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Agger K

Geneobjectclases in construction IT

Abstract: The Geno project intent to participate in the development of the next generation of construction IT systems. Goals for this research should be to: * loose the design process from the production of design documents * free the geometry from orthogonal projection * make possible a full, variable, complete detailing without loosing consistency * move the development of building component specific IT modeling * tools closer to the end user * improve the efficiency and capability of these modeling tools The Geno project works with three developer / user layers: * GenoObjectClasses, the basic standardized data and functional structure, developed by IT specialists in a close dialog with the IAI IFC development. * ProtoObjectClasses: IT tools for modeling spaces, construction elements and parts. Developed by IT specialized architects,engineers, on the bases of Genotypes. Made available to the end user through Internet by component vendors. * PhenoObjects: spaces, construction elements and parts, specified, dimensioned and placed and interrelated by the designer, to be analyzed and supply project information for all participants in the construction and management process. Modeling, analyzing and information seeking and presentation done by Prototypes. The idea of this structure is to improve dynamic and user influence in IT modeling tool development. The standardized class structure for this, the GenoObjectClasses has to support three concurrent models, namely the: * SpaceModel, an interrelated surface model, a non detailed division of the project space in functional spaces (living room, kitchen,bath etc.) and construction spaces (foundation, wall, roof, slap etc.). * ComponentModel, a successive partitioning, ore filling theSpaceModel with building elements, components (facing wall, inner wall, insulation, window, door, ceiling, roof construction, inventory, furniture etc.), interrelated and related to the SpaceModel. * EntityModel, a similar fill to the Componentmodel with buildingparts (brick, joint, plaster, fitting, gutter etc.) to make a complete consistent productmodel possible. The "three model structure" to be filled out successively, add flexibility to the designprocess. When calculations and visualizations is performed the detailed model is used, but in areas with no detailing the model on the lower detailing level is used. This means that the total model will be "complete", if only the SpaceModel has been modeled. The development of GenoObjectClases will build as close as possible on IFC, and seek to expand IFC where it is nessesary. Status for the Geno project is that implementation has been started with AutoCAD ObjectARX.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,484 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026583) class.represent (0.015546) class.synthesis (0.015011)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Marsh R, Hutchison A

Electronic news service for the european construction industry

Abstract: "Abstract The Electronic News Service (ENS at http://www.connet.org/NS/Intl/) is an AltaVista-like service which is specialised for the construction industry. It has been developed as one of the services in the EC project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/). The ENS provides a searchable index of the contents of Internet sites relevant to the built environment. The database containing the source set of Internet sites to index has information on over 14,300 Internet sites across the world, categorised and classified by several criteria. This base set of Internet sites is drawn from all major lists offered to the construction industry (e.g., Yahoo, EEVL, UK-BRP, etc) and from published sources (e.g., Architect's Journal, Building magazine, etc). Over 35 major lists of site sources are utilised to build, maintain, and grow this set of 14,300 resources for the construction industry. The ENS service provides all in the industry with a free method of identifying sources of information based on the content of a web page or service based classifications. Users are able to define profiles for news they have an interest in and to be periodically, and automatically, notified of new or modified web pages and sites which meet their criterion. Running the ENS within the CONNET network provides mechanisms to link together all news services, which are available, to provide answers to user requests across complimentary systems, or even to take requests established for news and use them to identify other information sources of relevance (e.g., publications, software, products). This paper will describe the ENS, the methods it uses to gather and index construction information across the world, and the services it offers to the construction industry. However, the main content of this paper will be an analysis of the references gathered from the 35 major lists of resources which are established across the world. This analysis looks at the overlap that exists between the Internet sites referred to by each of these lists (which is remarkably small), the particular biases which appear in the lists (mainly towards English language and USA-based information), the currency of the sites in the lists (quite poor), and the predicted coverage of total construction-based Internet resources found in all of these lists. Our analysis of the lists also shows a relatively small number of 'must have' sites, which are included in the majority of the lists operated around the world. These 'must have' sites are highlighted and analysed to provide an understanding of what makes these sites of such great importance to the whole industry."

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Full text: content.pdf (885,898 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.028828) class.man-man (0.010240) class.analysis (0.010151)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Björk B-C, Turk Z

A Survey on the Impact of the Internet on Scientific Publishing in Construction IT and Construction Management

