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A decision support system for building refurbishment design

Abstract: "Refurbishment work in the EC currently accounts for more than one-third of the total construction output. This market is expected to grow stronger with the progressive ageing of buildings and the environment impetus to retain buildings. A further dimension is the need to adapt buildings for a greying population. There are important differences between refurbishment and new construction works. The existing building constraints the design solutions, construction technologies and work methods. Mechanisation, planning, and efficient organisation of refurbishment work is difficult, due to the small, labour intensive, and ad hoc, dynamic nature of the work. Also due to the relatively small scale of refurbishment projects, there have been no opportunities for standardisation and the applications of prefabrication and industrialisation are limited. Today, larger sized contractors are rapidly moving into the refurbishment market, in response to the shrinking new-build market and the higher technological demands of large scale refurbishment projects. The EC funded Brite Euram project 4670 is titled ‘Decision Support Systems for Building Refurbishment.’ This project has started in August 1998 and will finish in July 2001. Its objective is to develop a socio-technological-commercial framework and corresponding Decision Support Systems (DSSs) for housing refurbishment, to achieve: ? refurbishments which are more focused on user requirements; ? refurbishment designs which take into account the constraints of the existing building structure; ? increased incorporation of industrialised systems and components; ? organisational procedures and production technologies that recognise the unique nature of refurbishment work. The project is divided into three tasks. Task one aims at developing a DSS for the determination of the refurbishment demand and ballpark costs. Task two involves the development of a DSS for refurbishment design. Task three will result in a DSS for refurbishment process planning and control. This paper describes the approach followed for the ongoing development in task two, the DSS for refurbishment design. The main objectives of this task are to provide decision support at the project level. It will develop a database of layouts of representative existing housing estates and a database of preferred refurbishment layouts for these representative existing housing estates. Another database will be developed containing information on building systems and components that are relevant for the refurbishment process. Task two will establish a protocol for refurbishment design support. This protocol, which is implemented in a decision support information system, involves a number of steps that aid the user in selecting an appropriate housing layout and building systems and components that meet the user’s requirements. These steps involve the evaluation of a the user’s refurbishment demands and selection of a matching representative existing housing layout. Based on further dialog with the system, a preferred refurbishment layout is selected, which in turn is used as the basis for the selection of building systems and components that meet the performance requirements as stated by the user. The paper describes the methodology that is implemented in the system for retrieving performance requirements from the user, and the approaches for matching these to the stock of existing and preferred housing layouts available in the system’s database. The system is characterised by a flexible architecture of both the databases and the user interface, which results in a scalable system that allows the expansion of the databases with new graphical layouts and building systems and components, as well as the addition of new kinds of performance requirements. The system is implemented as an Internet application, which allows the database to be maintained centrally and facilitates world wide access to the system. The system’s implementation involves the combination of graphical and non-graphical data that can be queried and matched with only typical Internet browsing software installed at the client-side."

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Full text: content.pdf (465,782 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.029035) class.environment (0.012122) class.impact (0.010657)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Ahmed V, Mahdjoubi L, Feng X, Leach M

The learning of CAD for construction: technical abilities or visual?

Abstract: The increasing demands of the construction industry for individuals with good IT skills add continuous pressures on higher education to improve their methods of teaching. CAD training, as an important part of IT training for construction students, is becoming an essential part of the curriculum in most built environment schools. However, general CAD training is mostly concerned with providing students with technical skills rather than the initial ability of spatial visualisation. Indeed, existing training methods of CAD applications, do not take into consideration students? learning styles, and the differences in their spatial visualisation abilities. Considering that CAD students need to perform various activities within CAD applications to develop an understanding of building concepts and components, their spatial visualisation abilities and their learning style, remain the main barriers. This paper identifies the learning strategies required to assist with the learning of 3D modelling and describes a new approach adopted to examine students' Special Visualisation Skills. The paper also describes innovative e-learning approaches developed to reinforce students' learning of 3D CAD, tracking their progress and highlighting qualitative measures of their effectiveness.

