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A Y Chen, C-H Lin

Distributed Decision-Making for Real-Time In-Building Evacuation Guidance

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Full text: content.pdf (342,669 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Al-Ghassani A M, Kamara J M, Anumba C J, Carrillo P M

A tool for developing knowledge management strategies

Abstract: While organisations recognise that Knowledge Management (KM) is essential for improving performance, many have difficulties in developing strategies for implementation. The nature of knowledge is of particular complexity in organisations such as those within the construction industry characterised by temporary 'virtual' organisations formed for the completion of projects. A significant proportion of construction organisations realise the benefits of KM but most remain at the infancy stages of developing and implementing KM strategies. This paper identifies the need for a methodology to help organisations establishing these strategies. It then describes a framework developed within the CLEVER (Cross-sectoral Learning in the Virtual Enterprise) project at Loughborough University. The framework introduces a methodology that supports KM at both the tactical and strategic levels in order to aid organisations, especially in the construction and manufacturing industries, in developing KM strategies. The methodology was encapsulated into a prototype software system to achieve a simpler format and is easier to use. Industrial collaborators evaluated both the paper format and the prototype software and it is evident that the developed methodology has the potential to provide a very useful way for developing KM strategies and that very little exists elsewhere to assist companies in developing KM strategies in this way. The software prototype was seen as an important enhancement to the paper version. The inviting format, simplified guidance, reduced input duplication, and automated report generation were found the most significant enhancements. The focus of this paper is on the development and operation of the prototype. Its key benefits and lessons learned in implementing it are highlighted in the paper.

Keywords: Construction organisations, knowledge management, KM strategies, software prototype.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/5 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Archer G O, Futcher K, McMahon M A

Multi-participant project informationmanagement system

Abstract: This paper examines how information technology is contributing in a significant wayto the management of construction projects. The deployment of a project informationmanagement system (PIMS) was a mandatory requirement on the construction phaseof 'Route 3, Tsing Yi and Kwai Chung Sections', which is an important element ofHong Kong Government's airport core programme of projects (ACP).The paper reviews the concerns of the Client for the ACP and how the PIMScontributed to alleviating them. It includes comments, based on empirical evidence,on the implications for the change which is needed in the construction industry as itmigrates from paper-based systems to computer-based information technologies. Inparticular the need for adherence to quality-assured site procedures within aconstruction process which is traditionally highly differentiated and transitory innature.Analysis of data and consideration of the issues, arising from the use of thePIMS in the control of costs, settlement of disputes and in the dissemination ofinformation, provides guidance, which is relevant to a deployment of PIMS in thefuture.

Keywords: construction; project-management, information management-systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (335,635 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Bouchlaghem D, Rezgui Y, Hassanen M, Cooper G, Rose D

IT tools and support for improved briefing

Abstract: "The briefing stage is critical to the success of construction projects, however it is widely recognised that improvements are needed in this process in order to reduce the cost and optimise quality of buildings. Briefing involves understanding the client's needs and expressing them in a way that will ensure compatibility between the client's vision of the project and the resulting product. There are problems encountered in construction briefing which involve both clients and designers. There is little guidance and support for clients, whilst designers have difficulties both in capturing clients’ needs and conveying conceptual design options to them. There is a central difficulty, associated with language, communication and the exchange of information between clients and design teams, which is now gaining widespread acknowledgement. The CoBrITe (LINK/IDAC UK funded) project argues that the construction industry has yet to exploit the potential of IT systems to assist both parties during this critical phase. This is in contrast to later stages of design and construction where computer-based techniques and systems are commonplace. The overall aim of the CoBrITe project is to improve the briefing process through more efficient and effective use of existing and emerging information technologies that can support client and design teams. The project builds on the recent IDAC 88 project: Managing the Brief as a Process of Innovation, and its five key action areas for improvement: empowering the client, managing the project dynamics, appropriate team building, appropriate visualisation techniques, and appropriate user involvement. It is driven by the needs of solving challenges within the briefing and related design process, with IT a means to an end. The project brings together a group of companies from across the construction supply chain to work together towards the above aim. The methodology comprises: -An extensive literature review on construction briefing focusing on the process of briefing, human and cultural issues, and IT applications and their role within the process. ·The integration of the recent and current projects on briefing through interviews, establishing an electronic network and holding workshops. ·The formulation of a framework of enabling technologies and their potential role in facilitating the briefing process and overcoming human and organisational constraints. ·The development of a model which will facilitate the integration of activities and information sharing in the briefing process. The proposed paper will give a comprehensive overview of the CoBrITe project, including an analysis of the briefing practices and information requirement, an initial CoBrITe Briefing Process Model, the CoBrITe system architecture, and the description of the proposed framework that integrates a set of proprietary and commercial software applications aimed at supporting the briefing process."

