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Al-Tabtabai H, Alex A P, James R

Slab formwork design using genetic algorithm

Abstract: A method to design cost-optimum slab formwork components is proposed in this paper. Genetic Algorithms (GAs), a technique based on the principles of natural selection and evolution, is applied to solve the optimisation problem. GAs search from a population of possible solutions limited by a set of constraints. The cost of form components and labor involved, were considered for the formulation of the objective function of the optimisation problem. The bending moment, shear, maximum deflection, imposed ACI code provisions, etc., were used as constraints for the optimisation problem. Application of GA to the formwork design problem provides optimum design parameters such as the optimum cross section for form members, optimum spacing of form members, etc., while minimising the total cost. Formwork made either from wood, wood-metal composite or metal alone can be designed using the proposed technique. The paper presents the case of general formwork design, however, the method as a whole readily applies to the design of formwok for elevated slabs and high rise concrete elements.

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Full text: content.pdf (84,716 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.011489) class.analysis (0.007703) class.retrieve (0.007266)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansen T, Thomsen J

CAESAR - an architecture for enterprise modelling in the aec industry

Abstract: This paper reviews work in progress concerning information modelling in support of enterprise engineering, and discuses how important modelling challenges are being addressed to support more cost effective development of offshore installations for oil production in the Norwegian part of the North Sea. The paper describes a framework and a methodology for information modelling of real world project enterprises and presents initial application examples from the offshore oil and gas industry. CAESAR Offshore is a research program undertaken jointly by Norwegian oil companies, engineering ms, research institutions and the Norwegian Research Council, with the aim of utilising information-technology-based methods and tools which lead to more cost effective field development and operation. As a part of CAESAR Offshore we are developing an object oriented system architecture consisting of a framework and methodology for information modelling, based on our belief that complete and correct enterprise models of development projects must include both the project requirements, deliverables, activities and organisation. Thus information models of projects must represent both the objective, product, process and organisation dimensions. Based upon a model of engineering design, we explicate and relate the enterprise dimensions, and outline a way of describing the difference between planned action and actual behaviour. We implement our model architecture according to an information meta-model, based on a set of common reference entities, and a general offshore reference model. In our work we are using the offshore reference model, as the basis for modelling offshore platforms, design of hydraulic system for offshore production units, and project control systems for engineering design projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,790,144 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.023123) class.represent (0.009418) class.economic (0.008181)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Enio Emanuel Ramos Russo, Alberto Raposo, Terrence Fernando, Marcelo Gattass, and Börje Karlsson

Configuring A Collaborative Virtual Workspace For Disaster Management Of Oil & Gas Offshore Structures

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Full text: content.pdf (611,548 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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G Hamazaki, G B. Monteiro Lopes

An Approach about the Modelling process to Geometric Objects with the ISO 15926 standard

Abstract: No matter in which area they are applied, information technologies are used to increase the productivity of companies that use different computer systems from different suppliers. Most of time, data are stored in proprietary format. This fact creates difficulties for the integration and interoperation between the computer systems, forcing companies to invest money to simply mitigate this problem. Specifically in the field of Oil & Gas, the ISO 15926 standard (Industrial automation systems and integration – Integration of life-cycle data for process plants including oil and gas production facilities) proposes a standard for integration, sharing, exchange and delivery of data between computer systems based on the standardization of data formats and on an ontology approach to represent common industry classes and relations. Due to the structure and the large number of terms defined at the ISO 15926 standard, the complexity to model objects using that library is high. This work presents a methodology to model geometric objects following structure of the standard, harmonizing Parts 2, 3, 4 and 7 of ISO15926. The writers take into account the need for complete abstraction between geometry and business data, as well as the requirement for a federated architecture for managing process plant project item symbology.

