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A. Gehre, P. Katranuschkov, R. J. Scherer

Managing virtual organization processes by semantic web ontologies

Abstract: Interoperability within Virtual Organisations (VOs) is still only weakly supported by IT frameworks. Whilst service level interoperability has made remarkable progress since the emergence and the rapid growth of SOA and Grid technology in the last years, business processes – which are the driving force of each VO – still suffer distinct conceptual gaps regarding their decomposition to technical transactions. There exists no detailed approach that would allow describing technical as well as business aspects in a coherent yet flexible and extensible way. This paper presents a newly developed semantic framework that targets this requirement. The conceptual background is followed by an introduction of the developed semantic web ontologies. Based on these definitions, dedicated Ontology Services as well as a set of related end-user applications facilitating semantic technology have been designed and implemented. They are presented in the second part of the paper. Reported are results from the EU project InteliGrid (IST-004664; 2004-2007).

Keywords: semantic web, ontologies, virtual organisation, process modelling, process management

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Alan Hore, Barry McAuley and Roger West

BIM Innovation Capability Programme of Ireland

Abstract: The Irish Government has requested that Enterprise Ireland, an organisation responsible for the development and growth of Irish enterprises in world markets to actively promote the use of BIM in Ireland. This promotion has taken the form of an opportunity for Enterprise Ireland clients to apply for a grant under their BIM Enable and BIM Implementation schemes and also through their funding of the BIM Innovation Capability Programme (BICP) of Ireland. The BICP is a two-year project (2016-2018) which seeks to capture the capability of the Irish Construction Industry and the Higher Education Institutes to respond to the increased requirement for BIM in Ireland. One of the primary responsibilities of the BICP research team is to collate data to assist the Irish National BIM Council (NBC) in the formulation of a National BIM Roadmap. To achieve this a global and local BIM study was undertaken in 2016. This involved extensive desk-top based research exploring the value proposition behind what governments and professional bodies are doing to advance BIM in their respective countries. The research identified a number of common themes or pillars that Ireland will need to further address before a roadmap is formally disseminated. After exploration of these pillars, within an Irish context, it was found that despite a lack of standards and contractual frameworks, it has not prevented the industry from deploying BIM on Irish projects

Keywords: BIM, Irish Roadmap, Public Works, BIM Innovation Capability Programme

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0079

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Amor R, Faraj I

Misconceptions About Integrated Project Databases

Abstract: The notion of an integrated project database (IPDB) has existed for decades. Over that time many projects have been undertaken to develop the technologies and frameworks required to implement an IPDB. Also over that time, there has been promotion of the benefits and impacts that IPDB systems will have on the industry. As there are still no industrially stable IPDB systems in existence, the industry's perception of what they are and what they can do has diverged from many of the original presentations. It is also clear that researchers and de-velopers involved in IPDB development have many different ideas about what constitutes an IPDB and what is, or is not, possible to create. This paper aims to describe misconceptions which are growing up around IPDB systems, and presents the authors' view of reality (informed by the opinions of the UK network of experts in ob-jects and integration (URL-1 1999) which was run by the DETR).

Keywords: integrated project database, misconception

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/5 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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Bjornsson H, Lundegard R

Strategic Use of IT in Some European Construction Firms

Abstract: A study has been carried out in which a number of large construction firms in Europe have been investigated with regard to management thinking in the area of IT. There is a common understanding of the strategic importance of IT, but the means for using the technology strategically are not well developed. Some theoretical frameworks for analysing the firms studied have been developed based on earlier work done by management researchers. The project-oriented nature of construction may make it necessary to modify existing theories. It is believed that although these frameworks cannot be used directly in the strategy-writing process of a contractor, they can help create awareness and explain possible effects of various generic strategies. A number of problems arise in trying to compare strategies or investment patterns between different construction organizations. Some of these problems will be discussed together with some ways of coping with them. Some conclusions about similarities and differences in the management view of IT will be stated from an international perspective.

Keywords: strategic advantage; IT-strategy; corporate strategy; impact of IT, European construction

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Graham Brewer, Thayaparan Gajendran

A Case Study of the Effects of Attitude, Behaviour, and Project Team Culture on Building Information Model use in a Temporary Project Organisation

Abstract: It has been established that in the construction industry maximal benefit from ICT investments can best be achieved where they are used collaboratively, in a project setting, using business processes that span the boundaries of individual firms. It can be argued that this has its ultimate expression in the building information model when it is utilised from the earliest stages of project feasibility, through the design and construction phases and beyond, yet it is all too commonly reported that this rarely eventuates. This state of affairs has less to do with technology issues as much as human relationships. Recent research has found evidence that diverse influences on the formation of individual attitudes result in boundedly rational decision-making behaviour, which has a significant effect on the likelihood of ICT integration. Parallel research has linked the effect of individual attitudes on the formation of project team culture and it's receptiveness to ICT integration. This paper presents preliminary results from a detailed case study that employers both frameworks of analysis to reveal the link between the individual attitude formation of key project personalities, their subsequent ICT decision-making behaviour, resulting in the formation of a differentiated project team culture, and sub optimal BIM performance.

Keywords: BIM, attitudes, behaviours, project team culture, TPO.

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Harvey S C, Rezgui Y, Zarli A, Kazi A S

Services for inter-enterprise information management in dynamicvirtual enterprises

Abstract: State of the art research in Construction IT reveals that integration has been achieved, mostly, onstatic models that define the structure of shared information in the form of files or databases. Thispaper advocates that integration should be made through frameworks that define the semanticrelationships between the interfaces of separate distributed components (and the way to make those relationships evolve in the course of a project/process). Based on a requirements analysis ofindustrial partners, the OSMOS specification was made in the form of a set of information modelsand a set of required services packaged in the form of an OSMOS API. This paper focused on: emailbased communication service, document cross-referencing/information management service,virtual enterprise manager, and information browser.

