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A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (faįades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A. Hryshchenko, K. Menze

A Comprehensive Vision on Cartography of EU And International Research Initiatives with RTD Gap Analysis in the Area of ICT for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Abstract: This paper analyses the status of current researches in the area of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for the improvement of Energy Efficiency (EE) design and operation of buildings.Currently, research and technology developers focus on different domains and sub-domains in the area of EE, such as the integration of renewable energy sources and related monitoring, simulation, and management software. In order to improve harmonisation between different research and technology developments (RTD) including International and European research projects and scientific programs these activities need to be categorised and analysed. As a result of RTD gap analysis, the challenges, commonalities, deficits, and potentials for collaboration are identified contributing to the development of a “Scientific Road Map”. This paper focuses on development of a comprehensive vision on Cartography of recently completed, ongoing, and recently announced research European projects and International research initiatives for further implementation of its results in global vision of the REEB project [cf. http://www.ict-reeb.eu/index.html], and proposes a systematic categorization approach to identify gaps in the current research agenda in the area of IT for Energy in Buildings.Our RTD gap analysis is based on a qualitative categorization specifying common classification criteria.At the present, there are more than 270 projects worldwide were analysed, five Main Classification Categories (MCC) were developed.The proposed methodology should allow the identification of deficits of the related research activities within the specified (in T3.1, D3.1) categories.

Keywords: information and communication technologies, energy efficiency, research and developments, RTD, categorization, gap analysis

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Alan Redmond, Alan Hore, Roger West, Mustafa Alshawi

Building Support for Cloud Computing in the Irish Construction Industry

Abstract: The construction industry has been traditionally recognised as a fragmented sector associated with a poor level of implementation and penetration of Information Communication Technology (ICT) by Small to Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). The ability to collaborate in parallel with a change management process system that requires a central repository that can act as a base for interoperability between various construction disciplines and their software applications has long been sought. The proposed collaborative solution is not an invention, but more of a practical innovation combining several earlier inventions into something new and compelling. Cloud computing is a collective term for a large number of developments and possibilities. It is a new layer of internet architecture that creates an open opportunity to add functionality to an increasingly global network. The characteristics of Cloud computing such as shared infrastructure, on-demand applications, elasticity and consumption-based pricing, allows all disciplines in the sector to benefit. As part of the Irish Construction IT Alliance (CITA) Enterprise Innovation Network (EIN) research on investigating eBusiness technologies for the Irish construction industry, this paper will present the findings of its research methodology in developing a Web based collaborative platform for the SME market. It is envisioned that this opportunity gap will enable SMEs to support data exchange, information sharing and supply chain collaboration across a secure and affordable network that will allow them to compete in a global environment.

Keywords: Construction, Cloud Computing, Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SME)

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C Kasprzak, C Dubler, E Gannon, E Nulton

ALIGNING BIM WITH FM: STREAMLINING THE PROCESS FOR FUTURE PROJECTS ON THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES

Abstract: A study performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2004 found that owners account for approximately $10.6 billion of the $15.8 billion total inadequate interoperability costs of U.S. capital facility projects in 2002. Because of these inefficiency costs, it becomes vital that information produced during the design and construction phases of a project be transferred into operations with maximum leverage to the end users. However, very few owners have defined these informational needs or developed an integration strategy into existing maintenance management systems. To increase operational efficiency, an organization must first develop an understanding of their operating systems, as well as identify how Building Information Modeling (BIM) will add value to their daily tasks.The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has a unique opportunity to diversely implement BIM processes because not only does the University act as an owner, but also as designer and construction manager on the majority of projects. The struggle that PSU faces is one that is unique only to owners with a large, existing, multifaceted building inventory. This paper outlines the current initiative by the Office of Physical Plant (OPP), the asset manager at PSU, to develop an information exchange framework between BIM and FM applications to be used internally. Specific topics to be ascertained are: the research steps taken to develop a strategic implementation plan for information exchange process between project stakeholders and the OPP; an overview and gap analysis of the existing operations processes currently implemented; and a summary of the collaboration effort between vendors, project stakeholders and the OPP to develop this information integration. As a result of this research, PSU has been able to define owner operational requirements for future projects and develop a flexible integration framework to support additional BIM tasks and information exchanges.