Abstract: The World Wide Web provides the opportunity for a radically changed and much more efficient communication process for scientific results. A survey in the closely related domains of construction information technology and construction management was conducted in February 2000, aimed at measuring to what extent these opportunities are already changing the scientific information exchange and how researchers feel about the changes. The paper presents the results based on 236 replies to an extensive Web based questionnaire. 65% of the respondents stated their primary research interest as IT in A/E/C and 20% as construction management and economics. The questions dealt with how researchers find, access and read different sources; how much and what publications they read; how often and to which conferences they travel; how much they publish, and what are the criteria for where they eventually decide to publish. Some of the questions confronted traditional and electronic publishing with one final section dedicated to opinions about electronic publishing. According to the survey researchers already download half of the material that they read digitally from the Web. The most popular method for retrieving an interesting publication is downloading it for free from the author's or publisher's website. Researchers are not particularly willing to pay for electronic scientific publications. There is much support for a scenario of electronic journals available totally freely on the Web, where the costs could be covered by for instance professional societies or the publishing university. The shift that the Web is causing seems to be towards the "just in time" reading of literature. Also, frequent users of the Web rely less on scientific publications and tend to read fewer articles. If available with little effort, papers published in traditional journals are preferred; if not, the papers should be on the Web. In these circumstances, the role of paper-based journals published by established publishers is shifting from the core "information exchange" to the building of authors' prestige. The respondents feel they should build up their reputations by publishing in journals and relevant conferences, but then make their work freely available on the Web.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2000/5 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2000 (browse)
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Côté S,Trudel P,Desbiens M-A,Giguère M,Snyder R

Live mobile panoramic high accuracy augmented reality for engineering and construction

Abstract: Augmented reality finds many potential uses in the infrastructure world. However, the work done by architects and engineers has potential impacts on people’s lives. Therefore, the data they base their decisions upon must be accurate and reliable. Unfortunately, so far augmented reality has failed to provide the level of accuracy and robustness that would be required for engineering and construction work using a portable setup. Recent work has shown that panorama based augmentation can provide a level of accuracy that is higher than standard video-based augmentation methods, because of its wider field of view. In this paper, we present a live mobile augmentation method based on panoramic video. The environment is captured live using a high resolution panoramic video camera installed on top of a tripod, and positioned in the area to be augmented. The system is first initialized by the user, who aligns the 3D model of the environment with the panoramic stream. The live scene is then augmented with a 3D CAD model, the augmenting elements being properly occluded by live moving objects in the scene. To augment the scene from a different vantage point, the user grabs the tripod and carries it to the new location. During that time, the system calculates the camera position by tracking optical features identified on the panoramic video stream. When the user places the tripod back on the ground, the system automatically resumes augmentation from the new position. The system was tested in indoor and outdoor conditions. Results demonstrate high tracking accuracy, jitter free augmentation, and that the setup is sufficiently portable to be used on site.

Keywords: Live augmented reality,accuracy,panorama,video,construction,3D model

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Full text: content.pdf (2,368,406 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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E Hjelseth, N Nisbet

Capturing normative constraints by use of the semantic mark-up RASE methodology

Abstract: The AEC industry is highly regulated by a large number of rules given by public laws, codes, and regulative standards at both national and international levels. The relevant information in these documents need to be captured as rules for model checking in a time and cost effective way. The foundation for the RASE concept is using mark-up based on the four operators; requirement (R), applicabilities (A), selection (S) and exceptions (E) on normative text. The RASE technology has been tested on following three categories of documents: standard (case: NS 11001-1.E:2009 Universal design of building constructions - Part 1: Work buildings and buildings open to the public), standards with tables (Dubai regulations) and guidelines (case: GSA court design guidance document, USA). In each case expectations have been documented using free prose. On examination, the key clauses and phrases can be identified along with their role, allowing a testable, logical statement to be generated. The logical statement is then ready to be used by a compliance-checking engine to apply tests to a description of the facility. The results indicate that the RASE methodology can operate on a different types of normative documents with a trustworthy results.

Keywords: Knowledge representation, Semantics, Ontology, Classification, Model checking

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Full text: content.pdf (219,972 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Fridqvist S

Implementation of a dynamic information system for design

Abstract: This paper reports an implementation of the conceptually most important features of the BAS.CAAD information system, and the use of this implementation to create models of different levels of generalisation in the construction context. The foundations for the BAS.CAAD information system, which have been presented in an earlier paper, are briefly described. It is a dynamic information system for design, built on a generic ontological framework. The system supports the definition of classes in different levels of universality; the classes may originate from different standards or the individual designer, and allows a free combination of attributes.

