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José Luis Izkara, Juan Pérez, Xabier Basogain, Diego Borro

Mobile augmented reality, an advanced tool for the construction sector

Abstract: Augmented reality is nowadays a novel technology that is acquiring great relevancy as a research area. This technology complements the perception and interaction with the real world and allows placing the user in a real environment augmented with additional information generated by computer. Throughout last years it is increasing the interest and the results reached in the technologies of augmented reality on desktop environments. However there are numerous environments of application of these technologies that require mobility of the user, need of access to the in-formation at any time and any place, in these cases there becomes necessary the utilization of mobile devices. Construc-tion Sector is a clear example. The development of mobile computing solutions is crucial in construction sites. The per-manent change of the site (workers, activities, work place, etc.) implies that users need to get permanently updated in-formation. Mobile computing solutions make this information available without reducing or disturbing the mobility and agility of the users. In this paper we present the mobile augmented reality as an advanced and innovative tool for the construction sector. This technology has a high potential to achieve more sustainability, profitability and higher quality level in this sector. It is structured in two main sections. An initial one that analyses the current status of the augmented reality technologies using mobile devices and describes the benefits provided by these technologies, the most recent challenges achieved, the novel applications and the problems not yet solved. And a second one that analyses the poten-tial applications of the mobile augmented reality in the construction sector and describes a scenario in which the use of mobile computing solutions makes possible to increase efficiency and safety in construction sites.

Keywords: augmented reality, construction, building, mobile computing

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Full text: content.pdf (699,404 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Ken Thomas, Brian Graham, John Wall

Learning about IT and learning using IT - a review of current practice on higher education AEC programmes in Ireland

Abstract: There is a debate concerning the appropriate extent, content and delivery of IT education for AEC pro-grammes. The aim of the research work described in this paper was to generate information to assist the debate, spe-cifically in Ireland, but the results and conclusions may also be of relevance to other countries. A survey of the relevant Heads of Academic Departments in the Universities and Institutes of Technology was carried out in June 2006 with a response rate of 89%. The context to this survey has been the relatively unique development of Ireland over the past ten years (population, economy, IT, construction industry, and higher education) in comparison to other European coun-tries. The recent implementation of the Irish National Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) and its relationship with the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for lifelong learning is also an important contextual issue for this research. The survey results include the range of specific software training on the AEC programmes, as well as the extent of in-clusion of basic IT training, understanding how computers work, understanding and writing computer programmes, consideration of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and the use of Learning Management Systems (LMS). A further interesting feature of the survey has been the identification of the record number of students on higher education AEC programmes in Ireland.

Keywords: IT, AEC, higher education, qualifications framework, Ireland, survey

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Full text: content.pdf (352,600 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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KK Yum

Why interactive multi-disciplinary collaboration in building design is better than document based design

Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical framework of Interactive Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration (IMDisCo) for building design. This framework puts the whole design and communicative process into a project-based problem solving setting that is compatible to today's supply chain management framework. It also offers a set of evaluation methods based on (1) quality, and (2) cost of the design. An analysis of the framework shows that IMDisCo offers more design options than the conventional approach of document based design. With the help of suitable technology, the turn-around-time of design in IMDisCo can be shorter than the conventional approach. And thus the (theoretical) optimal design quality (cost) can be higher (lower) than the document based design. Three critical success factors for the framework have been presented. Finally, this paper discusses the future work of establishing the IMDisCo framework as an industry framework. In the longer term, the emerging new software that supports goal setting, design and evaluation will further enhance the paradigm shift of interactive multi-disciplinary design.

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Full text: content.pdf (224,102 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Klinc Robert

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING TOOL FOR EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

Abstract: Today, we live in the world where the information and communication technologies are developing faster than ever before. We receive information and learn from a variety of sources. However, such learning is rarely related to the official programmes of higher education. Lecturers must compete with, for example, Discovery channel, games and/or other audio/video/internet media. That is why many students today have great expectations which even the well prepared and quality books cannot satisfy. Besides, it is difficult to attract their attention when the lessons are not dynamic and the lectured subject is not illustrated as it could be, considering all the technologies available. This paper describes a possible approach for teaching the basics of earthquake engineering through the use of animations (simulations) and active participation of the students. It could be a great addition to classical teaching methods in civil and earthquake engineering. Besides, the idea and the development of the prototype of the learning tool are described. That type of media gives the lecturer the opportunity to animate students, to give them the possibility to dig deeper into the discussed subject, and to learn through experimenting (‘playing’) with carefully prepared examples.