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Full text: content.pdf (319,634 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.015409) class.processing (0.014768) class.economic (0.012134)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Casson A, Stone D

An expertext system for building standards

Abstract: The paper describes work on a current collaborative research project involving UK Universities and the Scottish Office's Building Directorate. Previous work by the Directorate had identified limitations in a conventional expert systems approach to the development and management of building Standards information. Work in the current project seeks to overcome these limitations by combining representational paradigms. In particular, a system is being designed and implemented which is based on and seeks to extend the concept of Headed Record Expertext (Diaper 90) in which formalised information can be attached, where appropriate, to nodes in a hypertext version of the Standards. The systemalso handles navigation rules and provides intelligent guidance for the reader through the hyperdocument. The underlying node/arc representational structure is also intended to support the capture of argumentation material generated during the development, maintenance and use ofStandardsinformation.

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Full text: content.pdf (3,178,744 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.032976) class.communication (0.031595) class.synthesis (0.026027)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


E Hjelseth, N Nisbet

Capturing normative constraints by use of the semantic mark-up RASE methodology

Abstract: The AEC industry is highly regulated by a large number of rules given by public laws, codes, and regulative standards at both national and international levels. The relevant information in these documents need to be captured as rules for model checking in a time and cost effective way. The foundation for the RASE concept is using mark-up based on the four operators; requirement (R), applicabilities (A), selection (S) and exceptions (E) on normative text. The RASE technology has been tested on following three categories of documents: standard (case: NS 11001-1.E:2009 Universal design of building constructions - Part 1: Work buildings and buildings open to the public), standards with tables (Dubai regulations) and guidelines (case: GSA court design guidance document, USA). In each case expectations have been documented using free prose. On examination, the key clauses and phrases can be identified along with their role, allowing a testable, logical statement to be generated. The logical statement is then ready to be used by a compliance-checking engine to apply tests to a description of the facility. The results indicate that the RASE methodology can operate on a different types of normative documents with a trustworthy results.

Keywords: Knowledge representation, Semantics, Ontology, Classification, Model checking

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Full text: content.pdf (219,972 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Guillermo Aranda-Mena, John Crawford, Agustin Chevez, Thomas Froese

BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING DEMYSTIFIED: DOES IT MAKE BUSINESS SENSE TO ADOPT BIM?

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) offers a revolutionising way to design, document and procure buildings. BIM promises to become a new international benchmark for building design and documentation across industry on the basis of improved efficiencies and collaboration capabilities. However, BIM requires rethinking current practices and process thus it calls for a paradigm shift in the way we procure, design and operate buildings. There seems no question that BIM methodologies are to become the norm in the long term but more factual evidence is required today to provide guidance to industry. This paper investigates current business drivers for BIM adoption by architecture and building engineering consultants.BIM needs to compete against well-ingrained methods to deliver projects in a fragmented and rather traditional industry. This paper investigates 47 value propositions for the adoption of BIM under a multiple case study investigation carried out in Australia and Hong Kong (Aranda-Mena et. al 2008). The selected case study projects included a range of public (1) and private (4) sector building developments of small and large scale. Findings were coded, interpreted and synthesised in order to identify the challenges and business drivers, and the paper focuses mainly on challenges and benefits for architectural and engineering consultants, contractors and steel fabricators. As a condition for the selection criteria all case studies had to be collaborating by sharing BIM data between two or more consultants / stakeholders. As practices cannot afford to ignore BIM this paper aims to identify those immediate business drivers as to provoke debate amongst the professional and academic community.

Keywords: BIM

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Full text: content.pdf (175,163 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Haksever A M