Keywords: Geometry, Ontology, Semantic Web, Interoperability, Oil & Gas¬

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Full text: content.pdf (290,049 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Joao Patacas, Huda Dawood and Nashwan Dawood

Reality Capture and Visualisation of 3D Oil & Gas Facility Data for Operations and Decommissioning

Abstract: Accurate and reliable data is fundamental for the management of Oil & Gas facilities throughout their lifecycle. Several standards and specifications have been proposed throughout the years to support information management in the Oil & Gas industry. Standards such as ISO 15926 and specifications such as Capital Facilities Information Handover Specification (CFIHOS) are slowly being adopted by the Oil & Gas industry in new build projects. However, for existing facilities in the Operations and Decommissioning stages, information is frequently of poor quality. This study proposes the visualisation of 3D Oil & Gas asset data, including documentation data from several databases based on CFIHOS templates, in order to support the planning of Operations and Decommissioning tasks. We propose the use of game engines for the visualisation of the data-enriched 3D models. The proposed method supports the input of 3D data from reality capture methods, as well as existing design and as-built facility models. The proposed method was tested in a case study of an existing Normally Unmanned Installation (NUI) using data from a laser scanning survey as an input. Several limitations were highlighted and future developments have been identified, including the deployment of the virtual environment on mobile platforms.

Keywords: Reality Capture, Oil & Gas Facilities, Cfihos, ISO 15926, Serious Games

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0285

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Jun Wang, Wenchi Shou, Peng Wu and Xiangyu Wang

Linked Data for Cross-Domain Constraint Information Sharing in LNG Construction

Abstract: Reliable construction plans are vital for effective collaboration across a projectÕs design, procurement and construction. Numerous constraints arising from engineering, supply chains and construction site are the main factors affecting planning reliability. Currently, there is not an efficient way to access all these constraint information because they are stored in various systems and managed by multiple domain participants. This paper aims to utilise Linked Data Technology to enable links to be set between data (i.e. constraint information) in different systems and therefore connect these systems into a single global data space. A prototype of the proposed approach was developed and tested on a sample LNG project.

Keywords: Linked Data; Ontology; Constraint Information Sharing; Liquefied Natural Gas; Lean Construction

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0318

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M Laasonen, M Heinisuo, J Outinen, E Lehtimäki, D Pada

Planning environments of structures in fire

Abstract: The design of structures in fire has usually been based on ISO standard fires. For higher quality design the real situation should be analysed more carefully. This would improve the safety level of the structures and in many cases help avoid redundant fire protections. The method discussed in this paper is the natural fire design documented by [DIFISEK, 2005] where the gas temperatures are based on simulations of realistic natural fires. Fire simulations in this study are done using the FDS program by NIST. The method follows the European standard [EN, 2005] but the design process is still complex. The same building parts should perform smoothly in four different tasks: product modeling, fire simulation, heat transfer from gas to structures, and structural analysis. The utilization of building information models as initial data of fire simulation has been described e.g. in [Dimyadi et al., 2007] and in [Heinisuo et al., 2009]. This paper discusses how different kinds of structural analysis programs can be integrated to the design process and what requirements those programs set for data transfer. The final goal of the research is practical structural design for entire buildings in fire. In this phase, especially fire simulations need computation time but, for example, accurate and continuum finite element models will not be used for the entire building because of the laborious generation and analysis of the model. The most suitable solutions found so far include structural analysis programs where the members can be modeled as one-dimensional elements, beam elements. The heat transfer from gas to members is solved in the analysis program by applying Eurocode rules. At present, no standard data transfer form used in building projects includes all the entity data needed in these tasks. Very different data are needed in the analysis than, for example, in using continuum models for members.

Keywords: BIM, natural fire design, steel structures

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Full text: content.pdf (375,154 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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R Kenley, T Harfield

Greening procurement of infrastructure construction: optimising mass-haul operations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Abstract: The construction industry has made significant progress towards construction processes for sustainable buildings through programs and guidelines such as ISO 14000 and LEED. However, the lack of research into greenhouse gas production resulting from processes during construction constitutes a significant gap in our knowledge. Linear infrastructure construction processes were examined to find a major contributor of greenhouse gas emissions. One micro-process, earthworks materials handling (commonly known as mass-haul), has been identified. The challenge is to define and develop sustainability measures, methodologies and tools for mass-haul that takes place during linear infrastructure construction. ICT tools and construction management programs such as DynaRoad do provide continuing updates of construction progress. These data can be utilised in mathematical optimisation techniques focusing on scheduling activities, objects or locations of mass haul. The expected outcome of the research is proof of concept for the utilisation of optimisation and modelling techniques to devise measurement tools and methodologies for greenhouse gas emissions of mass-haul during infrastructure construction. Verification of the concept is expected to be through the application of e-government procurement protocols based on total mass-haul activities for tendered projects. These can then be assessed against environmental factors linked to greenhouse gas emission rates in other domains, thus extending sustainability practices during infrastructure construction.