Keywords: BIM, Facility Management, Owner, Operations

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Christiansson P, Svidt K, Ove Skjarbek J, Aaholm R

User requirements modelling and design of collaborative virtual reality design systems

Abstract: Advanced Information Technology today gives us the opportunity to implement sophisticated distributed systems for collaborative design. Persons with different interests and competencies in the building process such as architects, installation engineers, structural engineers, clients, builders can all at least theoretically be brought together in a distributed design space where a virtual building will be designed, build, and functionally evaluated. A design space build in a virtual reality environment will enable us to realistically and efficiently simulate the form, function, and construction of the building object under consideration. In this connection we made the following definition of a Virtual Workspace. 'The Virtual Workspace, VW, is actually the new design room designed to fit new and existing design routines. VW may well be a mixed reality environment. The VW will host all design partners from project start with different access and visibility (for persons and groups) in space and time to the project, and will promote building up shared values in projects. The VW thus acts as a communication space with project information support in adapted appearances. VW gives access to general and specific IT-tools ' The paper presents experiences from the early phases of user requirements formulations and design of such collaborative design spaces. The findings are mainly based on collaborative university and consultant engineering company work done in the EU project 'Distributed Virtual Workspace for enhancing Communication within the Construction Industry - DIVERCITY' as well as experiences from student collaboration in distributed learning environments and earlier research within the area. It is extremely important to bridge the gap between the user requirements specifications and the actual interface design and implementation of the underlying operational models of the distributed virtual workspace system. This is certainly true as we actually design a new type of design artefact that will highly influence the traditional working methods and integration of design resources. The early conceptual design of the virtual workspace follows the so called Contextual Design methodology which gives input to the subsequent data modelling work and implementation in an object oriented web distributed environment. The method used is described and examples on resulting Work Models (work flow, sequence and artefact models) are presented and commented on.

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Full text: content.pdf (634,867 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.065624) class.deployment (0.022154) class.environment (0.022092)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Dylan John, Yunfeng Chen, Robert Cox and Qian Huang

USA PractitionersÕ Perception of BIM Maturity

Abstract: This paper examines the USA practitionerÕs perspective of Building Information Modeling Maturity (BIMM). The objective is to better identify the BIMM indicators from practitionersÕ perspective as it would provide better insight and feedback into the use and practice of BIM in the USA industry. This would help fill the gap in understanding and breaking down the complexity of BIM and will allow for better approaches to BIM education and more tangible adoption in Industry. The study is structured based off the four BIMM factors of Technology, Information, Process and People. A survey was used as the research methodology with a breakdown of the survey responses based on their business type and number of years working with BIM. The research findings indicate that Information is the most important maturity factor, followed by Process and the lowest ranked maturity factor is People followed by Technology. The findings of this study has both academic and industry value as it gives greater insight to the practitioners perspective of the different maturity indicators and as such can be used to develop better BIM education and industry adoption practices.

Keywords: BIM, Maturity, USA, Practitioner

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0155

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Elham Delzendeh and Song Wu

The Influence of Space Layout Design on OccupantÕs Energy Behaviour

Abstract: In the past 15 years, the calculation of energy consumption in buildings has become more and more critical due to growing scientific and political concerns to respond to the challenges of global warming and climate change. The estimation of energy demand in buildings is now often a required process during the design stages. Yet, there is a considerable discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption in buildings due to occupantsÕ energy consumption activities. OccupantsÕ presence and their interactions with building systems play a significant role in buildingÕs energy consumption; however, it has been overlooked in building energy predictions. Different studies have been performed with the aim to better understand the parameters affecting occupantÕs energy behaviour with special focus on climatic, economics, regulations and social/personal aspects. Interior design of the space, too, has various impacts on behaviours of occupants and their interactions with building systems which affects the energy consumption of buildings. Space layout is a feature within interior design of space which influences occupantsÕ movement and choices of intentional behaviours. This paper highlights a gap in the knowledge by introducing Ōspace layoutĶ features as an influential factor on occupantÕs energy behaviours and propose an analytical method to study the impact of the space layout on occupantsÕ energy behaviours. Understanding the impact will help designers influence the sustainable behaviour through the design of interior spaces.

