigation and maintenance instructions. However, small markers, changing lighting conditions, low detection frame rates and accuracies might prevent the proposed approach from being practical. In this paper the performance of natural marker detection will be evaluated under different configurations, varying marker types, marker sizes, camera resolutions, and lighting conditions. The detection performance will be measured using a pre-defined metric incorporating detection accuracy, tracking quality, frame rates, and robustness. The result will be a set of recommendations on what configurations are most suitable and practical within the given framework.

Keywords: Augmented Reality,Facility Maintenance,Natural Markers,Building Information Modeling,Detection Performance

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Laki, T.

Computer-aided Design of Precast Reinforced Concrete Building Frame Structure

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Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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Leung A W T, Tam C M

Scheduling for high-rise building construction using simulation techniques

Abstract: High-rise buildings are commonly built in densely populated countries or urban areas. A balanced floor construction cycle is critical for construction of the frame structures. The objectives in scheduling the floor cycle are to ensure smooth flows of resources and to optimise the use of formwork and other materials. The floor area is usually divided into zones to allow the labour force and formwork materials moving between zones. The preparation of the floor construction cycle would therefore be a resources allocation exercise. However, the process is complex and difficult when it is done manually. Floats are created deliberately in the schedule to ensure the balance in resources and to provide buffers. Simulation that can demonstrate the real world operations is an effective tool in handling this scheduling problem. This paper examines the constraints in planning the floor cycle and the effects of working period on the overall schedule. Network based simulation model is used to investigate the problems. It is noted that variations in working periods have significant impacts on the time schedule. A saving of 37.2% in time could be achieved when the working period is extended by 20%. The findings indicate that simulation can be used to assist planners to improve their decisions and decide the strategies in scheduling and reviewing the floor construction schedule.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Liu M Z, Lovett P J, Godwin A N, Fletcher E J

Improving the intelligibility of STEP models for the construction industry

Abstract: "The overall objective of STEP (ISO-10303) is to become a world-wide standard for the representation and exchange of product data. This is to be achieved by the provision of a mechanism capable of describing product data throughout its life-cycle, completely independently of any individual implementation methods. STEP - the Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data - is the outcome of a large international effort to develop product and process model data standards, which will enable data exchange between diverse computer systems and industrial applications for architecture, engineering and construction. In 1993 the Application Protocol Planning Project for Building and Construction (APPP-BC) identified nested families of models required to represent information relating to the construction industry. Consequently the integrated resource Part 106 Building Construction Core Model, application protocols AP225 Structural Building Elements Using Explicit Shape Representation, AP228 Building Service HVAC, and AP230 Building Structural Frame: Steelwork were developed and included in the Standard. STEP encompasses all aspects of a product and its life-cycle. However the complexity of STEP models is a significant barrier to their wider use. Therefore user-friendly tools which can help users to understand STEP models and their data structure are highly desirable. These will enable STEP-related applications to be developed and the potential for integrated systems using STEP to be achieved in a wide range of industries, including construction. The research presented in this paper involved a thorough investigation of STEP data structures and software tools which can be used to improve the intelligibility of STEP data. The initial investigations provided a basis for describing a range of potential software utilities and produced a broad characterisation of users of STEP. The more detailed work then focused upon application developers and Application Protocol (AP) model developers. The need for visualisation tools to improve the usability of the Standard was recognised, and prototypes produced, contributing to the fulfilment of the needs identified. The concept of using formal mapping techniques to improve the usability of the STEP is also outlined in the paper and is illustrated by its application to AP extracts. The research has identified a structure for a toolkit that can be used by a range of STEP users. The work carried out showed, through the building of prototypes, the feasibility of different elements in the toolkit, and provides a structure for further development"

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Full text: content.pdf (267,695 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.056211) class.processing (0.020547) class.analysis (0.015792)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


M Lapointe, R Beauregard & S D’Amours

An exploration of design systems for mass customization of factory-built timber frame homes

Abstract: Demographic trends are forcing the homebuilding industry to speed up the industrialization process through mass customization. Our survey of companies in the sector of factory-built timber frame homes shows that data processing for the prefabrication of houses and their structural components comprises many iterations which generate a bottleneck at the technical design function. Companies must generate considerable agility in their design function to deal with repeated change in orders and to coordinate multidisci-plinary information, while controlling costs, delays and quality. In order to develop mass customization of factory-built timber houses, our study proposes a design system framework, taking advantage of a product platform based solution. The framework aims at integrating functional requirements and constraints in house engineering and manufacturing. Such conceptual work is an initial step towards emulating a multi-agent based method capable to provide proper coordination through proper data exchange required for the processes of the homebuilding value creation network.

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Full text: content.pdf (359,741 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


M Yu Kononova & OG Nikonova

GIS - based DSS for sustainable infrastructures and management of tourism in the Leningrad Region

Abstract: The paper deals with analysis of a wide-sense role of GIS - based decision support system (DSS). Formalisation of approach towards preparation and realisation of visualisation of tourism infrastructure of Leningrad Region for ensuring stable development of territory is given. The meaning of the GIS -based DSS as a system-forming part of the geoecological account (monitoring, management and audit) of tourism infrastructure within the frame of monitoring area and territory is shown.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


M. Yousuf, O. El Kafrawy and A. Bagchi

Automated Analysis And Performance Evaluation Of Earthquake Resistant Steel Frame Buildings

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Full text: content.pdf (1,050,471 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Mohd Fairuz Shiratuddin, Walid Thabet

Information-rich virtual environment (VE) for design review

Abstract: In the A/E/C industry, design review techniques are used to improve design quality, insure compliance with current codes and standards, improve design constructability, and meet project’s goals and owner’s objectives. Design review is a multi-tasking approach; information from various independent sources (e.g. building codes and standards, design specifications, design manuals, etc.) needs to be referenced concurrently while reviewing and coordi-nating plans of various design disciplines. Current common design review methods rely mainly on paper-based checklists and 2D plans to perform the review. Several disadvantages of these manual methods can be identified, including: 1) checklists are generic and reviewers need to identify the guidelines that apply to a given review; 2) checklists are also linear in nature which may force the review to follow a pre-defined top-to-bottom sequence; 3) current methods do not allow for a structured automated approach to capturing and sharing reviewers’ comments and feedback; 4) information may not be retrieved quickly and efficiently within the limited review time frame. This renders the design review process time- and resource-intensive which may force reviewers to sacrifice the thoroughness of their reviews. This paper describes an information-rich virtual environment (VE) framework for design review. The framework util-izes a real-time intelligent algorithm to access needed data and information to perform a design review while viewing the 3D model. The algorithm provides various search and retrieval modes to assist the user in filtering, querying, sort-ing and displaying data and information during the 3D model walkthrough. Reviewer’s comments and changes are cap-tured and shared by others. A proof of concept prototype is being implemented using the Torque 3D Game Engine.

Keywords: 3D modeling, design review, game engines, rule-based, torque game engine, virtual environments

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Full text: content.pdf (773,170 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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