Keywords: Virtual Enterprise, Distributed Systems, Teamwork Support, API, services,

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Full text: content.pdf (265,933 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Hjelt, M

END-USER ATTITUDES TOWARDS EDM USE IN PROJECT WORK - A CASE STUDY OF THE KAMPPI CENTER PROJECT

Abstract: This study set out to explore attitudes towards EDM from the perspective of individual end-users. The objective was to explore how implementation efforts and the benefits enabled by EDM are perceived in different end-user segments across the project group. Combining quantitative and qualitative research methods, the study was conducted as a cross-sectional case study of a large construction project in which EDM was used extensively. Responses from a survey were combined with data from system usage log files to obtain an overview of attitudes prevalent in different user segments. In order to gain a deeper understanding of key issues, the survey was followed by semi-structured interviews with representatives of different roles of the project group. In the case studied, a reassuring majority of users from all segments of the project group considered EDM as a valuable aid in their work processes, despite certain functional limitations of the system used and the complexity of the information mass. However, users who perceived EDM use as difficult or inefficient were quick to revert to other channels of communication. The use of parallel channels of communication was, in turn, found to be a significant source of frustration among users. A key finding was that functionality and the actual contents of the EDM system are both important drivers behind usefulness and ease of use. A model describing the key factors affecting end-user EDM adoption is proposed. The model draws on insight from studies of EDM enabled projects and theoretical frameworks on technology acceptance and success of information systems, as well as the insights gained during the empiricial part of the case study.

Keywords: Electronic document management, technology adoption, end-user perspective

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Series: other (browse)
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J. Beetz & B. de Vries

Building Product Catalogues on the Semantic Web

Abstract: In this paper we describe a prototype implementation of an ontology repository that captures the concepts in the Ontology Web Language OWL. We describe how these concepts can be used directly by embedding them in standard HTML pages and thus augmenting traditional product catalogues with semanti-cally rich information by means of RDFa. As an addition to the ISO part 12006-3, where such a mechanism is not specified explicitly, we propose a way to instantiate actual products, their types and attributes through an instance-of relationship. Building upon the rich family of Semantic Web standards such as SPARQL and RDFa, we demonstrate how information in building product catalogues can be made machine-accessible in more efficient and generic ways. Using the Open Source persistency frameworks we demonstrate how real-world products can be linked to 13,000+ concepts with some 44,000 names in different languages in efficient ways.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Jakob Beetz, Leon van Berlo, Ruben de Laat, Pim van den Helm

BIMSERVER.Org – An Open Source IFC Model Server

Abstract: In this paper we introduce the ongoing development of a free and open model server to persist, maintain and manage instance models of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format. By using open standards, robust existing software frameworks, best practices and workflows accepted in the broader software engineering world as the basis of our framework, we hope to gain traction within the research and development community by creating a completely open reference implementation that is free to use and extend within individual research projects and commercial applications. By providing an open and extendable architecture around a robust and performant kernel we hope to be able to encourage the integration of many earlier and current efforts that have been undertaken in the field of IFC-based model processing.We describe the set of features implemented so far and give an outline of a roadmap for future developments. Some of these implemented features include: User management, up- and downloads of models, a check-out and check-in mechanism and versioning. As part of this versioning mechanism we show a tree comparison algorithm that allows the creation of version-deltas we refer to as change sets. These change sets are used to minimize the amount of traffic to and from the central repository by only communicating its differences. All server-side functionality described here is exposed through a web-service API which has been used to implement web-based and standalone client applications. A filtering mechanism allows the extraction of sub-models such as specific element types. We show how we transform original STEP part 11 EXPRESS schemas into a Meta-Object-Facility (MOF), and store them in XMI/EMF models. Furthermore, we describe how our framework provides a mapping to a BerkeleyDB database facilitating its rich set of features. We demonstrate how we use a suite of more than 1600 IFC models from various sources to test the integrity of the framework. To demonstrate that our framework works efficiently enough for real-world building model scenarios, we provide some performance indicators using this extensive suite of test models.We finish our report by laying out some of the ideas and plans for the future development of the server which include query languages (for the definition of IDMs etc.), a viewer (e.g. for the visualization of differences between model versions) and the integration of other model schemas such as the ISO 12006-3.

Keywords: IFC, model server, BIM, CAD, collaboration

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Kristian Birch Sørensen, Per Christiansson, Kjeld Svidt, Kim Jacobsen, Thomas Simoni

TOWARDS LINKING VIRTUAL MODELS WITH PHYSICAL OBJECTS IN CONSTRUCTION USING RFID - REVIEW OF ONTOLOGIES

Abstract: Virtual models have in recent years proven their worth in practice relating to building design. Today virtual models of the complete project are created before the project is carried out in practice. The immediate advantages of this are great; it introduces fewer errors, gives a better production basis, improved clarity and enhanced communication methods compared to traditional 2D drafting methods. However, there is still much unutilized potential in the virtual models, especially in the construction and operation phases. It is expected that a digital link between the virtual models and the physical objects in the construction process can improve the information and knowledge handling from design to construction, operation and maintenance. The link can be created by use by use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. This paper describes a review and assessment of existing ontologies relevant in relation to creating this link. The ontologies are categorised according to their applicability to specify technical services, resources, organisational relations, business processes and overall frameworks for ontology descriptions and their relations. It is concluded that, with few modifications the technical service and resource ontologies are applicable for industrial use and the meta, organisational and business process ontologies needs further development and industrial maturity to be applicable.

Keywords: Virtual Models, RFID, Ontologies, Project Progress Management, Ubiquitous Computing

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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