Keywords: Space Layout Design, Energy Consumption, OccupantÕs Behaviour

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0235

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Friedman A, Medek L

Evaluation of existing CAD programs used by clients in housing design and marketing

Abstract: There exists a knowledge gap between architects and buyers in the North American homebuilding industry. Mass produced housing is commonly conceived for a user whose needs are unknown to the designer during the design process. In a built model unit, potential home-buyers canappreciate how their future home will look prior to the purchasing decision. Changing this process, by allowing the user to participate in the design process, can only be accepted once both the builder's and the buyers' objectives are satisfied. We wanted to explore the possibility of having clients directly involved in their home design for the purpose of improving both user satisfaction as well as unit marketing potential. Given the fact that computers have become more accessible toboth designers and the public at large, we assumed that users can operate a pre-prepared program by themselves, on which they can make limited design decisions. In our preliminary research, we found several software companies that are already marketing such programs. The objectives of our research were to determine the merit of these programs and to establish their potential in order to narrow the knowledge gap between builders/ architects and clients in the marketing and the construction of housing. We found that these programs do not adequately familiarize the user with the manipulation of the software or hardware systems. Their operation is rather complex for the lay person and better documentation and instructions are needed if these programs are to be integrated in the future marketing of housing.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,038,057 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.021363) class.synthesis (0.018133) class.software-machine (0.016713)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Futcher K, Thorpe T

Longitudinal-grounded case study of a project management information system: a reality check.

Abstract: This paper presents the methodology and findings of a longitudinal-grounded case study of the ambitious implementation of a PMIS within the public works organization of the HKG SAR. It has provided an opportunity for practical experimentation through the quantitative measurement of 'before' and 'after' effects arising from a change in management techniques. These were substantially dependent upon the introduction of a novel PMIS that conformed to the Cleland and King model for a portfolio-management-system that is added-value gained from a project-management data pipeline. The timing of the implementation and its attributes makes it an appropriate vehicle for experimentation to substantiate the Cleland and King proposition for project and portfolio management in multi-projects scenarios. A triangulated-search of the case files covering all aspects of the implementation of the PMIS provides a reality check of the construction business issues that drive systems implementation. It leads to the observation that empirical research into the day-to-day reality of IT innovation within the industry is essential if the gap between research and practice is to be narrowed. Pre and post implementation measurements of performance are used to assess the results achieved from this example of in-practice innovation. At least a three-fold improvement in spending performance was achieved when five years post implementation performance was compared to the five-year pre-implementation period.

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Full text: content.pdf (64,960 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.011734) class.impact (0.010804) class.commerce (0.010593)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Goulding J S, Alshawi M

Generic IT training: a process protocol model

Abstract: Construction companies have to strategically structure and focus their Business Strategy (BS) in order to maximise benefits. This requires detailed knowledge of the operating environment, stakeholders, resource implications and the management of risk. Information Systems (IS) and Information Technology (IT) can perform a crucial role by supporting and underpinning this strategy. A key element of the IT strategy is generic and specific IT training. These requirements must consider many issues, not least, resource implications, organisational culture, infrastructure and disparate training needs. These needs may also encapsulate both group and corporate issues, in addition to individual, operational, managerial and strategic requirements. This research investigates the use of a Process Protocol training model to analyse the key sequential stages (gates) and links needed, to satisfy, or close, the 'performance gap' between the BS, IS Strategy and subsequent IT Training Strategy.

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Full text: content.pdf (101,814 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.064027) class.commerce (0.013914) class.environment (0.011012)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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