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Full text: content.pdf (106,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.020092) class.legal (0.004521) class.standards (0.003381)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Hee-Sung Cha, Kyungrai Kim, Dong-Woo Shin

DEVELOPMENT OF 5D-CAD BASED WORK PROCESS MODEL FOR AGED-HOUSING REVAMP PROJECTS

Abstract: A growing number of aged-housing building projects have become a great concern in Korean building industry nowadays. Until 2010, over 20 year-old housing units are reported to exceed more than one million. The aged-housing units are required to upgrade the performance on both structural and service issues. Compared to new building projects, revamp projects are relatively under developed in terms of construction management. For example, there is few guidance or detailed procedure which addresses the management practice in dealing with revamp projects. Therefore, new technologies are reluctantly implemented in the revamp projects without in-depth analysis on constructability and/or economic efficiency. The objective of this study is to provide a new approach in dealing with aged-housing revamp projects. By developing 5D- CAD based work process model, project managers are effectively informed of various data, i.e., building elements, network scheduling, and cost items. The 5D-CAD based decision making can also enhance the accuracy and promptness during project execution. The authors developed a standardized work process model in dealing with 5D-CAD modeling via Virtual ConstructionTM software. In addition, the model has been implemented to pilot aged-housing project for the purpose of validating the feasibility and applicability in real future projects. The proposed WBS(Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS(Cost Breakdown Structure) have been proved as useful tools for contractors who deal with aged-housing revamp projects under circumstances that there is few historical projects and few experienced personnel. Also, the study identified potential benefits and limitations of the 5D-CAD based construction process for revamp projects. Key findings from this study are as follows.- - - - -5D-CAD modeling is no more optional strategy in maximizing the project value. The error-free construction planning is much more essential in revamp projects. Sharing the real-time project information can overcome communication barriers. Collaborative works are definitely can benefit from 5D-CAD modelingFull scale usage of 5D-CAD modeling can be achieved by partnering contract

Keywords: Aged-Housing, CBS(Cost Breakdown Structure), 5D-CAD, WBS(Work Breakdown Structure), Revamp Project

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Full text: content.pdf (1,426,639 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Hong Ha Le, Hans-Joachim Bargstaedt

A Simulation Approach to Integrate the Weather Impact into the Execution Planning

Abstract: The construction planning is complex because of many uncertainties occurring during the execution process. One of the uncertainties, which clearly affects construction activities, is bad weather conditions. From management perspective, it is worth simulating the construction process regarding to weather factors in order to make it more realistic and effective. In practice, the effect of weather can be included in planning stage based on the historical weather data or typical weather patterns of local areas. However, the weather condition variation is often complex and not always the same as how it used to be. Therefore, in the executing stage, the actual weather forecast on site should be considered, so that the execution plan for the next days will be more realistic. In the research project “Simulation of Outfitting Processes in Shipbuilding and Civil Engineering” (SIMoFIT) by the Bauhaus-University Weimar and the German shipyard company The Flensburgers, a constraint-based simulation approach was developed to improve the construction planning in civil engineering. The constraint-based concept is implemented using discrete-event simulation. Attributes and relations between work steps are described by hard and soft constraints. Thus the practical workflow schedule can be flexibly calculated, where all hard constraints are fulfilled and soft constraints are fulfilled as many as possible. This paper presents a simulation framework to incorporate the impact of weather factors into constraint-based simulation of construction processes, where the weather effects are described as constraints. Besides, a “WEATHER” component is described, which generates weather conditions and decides on the impact of weather on each work step. In this research, the data of 5-day free weather forecast retrieved from internet is utilized, where it is updated every 3 hours everyday. Finally, the non-weather- and weather- related-duration of execution processes are achieved and compared.Describing the impact of weather as constraints is a flexible, useful method to include weather effects into a execution process. Further research will concentrate on developing the “WEATHER” component more deeply, defining and optimizing construction strategies within a time-restricted space, and developing the assigning strategies of workers concerning the impact of weather conditions.

Keywords: Weather impact, construction planning, constraint-based simulation

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Full text: content.pdf (125,631 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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I David & SB Anim-Addo

Conceptual real-time multiphase flow modeling for complex NAPL remediation systems

Abstract: Groundwater data collection is done under statutory supervision and control in catchment. The storage, evaluation and utilization of groundwater and geo-strata information are of importance to the protection of the quality of water for industrial and other uses. The contamination of groundwater sources through immiscible fluids, including NAPLs, is of interest to current research. Equally important is the demand to quickly locate, demarcate and visualize these contaminated areas. This paper provides a structured modelling strategy for digital groundwater data assessment system (DGWDAS) for the 2D/3D visualisation of contaminated areas. This conceptual model forms a basis for a visualization tool for solutions to free-hydrocarbon recovery systems. The tool helps to visualize results of simulations on coupled stratified immiscible fluid flows of NAPL, that satisfy PDEs with coupling conditions on the sharp interface under steady-state flow, based on the assumption of vertical equilibrium. An informative visualization tool based on DGWDAS may also allow evaluation of the discharge, the heads, etc of the recovery system by given heads or discharges in the wells respectively. Additionally, the visualization tool, which is based on the n-Tier Software Architecture, may assist in environmental planning and management in the early stages of assessment of sensitive contaminated areas.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,461,457 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Ido, Shun; Wakita, Wataru

A Proposal of Free Form Modeling System with Force Feed-back Based on the Strength of Materials

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Full text: content.pdf (1,014,523 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2006 (browse)
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