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A. Mahdavi, A. Mohammadi, E. Kabir, L. Lambeva

An empirically-based approach toward user control action models in buildings

Abstract: In most buildings, occupants operate control devices such as windows, shades, luminaries, radiators, and fans to bring about desirable indoor environmental conditions. Knowledge of such user actions is crucial toward accu-rate prediction of building performance (energy use, indoor climate) and effective operation of building service sys-tems. This paper describes an effort to observe control-oriented occupant behavior in three office buildings in Austria. Thereby, user control actions as related to one or more of the building systems for ambient lighting, shading, window ventilation, and heating were monitored together with indoor and outdoor environmental parameters. The collected data is being analyzed to explore relationships between the kinds and frequency of the control actions and the magni-tude and dynamism of indoor and outdoor environmental changes. Moreover, implications of user actions for building performance (e.g. energy consumption) are studied.

Keywords: Building performance, facility management, action models, occupant behavior

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Full text: content.pdf (461,652 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Alain Zarli, Eric Pascual, Daniel Cheung

Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent and Integrated Controls in Buildings: Current Developments and Future Research

Abstract: A common and acknowledged vision today is the one that, in the future, buildings, along with their components, equipments, and their environment will communicate and be able to provide information on their status ubiquitously. This real-time available information will be interoperable via common protocols for holistic automation & control. The whole building will be supervised by intelligent systems, able to combine information from all connected devices, from the Internet or from energy service providers in order to efficiently control HVAC (heating & cooling), lighting, and hot water systems along with energy production, storage and consumption devices inside the building, taking into account the users' needs and wishes. In such a context, ICT is recognised as key for empowering people in the (built) universe in which they live, with smart e-metering and new smart e-devices – as well as becoming fully pervasive in the future optimization of energy in the built environment - where “Energy-efficient smart buildings” are to be buildings which contain systems that manage information for an optimal operation of building energy flows over the whole building lifecycle.In such a context, CSTB has developed an open framework for data collection and processing, to be installed in any built environment. It supports networked heterogeneous sensors and actuators (with appropriate communication protocols technology), allows assembling various “business” functions (with easy evolution and extension capability thanks to a concept of service composition and event-driven management between modules), can accommodate any hardware platform constraint (memory, computing power), and can be executed in any environments supporting a Java SE implementation. The framework is itself based on an OSGi platform. The notion of “sensor” is to be considered in a comprehensive way: physical sensor (analogic or logic), complex sub-system or meta-sensor (e.g. Agilent data acquisition system or alike), or even external services (e.g. getting weather data via the Internet). Fields of applications are energy-efficiency in the built environment, but also Ambient-Assisted Living (AAL), internal air quality assessment, collection of data related to inhabitants behaviours, etc..The REEB coordination action (European strategic research roadmap to ICT enabled Energy-Efficiency in Buildings and construction), as a European R&D technology roadmap initiative (achieved in the context of an EC-funded Coordinated Action - http://www.ict-reeb.eu) has identified ICT contributions to the energy efficiency of buildings mainly via improvement (and corresponding RTD) in integrated design (and indeed ICT tools for Energy-Efficient design and production management), integrated and intelligent control, user awareness and decision support to various stakeholders throughout the whole life of buildings, energy management and trading, and integration technologies. As far as the integrated / intelligent control field is concerned, REEB has fundamentally identified the following areas for future investigation:• automation & control: system concepts, intelligent HVAC, smart lighting, ICT for micro-generation & storage systems, predictive control;• monitoring: instrumentation: smart metering;• quality of service: improved diagnostics, secure communications;• wireless sensor networks: hardware, operating systems, network design.The paper will first introduce to expectations, requirements and potential future scenarios for ICT to support integrated and optimised control in future so-called smart buildings. It will then introduce to the current trend of developments at CSTB in this area, and will present the CSTBox as a tool federating and/or complementing functions (potentially relying on already installed systems) in the built environment. After a short presentation of the REEB project, the paper will follow up with exhibiting the outcome of the REEB project in terms of roadmapping RTD activities in this technological field, also providing with a first insight of their potential impact in the future.Acknowledgement: the authors wish to thank the European Commission (DG INFSO) for its financial support to the REEB co-ordinated action. Moreover, the authors are also grateful to the REEB Consortium partners, namely ARUP, ACCIONA, CEA, LABEIN, TUD, UCC & VTT.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Intelligent and Integrated Control, REEB project, CSTBox framework, Data collection and storage