A model to predict the occurrence of information overload of project managers

Abstract: "This paper investigates information overload of construction project managers. The aim is to identify its occurrence pattern and predict the occurrence probabilities in a given circumstance, as a project manager’s information load is inconstant in nature, fluctuating over time, changing character and source. First, a conceptual definition of information overload is developed, using time as the criterion to describe information load. Information overload for a project manager is taken as occurring when the demands on information processing time exceed the supply of time. Second, the variation of information load throughout the project is structured using the interaction of a project manager with project members through the stages of a project. These two elements are combined in a matrix format where values for information overload are ascribed to cells representing the interaction with each member during each stage of the project. Six key project members, and four project stages are defined. To allow the subjective quantification of information overload, five practical situations of real life information overload are described, of which one must be chosen for each of the twenty four stage-member cells. To test the model and calculate the probabilities of information overload, data were collected using a questionnaire survey of 140 project managers in the UK. Respondents were asked to select the relevant situation for each cell in the matrix. The resulting matrices had a weighting system applied and a mean calculated for each circumstance to create an Information Load Point (ILP), presented in an Information Load Matrix (ILM). The application of ‘Ordinal Logistic Regression’ into the ILP scores provides a predictive outcome, which gives the probabilities of a project manager being in any of the predetermined five information overload situations at any stage with any member. The detailed account of the calculations and the outcome of the analysis are presented. The results revealed that the extent and sources of information overload of construction project managers vary throughout the stages of a project. The construction stage has the highest probability of information overload, followed by the design stage. The main sources of information overload are the project participants contributing the key expertise in each stage. In the design stage, the key contributors are architects and consultants, and in the construction stage, contractors and sub-contractors. Architects’ and consultants’ contributions to information overload show a similar pattern through the project duration, as do those of contractors and sub-contractors. This is the first of its kind in construction project management and provides an invaluable source of reference and guidance on the probabilities of the occurrence of information overload in a construction project. The model predicts the situations where information overload is high, moderate, low or non-existent. It is then possible to concentrate on those overloaded areas by using the appropriate means or strategies."

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Full text: content.pdf (393,534 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.016354) class.man-software (0.013484) class.impact (0.012353)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Hee-Sung Cha, Kyungrai Kim, Dong-Woo Shin

DEVELOPMENT OF 5D-CAD BASED WORK PROCESS MODEL FOR AGED-HOUSING REVAMP PROJECTS

Abstract: A growing number of aged-housing building projects have become a great concern in Korean building industry nowadays. Until 2010, over 20 year-old housing units are reported to exceed more than one million. The aged-housing units are required to upgrade the performance on both structural and service issues. Compared to new building projects, revamp projects are relatively under developed in terms of construction management. For example, there is few guidance or detailed procedure which addresses the management practice in dealing with revamp projects. Therefore, new technologies are reluctantly implemented in the revamp projects without in-depth analysis on constructability and/or economic efficiency. The objective of this study is to provide a new approach in dealing with aged-housing revamp projects. By developing 5D- CAD based work process model, project managers are effectively informed of various data, i.e., building elements, network scheduling, and cost items. The 5D-CAD based decision making can also enhance the accuracy and promptness during project execution. The authors developed a standardized work process model in dealing with 5D-CAD modeling via Virtual ConstructionTM software. In addition, the model has been implemented to pilot aged-housing project for the purpose of validating the feasibility and applicability in real future projects. The proposed WBS(Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS(Cost Breakdown Structure) have been proved as useful tools for contractors who deal with aged-housing revamp projects under circumstances that there is few historical projects and few experienced personnel. Also, the study identified potential benefits and limitations of the 5D-CAD based construction process for revamp projects. Key findings from this study are as follows.- - - - -5D-CAD modeling is no more optional strategy in maximizing the project value. The error-free construction planning is much more essential in revamp projects. Sharing the real-time project information can overcome communication barriers. Collaborative works are definitely can benefit from 5D-CAD modelingFull scale usage of 5D-CAD modeling can be achieved by partnering contract

Keywords: Aged-Housing, CBS(Cost Breakdown Structure), 5D-CAD, WBS(Work Breakdown Structure), Revamp Project

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Full text: content.pdf (1,426,639 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Howard R

Modelling buildings anti classifying data in cad systems

Abstract: This paper presents the results of some studies of data modeling and layering practice carried out for the draft British Standard 'Construction Drawing Practice - Guide f o r graphic representation by computer'. This standard, BS 1192 Part 5, is currently a draft on which public comments have been received but which will not be final until 1989. Its objectives are to complement developing international data exchange standards by guiding those designing buildings with CAD to organize data so that its structure can be transferred. It has three main elements: 1. Translation of system terminology into standard terms. 2. A simple representation of data structures. 3 . Guidance on allocating building data to layers. In the first study six of the systems most widely used in the UK were represented in IDEF IX data modeling format to show their similarities and differences, and the standard includes a simplified data structure which can be related to each of these. Typical variations are identified and system terminology is related to standard terms proposed. The second study looked at current practice in allocating layers or categories, both by FEDCAD in user groups and by CICA in individual members using CAD. A number of criteria for classifying layers were found and these included, in order of frequency: 1. Job specific elements. 2. Elements of drawings, eg. grids, text. 3 . Elements of buildings, eg. phases, floors, services. 4 . Standard element systems, eg. CI/SfB. 5. Types of drawing eg. plans, elevations, perspectives. The recommendations of the standard are that a common system should be used allowing flexibility in the numbers of layers. CI/SfB Table 1 and the Common Arrangement are seen as suitable systems appropriate to different stages of the design process.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,122,266 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.032593) class.synthesis (0.032456) class.bestPractise (0.017060)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


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