Keywords: computer based learning

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M Laasonen, M Heinisuo, J Outinen, E Lehtimäki, D Pada

Planning environments of structures in fire

Abstract: The design of structures in fire has usually been based on ISO standard fires. For higher quality design the real situation should be analysed more carefully. This would improve the safety level of the structures and in many cases help avoid redundant fire protections. The method discussed in this paper is the natural fire design documented by [DIFISEK, 2005] where the gas temperatures are based on simulations of realistic natural fires. Fire simulations in this study are done using the FDS program by NIST. The method follows the European standard [EN, 2005] but the design process is still complex. The same building parts should perform smoothly in four different tasks: product modeling, fire simulation, heat transfer from gas to structures, and structural analysis. The utilization of building information models as initial data of fire simulation has been described e.g. in [Dimyadi et al., 2007] and in [Heinisuo et al., 2009]. This paper discusses how different kinds of structural analysis programs can be integrated to the design process and what requirements those programs set for data transfer. The final goal of the research is practical structural design for entire buildings in fire. In this phase, especially fire simulations need computation time but, for example, accurate and continuum finite element models will not be used for the entire building because of the laborious generation and analysis of the model. The most suitable solutions found so far include structural analysis programs where the members can be modeled as one-dimensional elements, beam elements. The heat transfer from gas to members is solved in the analysis program by applying Eurocode rules. At present, no standard data transfer form used in building projects includes all the entity data needed in these tasks. Very different data are needed in the analysis than, for example, in using continuum models for members.

Keywords: BIM, natural fire design, steel structures

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Full text: content.pdf (375,154 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Mao Zhi, Goh Bee Hua, Wang Shouqing, Ofori G

Forecasting construction industry-level total factor productivity growth using neural network modeling

Abstract: Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is widely recognised as a better indicator than Labour Productivity and Multi-Factor Productivity to represent industry-level productivity performance. Productivity is the key determinant of a nation's standard of living and an industry's competitiveness. As such, the ability to predict trends in TFP growth in the construction industry is very important. The factors influencing TFP growth in the construction industry are complicatedly interrelated. This fact made the conventional regression method highly inadaptable to such complex multi-attribute nonlinear mappings. As an AI information-processing tool, the artificial neural network (ANN) system has been proven to be a powerful approach to solving complex nonlinear mappings with higher accuracy than regression methods. However, so far, there has been little application of ANNs in predicting TFP growth in the construction field. This study will for the first time, apply the concepts of ANNs to develop a model to forecast the TFP growth in the case of the construction industry of Singapore. Macro-level information processing models are useful in monitoring and predicting the performance of the construction industry as a whole. With the need to manage construction performance information at all three levels, namely, industry, firm and site, this study looks specifically at developing an 'intelligent' model for forecasting industry-level productivity. Meanwhile, using the same set of data, a model developed by the Multiple Linear Regression method will serve as a benchmark to judge the performance of the ANN model. The ANN model, compared with the traditional regression model, would be expected to have better forecasting ability for TFP growth in the construction industry, in terms of accuracy.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,002 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.037562) class.processing (0.012219) class.legal (0.002318)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Martin Ebner, Ulrich Walder

E-learning in civil engineering – six years of experience at Graz university of technology