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Gabrielaitiene G, Kacianauskas R, Sunden B

Application of the finite element method for modelling of districtheating network

Abstract: This paper presents simultaneous modelling of the fluid flow and heat transfer in a district heatingnetwork. The finite element method is applied here. A major advantage of the finite element methodis the efficiency of verified numerical procedures and standardized information describing the fluid,which may be transferred and communicated with other computer aided design or monitoringsystems.The thermal-hydraulic pipe element of the ANSYS code is modified for these purposes bymodelling the real structure of the pipeline, the heat conductivity and convection. The finite elementmodel is compared to the traditional H.Cross method. A fragment of the district heating system ofthe city Vilnius, Lithuania is used as an illustrative example.

Keywords: flow and heat transfer, finite element method, district heating network.

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Full text: content.pdf (529,228 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Haghighat F

Development of a procedure to evaluate the air leakage distribution from fan pressurization test - validation of three airflow models

Abstract: A number of airflow models have been developed to assist the designer in the design of energy efficient and healthy built environment. The models range from very simple empirical algorithms to calculate the global airflow rate to sophisticated computerized fluid-dynamic techniques solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The multi-zone approach falls between these two extreme cases. This approach assumes that the interior of the building is divided into regions of differing pressures interconnected by leakage paths. The advantage of multi-zone models, besides being able to simulate infiltration in larger buildings, is that they can be used to calculate mass flow interactions between the different zones inside buildings as well as inside and outside. This knowledge is needed for the design of heating/cooling and ventilation systems. An essential part of the development of any computer model is its validation, and the essential information needed for validation of airflow models is the distribution of air leakage distribution. This paper first describes a methodology to distribute global air leakage of whole house and whole garage among cracks and gaps on exterior walls and roof, and report the validation of three airflow models. From the comparisons it can be seen that there are good agreement between the predictions made by the models and measured data, as well as between three models. Therefore, it can be concluded that the methodology for air leakage distribution is correct, and the performances of COMIS, CONTAM and ESP-r for predicting airflow rates in single-family house are similar.

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Full text: content.pdf (198,669 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Kohonen, R., Kosonen, R. and Katajisto, K.

Performance and Control Strategies of Heating Systems in Residential Buildings

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,236 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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Lebru, A.

Optimal Control Theory Applied to a Dwelling Heating

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Full text: content.pdf (847,673 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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M Otreba, D Brennan,K Menzel

Knowledge Management for Integrated Energy Demand, Supply in Buildings ,Campus and District

Abstract: The aim of this research is to produce, from an energy management perspective, a detailed description of the University College Cork, (UCC), campus district heating network. Based on the detailed description of the Campus Network and gathered data, multiple simulations will be carried out to test behavior of three selected buildings with regard to the networks and buildings performance. This paper introduce to the exercise of data collection of existing network. It also defines how to use simulation where some data is missing. Finally it proposes a general idea for knowledge management system that could compile all the information that is necessary to determine campus performance.

Keywords: District energy management, performance analysis, building stock, Building Information Modeling.

