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Anders Ekholm

ISO 12006-2 and IFC – could they be harmonized?

Abstract: Today, there are two major candidates for core ontologies common to the construction and facilities management sector, the ISO 12006-2 Framework for classification of information, and the Industry Foundation Classes, IFC. ISO 12006-2 has been developed as a step in harmonizing different national and regional classification systems for construction and facilities management. The main purpose of the IFC standard is to enable effective information sharing, within the AEC/FM industry throughout the project lifecycle. These standards have similar objectives but show fundamental differences in semantics and structure. The presented study compares the standards and points at differences and similarities, firstly in order to understand their structure, and secondly to initiate a discussion about the need and the possibility to co-ordinate them. The analysis indicates a fundamental difference in view between the standards. The starting point of IFC was to reject classification, and therefore a harmonization with ISO 12006-2 would require a major shift of approach.

Keywords: Product models, Process models, Ontologies, Interoperability

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Series: w78:2004 (browse)
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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systems’s disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications’ local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Cheng J,Deng Y,Du Q

Mapping between BIM models and 3d GIS city models of different levels of detail

Abstract: Modeling the built environment of a city digitally in three dimensions can support navigation, urban planning, disaster management, and energy consumption analysis. City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) was developed in recent years as a Geographic Information System (GIS) data standard to represent the geometry and geographical information of buildings in digital 3D city models. CityGML supports modeling on various Levels of Detail (LoDs) from simple box models to models with interior partitions. This paper presents the theoretical framework that we have developed for mapping between Building Information Modeling (BIM) models in the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format and CityGML models of different LoDs. The framework consists of two major parts – (1) transformation between BIM models and high level CityGML LoD4 models, and (2) harmonization among the four LoDs of CityGML. For the first part, a reference ontology was developed to transfer semantic information between BIM models in the IFC format and CityGML models. To reduce the file size of the generated CityGML models, a new geometric transformation algorithm was developed for the mapping from Swept Solid or Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) representations, which are commonly used in BIM models, to Boundary Representation (BRep) which is used in CityGML models. For the second part, schema mediation techniques are used to convert CityGML models from one LoD to another LoD. Based on the reference ontology, an application domain extension (ADE) called “Semantic City Model (SCM)” was developed for CityGML. The SCM ADE enriches CityGML models by providing more semantic information such as the linkage relationship between walls and building stories. This paper presents the developed mapping framework with an illustrative example of a residential building.

Keywords: 3D city models,Building Information Modeling (BIM),Geographic Information System (GIS),Industry Foundation Classes (IFC),Schema mapping

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Hörenbaum C, Saal H

Harmonization of product interface steel construction and industryfoundation classes

Abstract: This paper compares two product models for the building industry (Product Interface SteelConstruction and Industry Foundation Classes) with respect to a possible harmonization. Differentconcepts for harmonization are evaluated. For one of them an integrated model is proposed.

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Full text: content.pdf (643,028 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Rebolj D

Virtual product model

Abstract: "In the cosmos there are no complex laws which would govern some huge monolithic structures. But there obviously are particles/energies and there are some basic laws, which condition the interactions between the particles. Because there exist many combinations of particles the outcome of interactions are not simple to predict. Independently of this fact the many combinations exist and it seems that they form more and more complex structures, which are not very concerned about their own complexity. More and more authors are recognizing the problem of modeling complex structures and many are asking themselves whether an all-including-product-model is a solution for an integrated information environment that should efficiently support the life-cycle of a product. It seems that rich experiences in product modeling in the last decade lead not to better and better models but rather to the awareness that the more complex the product models are, the more rigid and the less usable they become in reality. These recognitions already led to some suggestions for the future integration methods and product modeling. The article introduces a concept of the virtual product model, a network of loosely coupled particle models, interconnected by relatively simple but strong rules (like gravity in the macro-cosmos). The neighborhood of a particle model is defined through a process model, which also determines relations between particles. A special attention has been given to the content harmonization of particle models, which are representing parts of the virtual product model. The mechanism is based on harmonization agents, which are leaving the particles their individuality but also bind them to the whole. The author also doubts about the possibility of ever using a single complex standard for structuring and describing structures of product models, especially in civil engineering and construction, where many different views have to be considered through a product life cycle. Again a bottom-up principle has been used to enable communication between harmonization agents, which share and extend their own knowledge about structures through common dictionaries. Through the concept of the virtual product model it is believed that it is possible to preserve the independence and flexibility of particles - existing island models and applications (without implementing any interfaces) and the simplicity of mastering them, but also to preserve the positive integration effects of complex product models. The reason for this conviction lies in the simplicity of used principles and in their closer relation to natural mechanisms, which does not exclude implicit evolution."

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Full text: content.pdf (249,531 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.041034) class.represent (0.034655) class.man-software (0.024636)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Turk Z, Delic D

Graduate level construction informatics curriculum: a proposal to meet the Bologna structure

Abstract: Across Europe, faculties of civil engineering and departments of construction are addressing the structure of the university level education according to the Bologna declaration. The restructuring provides an opportunity to rethink some aspects of the curriculum, including the status of education in construction informatics and computer science. While today the IT tools are used in most courses, there is a significant corpus of knowledge that needs specialized attention in dedicated courses. Some courses must be aimed at fundamental IT knowledge that is required to support core engineering works such as design, planning, construction management and construction itself. Advanced understanding of all aspects of information technology is required for job positions that actively shape the introduction of IT for strategic, management and knowledge worker levels. This is reflected in the proposed schema of four courses, two of which are optional. The author believes that the 2+2 courses over the 4 years of engineering education is a realistic share that construction informatics should have in the reformed curricula. This paper reports on a study that was completed in 2002 for the University of Zagreb, Croatia in 2002, that is reforming the curriculum related to construction informatics. The goal of the paper is not to provide a definitive curriculum, but rather to start a Europe-wide discussion on a harmonization of construction informatics curricula.

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Full text: content.pdf (164,646 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


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