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A Ciribini & G Galimberti

4D Project Planning and H&S Management

Abstract: A The European Client Organisations must face huge responsibilities by 92/57/EC Directive when the Health and Safety Management System has to be built in. Moreover, Public Client Organisations are trying, in different ways, to cope with such duties in modifying their Project Execution Plans over time so to update project schedules and reports complying with H&S Plan-related measures. The researchers have performed a detailed analysis which should allow Project Sponsors and Project Managers to deal with Time Management following a safety-oriented approach.

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Full text: content.pdf (505,136 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Addison A,O’Hare W-T,Kassem M,Dawood N

The importance of engaging engineering and construction learners in virtual worlds and serious games

Abstract: The engineering and construction industries require their workforce to undertake complex learning and training activities. Exposing new employees, graduates, or apprentices to these environments could endanger their safety and the safety of those working with them. On site education and training also requires an investment of time from skilled individuals and companies. Problems accessing environments, such as construction sites, heavy plants or chemical manufacturers, are substantially heightened by the need to risk assess and comply with Health and Safety legislation making the traditional “hands on” and “shadowing” approaches to training and education more complicated than in the past. These difficulties are also compounded by changes to the geographical locations (e.g. distance learning, on site) of those studying to join these career paths or progress within them. Therefore, educational institutions and trainers must consider how to deliver this skill based learning for both those with access to academic premises and those learning at a distance. New technologies such as serious games are one of the solutions being explored. This paper undertakes an analysis of safety issues and safety training and learning methods relating to the construction industry. The paper takes its start point from a Health and Safety Executive commissioned report in 2003 (Hide et al, 2003) and questions if sufficient improvements in safety have been achieved within the construction industry since its publication. Then, the paper investigates the development of education and training that meets the necessary reality and complexity of engineering and construction sectors and the ability of serious games to provide timely and accessible training to achieve competency within these sectors.

Keywords: Competency,learning,safety,serious games,training,virtual worlds

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Full text: content.pdf (579,452 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Bjork, Bo-Christer

Information Technology in construction: domain definition and research issues

Abstract: This article discusses the scope of research on the application of information technology in construction (ITC). A model of the information and material activities which together constitute the construction process is presented, using the IDEF0 activity modelling methodology. Information technology is defined to include all kinds of technology used for the storage, transfer and manipulation of information, thus also including devices such as copying machines, faxes and mobile phones. Using the model the domain of ITC research is defined as the use of information technology to facilitate and re-engineer the information process component of construction. Developments during the last decades in IT use in construction is discussed against a background of a simplified model of generic information processing tasks. The scope of ITC is compared with the scopes of research in related areas such as design methodology, construction management and facilities management. Health care is proposed as an interesting alternative (to the often used car manufacturing industry), as an IT application domain to compare with. Some of the key areas of ITC research in recent years; expert systems, company IT strategies, and product modelling are shortly discussed. The article finishes with a short discussion of the problems of applying standard scientific methodology in ITC research, in particular in product model research.

Keywords: Information technology, construction, research, integration, methodology

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Full text: content.doc (221,184 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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C Klinzmann & D Hosser

Probabilistic Building Inspection and Life Assessment - a computer program for reliability based system assessment

Abstract: The collaborative research centre (CRC) 477 explores innovative methods for structural health monitoring. In project field A1, methods and strategies, the modular knowledge-based computer program PROBILAS (Probabilistic Building Inspection and Life ASsessment) is developed. Its main focus lies on the optimization of structural health monitoring measures. One opportunity to optimize the monitoring process is to concentrate the monitoring measures on a few critical weak points of a structure. These critical weak points are identified by using methods of the system and reliability theory. Additionally these methods provide the opportunity to evaluate and to assess the probability of failure of a system. This paper concentrates on the implementation of the described methods into PROBILAS. Especially the database model, its integration into the program modules and the calculation procedure used for reliability analysis are discussed further.

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Full text: content.pdf (329,245 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Carlos A Arboleda, Dulcy M. Abraham, Jean-Philippe P. Richard, and Robert Lubitz

Impact Of Interdependencies Between Infrastructure Systems In The Operation Of Health Care Facilities During Disaster Events

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Full text: content.pdf (837,412 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Carozza L,Bosché F,Abdel-Wahab M

Image-based localization for an indoor VR/AR construction training system

Abstract: Virtual /Augmented Reality (VR/AR) technologies have been increasingly used in recent years to support different areas of the construction industry. Their simulation capabilities can enable different construction stakeholders to evaluate the impact of their choices not only on the built environment, but also with regard to the correct execution of operational procedures. Training providers, such as Further Education (FE) colleges, can also enhance their trainee’s experience through the simulation of realistic construction contexts whilst eliminating health and safety risks. Current approaches for the simulation of learning environments in Construction, such as Virtual Learning Environment (VLEs), provide limited degree of interactivity during the execution of real working tasks. Whilst immersive approaches (e.g. CAVE-based) can provide enhanced visualization of simulated environments, they require complex and expensive set-up with limited practical interaction in real construction projects context. This paper outlines a localization approach employed in the development of an Immersive Environment (IE) for Construction training, cheaper than CAVE-based approaches and which has the potential to be rolled-out to the FE sector for maximizing the benefit to the construction industry. Pose estimation of the trainee is achieved by processing images acquired by a monocular camera integral with his head while performing tasks in a virtual construction environment. Realistic perception of the working environment and its potentially hazardous conditions can thus be consistently delivered to the trainee through immersive display devices (e.g. goggles). Preliminary performance of the localization approach is reported in the context of working at heights (which has a wide applicability to a range of construction trades, such as scaffolders and roofers), whilst highlighting the potential benefits for trainees. Current limitations of the localization approach are also discussed suggesting directions for future development.