Abstract: At Graz University of Technology a lot of experience in the investigation of possibilities of using Multime-dia or Internet based applications in Higher Education has been gathered. Especially in the field of civil engineering we can look back to six years of practice in this field. In 2001 the project iVISiCE (interactive Visualizations in Civil Engineering) was started. A great number of web based animations, visualisations and interactive learning objects have been developed for visualisation and simulation of ba-sic structural concrete relations. During the last two years the buzzword Web 2.0 shocked the traditional e-Learning World. The Internet got more inter-active and usable for end-users. Phrases like “user-generated-content” and “give-and-take-culture” pervade our daily life. From this point of view the Institute of Building Informatics decided to teach using these new tools in order to gather experiences and to play a kind of pioneering role in this field. Since winter 2005 a Wiki is used to support the main lectures of the institute. Students wrote articles themselves and collaborated in the process of learning a pro-gramming language. Finally, since this semester Podcasting has started. This means that each lecture is recorded and provided to the students in various file formats. The paper gives an overview about all activities within the last six years. Beginning with animations and ending with the use of Web 2.0 applications, like Wikis or Podcasts, we have always tried to ensure high quality of our education. In the summary it is clear that these small, but regular innovations definitely helped to improve the lectures in the field of civil engineering.

Keywords: e-learning, building informatics, structural concrete, web 2.0, wiki, podcast

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Full text: content.pdf (828,760 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Masih R

Lift slab structures instability during construction

Abstract: Lift slab structures are built in a method, which makes them inherently vulnerable to static and dynamic instability during the construction stages. The columns cannot be laterally braced in the areas, where temporarily anchored slabs are to be lifted to higher levels, because the bracing will make the lifting process of the slabs to higher level impossible. Thus the columns will stay long and slender above the anchored slabs until the shear walls are built at the lower levels, This situation requires the checking of the whole structure above the shear walls for its stability against its own load. A formula was derived to help in checking the stability of such structures, based on the number of slabs, anchored temporarily at different levels, the distances between those anchored groups and the rigidity of the columns. A computer program was written to enable the construction process envision the critical situation which may cause instability.

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Full text: content.pdf (248,810 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-machine (0.005220) class.software-software (0.005116)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Miles J, Foley A, Moore L

Metaphors and cost significance in a conceptual design decision support system

Abstract: "Currently in the research community, there are a number of styles of conceptual design software being developed. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) which belongs to that class of systems where the search is undertaken by the user with the software providing information and answers. Industrial evaluation by the authors and others has shown that such a style of interaction is well received by practising designers provided that the algorithms and processes used are sufficiently transparent for them to understand and have confidence in the way that the system reaches derives its answers. The system which forms the subject of this paper fully conforms to the above, with all algorithms, constraints and rules being easily accessible to the user. The system is known by the acronym COSTEST. COSTEST provides facilities for the designer to undertake the conceptual design of beam / slab bridges to a far higher level of accuracy than is possible with current practice. It includes facilities for sizing the super and sub-structures as well as FE analysis, a cost estimation routine, a database of structural sizes and material properties and the ability to produce a simple general arrangement and a client report. To enable the user to navigate through the system, understand what facilities are available and what their significance is, the user interface has been structured using the metaphor of the design office. The interface is arranged as a corridor off which are facilities such as a superstructure design office, an estimator’s office, etc. These are arranged around a direct manipulation representation of the sectional general arrangement. It is postulated that such an arrangement reduces the distance between the user’s way of thinking about the design problem and the system’s representation, thus making the system easier to use. Such Visual Interactive Modelling of the domain has been shown to allow users to use the software to learn about their own subjective values while dealing with the technical issues. The cost estimation component of COSTEST is based on the concept that for any bridge 80% of the total cost is contained in the 20% of items that are most cost significant. This idea has been developed by Horner but further analysis of existing bridges was undertaken as part of this work. The result is a simple cost model which is easy to use and yet far more accurate than current conceptual design practice. In particular it allows an accurate comparison to be made between options. COSTEST has been developed in conjunction with a number of practising bridge designers and the final system has been evaluated both by these people and other independent designers. The results of the evaluation are generally positive."

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Full text: content.pdf (276,555 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.056510) class.bestPractise (0.043429) class.economic (0.015023)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Morabito G

Efficiency evaluation of the project level of CAD

Abstract: Importance of the availability of adeguate technical cadres far design The availability of adeguate tcchnical cadres is a fundamental elements for the definition of productivev process. Among these processes, those pertaining to design need higher levels of knowledge. The availability is connected to the training which becomes continually longer and more complex due to the continual rise in the minimum levels of learning, This is due to the development of learning as well as to the increase of the complexity of projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,044,502 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.047401) class.education (0.028282) class.economic (0.010247)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


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