Keywords: 3D modelling, e-learning in construction, CAL, CAA

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Full text: content.pdf (595,899 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Alan Hore, Barry McAuley and Roger West

BIM Innovation Capability Programme of Ireland

Abstract: The Irish Government has requested that Enterprise Ireland, an organisation responsible for the development and growth of Irish enterprises in world markets to actively promote the use of BIM in Ireland. This promotion has taken the form of an opportunity for Enterprise Ireland clients to apply for a grant under their BIM Enable and BIM Implementation schemes and also through their funding of the BIM Innovation Capability Programme (BICP) of Ireland. The BICP is a two-year project (2016-2018) which seeks to capture the capability of the Irish Construction Industry and the Higher Education Institutes to respond to the increased requirement for BIM in Ireland. One of the primary responsibilities of the BICP research team is to collate data to assist the Irish National BIM Council (NBC) in the formulation of a National BIM Roadmap. To achieve this a global and local BIM study was undertaken in 2016. This involved extensive desk-top based research exploring the value proposition behind what governments and professional bodies are doing to advance BIM in their respective countries. The research identified a number of common themes or pillars that Ireland will need to further address before a roadmap is formally disseminated. After exploration of these pillars, within an Irish context, it was found that despite a lack of standards and contractual frameworks, it has not prevented the industry from deploying BIM on Irish projects

Keywords: BIM, Irish Roadmap, Public Works, BIM Innovation Capability Programme

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0079

Full text: content.pdf (428,704 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Alty J L

Information Technology and the Construction Industry: Another Tower of Babel ?

Abstract: The application of information technology (IT) to the construction industry has not been outstandingly successful and does not seem to have produced the benefits which other industries have achieved. A number of reasons for this are highlighted, some already well-known. However some serious mismatches between the technologies and the requirements of the industry are also identified. It is suggested that new developments in multimedia interfaces and computer supported co-operative working may reduce this mismatch and result in a higher level of take-up of the technology.

Keywords: human interface; group working; multimedia; construction industry; groupware

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Full text: content.pdf (733,652 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Andresen J L

How to select an IT evaluation method - in the context of construction

Abstract: In a number of surveys (both national and international) it has been highlighted that companies from the construction industry have difficulties with evaluating IT investments (Andresen 1999;CICA and CIRIA 1995). The reasons for this are many but one of the major ones is the poor adoption of IT evaluation methods. This paper focuses on how companies can choose between the many available IT evaluation methods by presenting a framework for how to choose a matching method. The primary objective of the paper is to present the findings of a completed Ph.D. project, but also importantly to discuss why this topic is relevant for companies in the construction industry by highlighting the benefits of increased knowledge of the value of companies' IT investments. The framework has been developed on the basis of both theoretical and empirical data collection and analysis of the available methods, a questionnaire survey and five case studies. Firstly, 82 IT evaluation methods have been identified in a literature review (and the list is not complete), from which a number of characteristics have been derived, and this has enabled a categorisation of the identified methods. Secondly, a national survey was completed investigating the sophistication of the Danish companies' IT evaluation practice. This was done in order to establish an overview of current IT evaluation practice. Thirdly, five case studies were completed in which four different methods were tested according to their usefulness in real-life IT evaluations. The presented framework consists of (a) 21 parameters (which can be used to describe the characteristics of different IT evaluation scenarios), (b) a weighting system (allowing putting a higher emphasis on certain parameters) and (c) a set of procedures for identifying a matching IT evaluation method. The framework's output has been validated by comparing these with the experience gained in the case studies.

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Full text: content.pdf (520,674 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.021078) class.roadmaps (0.020571) class.processing (0.007171)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Aouad G, Cooper R, Kagioglou M, Hinks J, Sexton M

A synchronised process/IT model to support the co- maturation of processes and IT in the construction sector

Abstract: In recent years many efforts had taken place in order to develop process and IT maps within the construction sector. However, the subject of co-maturation between IT and the process has not been given enough attention. This has resulted in the development of impractical solutions because of an apparent lack of balance between the IT and process capabilities. For instance, some organisations in the construction sector have adopted the rapid prototyping concept which is widely used within the manufacturing sector without even investing in 3D modelling and VR technologies which are the most appropriate for this task. Paradoxically, some organisations have invested in these technologies, but rapid prototyping is non existent. This paper addresses the issue of co-maturation between the process and IT in order to establish a balanced profile. The work is based on the CMM (Capability Maturity Model) model which was developed by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University in order to develop software for the US government, particularly to be used by the Department of Defence. The CMM is a five-level model which include ad-hoc, repeatable, defined, managed and optimised stages. The model is designed so that capabilities at lower stages provide progressively stronger foundations for higher stages, reducing the change management risks. Each development stage - or "maturity level" distinguishes an organisation’s process or IT capability. This paper builds on the work achieved within the generic design and construction process protocol (GDCPP) which is being undertaken at the university of Salford. The main contribution of this paper is a conceptual model of co-maturation between IT and process. A synchorised IT/process model will be presented and discussed. This model is being developed through knowledge obtained form the industrial collaborators of the GDCPP project.