Keywords: Image-based,localization,VR/AR,construction training

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Full text: content.pdf (836,205 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Chen A,Golparvar-Fard M,Kleiner B

SAVES: a safety training augmented virtuality environment for construction hazard recognition and severity identification

Abstract: One of the most challenging aspects of health and safety (H&S) management for construction sites is ensuring that workers can predict, identify, and respond to potential hazardous conditions before they are exposed. While OSHA addresses the need for enforcement of comprehensive H&S training programs, many safety training programs still do not include hazard recognition or systematic preparations for the avoidance of unsafe conditions. From a scientific standpoint, we currently lack the knowledge of discovering the most efficient training styles for safety and also understanding why and how these styles of training can influence the post-training activities. To address these needs, an Augmented Virtuality(AV) training environment named System for Augmented Virtuality Environment Safety (SAVES) was designed and is presented in this paper. SAVES which integrates a Building Information Model (BIM) with photographs of typical energy sources on a jobsite, allows trainees to control and navigate an avatar within such AV environment. Within the AV environment, the user can conduct a set of interactions with the environment and accomplish multiple instruction and task-based training scenarios. These scenarios include detection of ten types of hazard and/or energy sources at three levels of severity. The energy sources which in SAVES are embedded in forms of 3D elements and 2D imagery are designed to elevate the safety awareness of the users, enable them to predict and identify various types of hazards, and assess their level of severity. To fully document the experience of the users, during each exercise, trainees’ choices, time for decision-making and corresponding prevention plan are documented in the system. The complete process of design, development, implementation and results analysis of SAVES is presented.

Keywords: Safety,Training,Virtual Reality,Hazard Recognition

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Full text: content.pdf (1,048,469 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Dawood N, Sriprasert E, Mallasi Z, Hobbs B

Development of an integrated information resource base for 4D/VR construction process simulation and visualisation

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to report on the development of an integrated database to act as an information resource base for 4D/VR construction process simulation and visualisation. A comprehensive database was designed, implemented and populated with the School of Health Construction Project (An eight million pounds, three-storey development at the University of Teesside campus). The database is composed of a core database of building components which, in turn, is integrated with a CAD package (AutoCAD 2000), a project management package (MS Project) and graphical user interfaces. The core database was designed using the unified classification for the construction industry (Uniclass). One of the benefits of using the Uniclass method, apart from providing standards for structuring building information, is that it provides a media for integrating PBS (Product Breakdown Structure) with WBS (Work Breakdown Structure). This is an important aspect for delivering a meaningful 4D model. Integrated interfaces between MS Access Database, AutoCAD Drawings and MS Project Schedules were developed and implemented. Furthermore, the British Standards of layering convention (BS 1192-5) was adapted and implemented. The database was populated automatically with detailed product data directly from 2D or 3D drawings, schedules of work and resources of the School of Health Project. This paper is also addressing object definition, structuring the data, and establishing the relationships and dependencies within the data set, the WBS and building objects as well as modelling the building in 3D in order to capture the essential space- and time-critical attributes of tasks. Practical application of database throughout the construction process has been highlighted and discussed. A proposal for incorporating IFC model is also discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (306,608 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.044096) class.represent (0.019318) class.synthesis (0.018813)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


E Tobin,H Yin, K Menzel

Analysis of Performance Data from HVAC Components for Prediction of Maintenance Requirements

Abstract: This paper describes a methodology which manages a building’s maintenance activities by focusing on the timing of maintenance activities. Its goal is to optimise the trade-off between cost, which is incurred through maintenance activities, and the components health, which varies as a result of maintenance frequency. Here existing data from a BMS is utilises and analysis is performed on this data, with the objective of scheduling maintenance for a component, based on the measured performance of that component. This paper will investigate which data analysis technique provides the most certainty when determining the expected performance level. The major outcome of this paper is to present the certainty levels for each data analysis technique and illustrate how the analysis can be used for predicting maintenance requirements. Also this paper will have presented a methodology for managing maintenance activities and an implementation of these results using a Decision Support Framework for maintenance management. This research is performed as part of a nationally funded project ‘Information Technology for Optimised Building Operation’ (ITOBO).

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Maintenance Management, Performance Based Maintenance, Performance Data Analysis, ITOBO.

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Full text: content.pdf (240,699 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Futcher K G, Rowlinson S

I.T. survey within the construction industry of Hong Kong

Abstract: This paper presents results taken from a 1998 postal survey of the consulting firms and the contractors of the Hong Kong construction industry. The survey included, as one part of the four-part survey instrument, the 'Health Check of the Strategic Exploitation of I.T.' developed by the UK Centre of Excellence for Construct IT (Betts and Shafagi 1997). This paper present the results of the IT health check for a population sample of three hundred and sixteen contractors and another population sample of two hundred and seven consultant firms operating within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

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Full text: content.pdf (74,252 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.055039) class.roadmaps (0.034922) class.impact (0.025544)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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