Keywords: procurement, optimizing mass-haul, sustainable construction methodologies

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Raphael B, Smith I

A probabilistic search algorithm for finding optimally directed solutions

Abstract: "Evolutionary search techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) have recently gained considerable attention. They have been used for solving a wide range of problems including function optimisation and learning. In this paper, a new global search technique, called Probabilistic Global Search (PGS), is presented. Results of benchmark tests indicate that this technique performs better than genetic algorithms on a wide range of problems. PGS is a stochastic search technique. It works by generating points in the search space according to a probability distribution function (PDF) defined over the search space. Each axis is divided into a fixed number of intervals with equal probability density. The probability densities of intervals are modified dynamically so that points are generated with higher probability in regions containing good solutions. The algorithm includes four nested cycles: 1. Sampling 2. Probability updating 3. Focusing 4. Subdomain cycle In the sampling cycle (innermost cycle) a certain number of points are generated randomly according to the current PDF. Each point is evaluated by the user defined objective function and the best point is selected. In the next cycle, probabilities of regions containing good solutions are increased and probabilities decreased in regions containing less attractive solutions. In the third cycle, search is focused on the interval containing the best solution after a number of probability updating cycles, by further subdivision of the interval. In the subdomain cycle, the search space is progressively narrowed by selecting a subdomain of smaller size centred on the best point after each focusing cycle. Each cycle serves a different purpose in the search for a global optimum. The sampling cycle permits a more uniform and exhaustive search over the entire search space than other cycles. Probability updating and focusing cycles refine search in the neighbourhood of good solutions. Convergence is achieved by means of the subdomain cycle. The algorithm was tested on highly non-linear, non-separable functions in ten to hundred variables. Results are compared with those from three versions of GAs. In most cases PGS gives better results in terms of the number of times global optima were found and the number of evaluations required to find them. The application of the technique to non-parametric optimisation problems is further illustrated using an example from conceptual structural design."

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Full text: content.pdf (373,661 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.019177) class.impact (0.015651) class.deployment (0.013039)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Rasys E,Hodds M,Dawood N,Kassem M

A web3d enabled information integration framework for facility management

Abstract: Managing capital oil and gas and civil engineering facilities requires a large amount of heterogeneous information that is generated by different project stakeholders across the facility lifecycle phases and stored in various databases and technical documents. The amount of information reaches its peak during the commissioning and handover phases when the project is handed over to the operator. The operational phase of facilities spans multiple decades and the way facilities are used and maintained have a huge impact on costs, environment, productivity, and health and safety. Thus, the client and the operator bear most of the additional costs associated with incomplete, incorrect or not immediately usable information. Web applications can provide a quick and convenient access to information regardless of user location. However, the integration and delivery of engineering information, including 3D content, over the Web is still at its infancy and is affected by numerous technical (i.e. data and tools) and procedural (i.e. process and people) challenges. This paper addresses the technical issues and proposes a WEB3D-enabled information integration framework that delivers engineering information together with 3D content without any plug-ins. In the proposed framework, a class library defines the engineering data requirements and a semi-structured database provides means to integrate heterogeneous technical asset information. This framework also enables separating the 3D model content into fragments, storing them together with the digital assets and delivering to the client browser on demand. Such framework partially alleviates the current limitations of the JavaScript based 3D content delivery such as application speed and latency. Hence, the proposed framework is particularly valuable to petroleum and civil engineering companies working with large amounts of data.

Keywords: Information integration,Facility Management,Class Library,Web3D,WebGL

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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