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Full text: content.pdf (714,268 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Pakanen J E, Mttnen V J, Hyytinen M J, Ruonansuu H A, Trmkangas K K

A Web-Based Information System For Diagnosing, Servicing And Operating Heating Systems

Abstract: Diagnosing a heating system may turn out to be necessary even for an ordinary customer, like a residential building owner or a facility manager. The need is usually triggered by a technical problem in the system. The customer wants to know how to solve or handle the problem. This paper presents a Web-based information system, called WebDia, which is designed to assist customers with such heating problems. WebDia is a prototype system, constructed for district heating substations and oil heating systems. WebDia incorporates a Web server integrated with a back-end database, accessible from a browser of a PC, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) mobile phone. The general idea behind the development is that the server computer shares its resources and knowledge with the user. Besides fault diagnosis, instructions for servicing and operating the heating system are also essential topics. The information content is gathered from various publications, material provided by manufacturers and interviews with experts. A great deal of the professional information also comes from the fourteen co-operating companies assisting in the system development. WebDia is a collection of dynamic HyperText Markup Language (HTML) pages, but it also includes pictures, photographs, video and audio recordings, and animations. Most of the pages are created using server-side scripting based on Active Server Pages (ASP) technology, but Java applets are also used. Building a system like WebDia turns out to be a tedious process, which requires knowledge and expertise from several disciplines in addition to modern Web authoring and multimedia tools.

Keywords: Web engineering, multimedia, database systems, WAP, PDA, diagnostic methods, heatin

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/4 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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Pakanen J, Mttnen V, Hyytinen M

WebDia - a WWW-based tool for diagnosing, servicing and operating heatingsystems

Abstract: WebDia is a service manual, a help desk and a diagnostic tool on the Web. Technically, it consists of aWeb server and a PC or hand-held computer with an Internet connection, or a WAP mobile phone. Theidea is that the server computer shares its resources and knowledge with the user. Diagnostic decisionssuggested by the server are based on observations made by the user. WebDia is designed for ordinarycustomers, residential building owners, technical house managers and servicemen. The prototype system isconstructed for district heating substations and oil heating systems. Besides diagnosis, instructions forservicing and operating the plant are other essential topics. The Web-based user interface is flexible. Thepresented information is not only hypertext, but also pictures, photographs, video recordings, andanimations. So, the resulted information is comprehensive and easy to understand even for unskilledpersons.

Keywords: diagnostic methods, Web-based tools, help desk, user interface, district heating sub stations, oilheating systems, WAP, hand-held computers

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Full text: content.pdf (302,652 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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R Decorme, E Leang, E Nykanen, J Hakala, Pedro Martin, B Tellado, S Erice Oronoz, O Leyun Perez, H Timmerman, H Schepers

Greening the healthcare sector: 4 hospitals demonstrating advanced controls for lighting and HVAC

Abstract: In the complex environment of a hospital, Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning (HVAC) and Lighting account for nearly 80% of all energy use. The potential savings achievable with investments with a payback time less than seven years can reach up 40% depending on the current condition of the hospital, where HVAC and lighting are the major contributors. Half of it, being 20%, can be attributed to the impact of ICT.The HosPilot project aims to support the decision makers with an integrated approach which helps drastically reduce the energy consumption of newly built hospitals and existing hospitals being refurbished, increasing well being and comfort. The main objective of the project is to develop a methodology that will be able to provide a hardware description for an energy efficient system for any hospital, based on specific requirements of that hospital. This methodology will be proven by creating pilot sites in the partner hospitals, and by monitoring those pilots during one year. In addition, it will be ensured that this HosPilot methodology is applicable everywhere in Europe. This paper elaborates on the developed methodology and the advanced ICTs demonstrated in the pilot buildings in The Netherlands, Spain, Finland, and France.HosPilot is a project focused on energy efficiency in hospitals. It is co-funded by the EC (contract no. 238933) and involves 11 partners in 5 European countries. The project belongs to the ICT Policy Support Programme. It has started in March 2009 and will end in February 2012.

Keywords: energy efficient hospitals, smart lighting, HVAC automation, monitoring

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Full text: content.pdf (261,826 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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