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Full text: content.pdf (120,604 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.029904) class.processing (0.022049) class.impact (0.010457)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


B Ksiê¿opolski & Z Kotulski

On scalable security model for sensor networks protocols

Abstract: Distributed sensor networks meet many different barriers that reduce their efficient applicability. One of them is requirement of assurance of the information security when it is transmitted, transformed, and stored in the electronic service. It is possible to provide an appropriate level of security applying the present-day information technology. However, the level of the protection of information applied to the whole network is often much higher than it is necessary to meet potential threats. Since the level of security strongly affects the performance of whole system, the excessive protection decreases the system's reliability and availability and, as a result, the global security of the construction. In this paper we present a model of scalable security for digital information transmission systems for the sensor network. In our model the basic element is the risk management procedure leading to an adequate protection level.

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Full text: content.pdf (347,535 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


B Vladimir, T Maile, J T. O’Donnell, C M Rose, N Mrazovi_

DATA ENVIRONMENTS AND PROCESSING IN SEMI-AUTOMATED SIMULATION WITH ENERGYPLUS

Abstract: Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is increasingly used worldwide to quantitatively justify building design decisions and building operations strategies. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the results of such simulation are often questionable, cannot be trusted, and may lead to wrong decisions. Poor simulation model definition and the use of inappropriately acquired and transformed data are two of the most common causes of this. The use of LBNL methodology for semi-automated BEP simulation data input automates data acquisition and transformation, which removes human decision making from the simulation input data definition process. The first of the three major software components (the Geometry Simplification Tool or GST) is already in use. Work on the second component (an interoperable HVAC graphic user interface for EnergyPlus) is under development. The third component (an internal loads generation tool) will be developed in the near future. The original HVAC GUI for EnergyPlus component has evolved into a BEP simulation platform code-named Mojito. A new internal data model which defines all object/attribute/ relationship sets used in BEP simulation, called SimModel, is the central feature of Mojito. Modeling imprecision is very characteristic of geometry representation in building models submitted by the Architecture-Engineering-Construction-Owners-Operator (AECOO) industry. This, and the lagging and very slow development of CAD utilities that can generate higher-level space boundaries needed in BEP simulation, has forced the development of a new tool (SBT) that calculates higher-level space boundaries from IFC-compliant definition of basic building geometry from any model-based CAD tool. It has also forced the addition of new data transformation rules in GST. This paper describes the principles and high-level views of SimModel, SBT and GST internal architectures, and discusses some of the model and tool functionalities. It also provides a brief summary of quality assessment characteristic of building models generated in the AECOO industry.

Keywords: Building data, semi-automated simulation, simulation software, energy simulation data model, data transformation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,506,890 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Bento J, Azevedo J, Oliveira C S

Predicting ground otion descriptions through artificial neural networks

Abstract: "The present paper addresses the problem of predicting the description of an expected earthquake through the associated ground motion record that would be recorded at a given site. For that purpose, a number of previous ground motion records referring to 100 different earthquakes occurring within a reasonably small geographic area (Northern California) have been acquired and processed in order to extract some of the features that could describe them more synthetically than the full records. The attributes thus generated were used to train a feedforward network in order to map them into what can be called higher level descriptors of each earthquake, such as the magnitude or the peak accelerations, for example. Once such mapping is obtained, one may infer a number of attributes that would allow the artificial generation of the accelerograms corresponding to ""expected earthquakes"" described resorting to those higher level descriptors"

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Full text: content.pdf (408,837 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.031791)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Bharat D

Building industry and the agents of change

Abstract: The infornmtion technology and the changes it brings about are recent and evolving phenomena. In the absence of established historical perspectives, many previous studies have focused on the information technology issues that are of only immediate concern to the building industry and thus provide only limited perspectives. In this paper, we suggest that it is an appropriate time to look beyond the technological bottlenecks such as incompatibility of software or hardware, prohibitive resource investments, and others that are often cited as the reasons impeding applications of the information technology in the building industry. With the new developments taking place in the information technology, the gradual and paced changes in the building industry organizations will be rephced by changes with a bigger scope and a higher momentum. These changes will not result in simply a new breed of professionals who become another discrete part of the web comprising the building industry; they will affect the very web defining the building industry. Additionally, the technological developments that will bring about such changes are presently being carried out by forces external to the building irtdustty thus further obscuring their potential impacts. Five key information technology advances are submitted here as the agents of significant change in future: networks, groupware, robotics, flexible manufacturing, and microprocessor embedded building components. It is argued that the building industry needs to expand the debate about the role of the information technology by taking account of developments which presently lie outside its immediate and traditional concern. The paper initiates this discussion and describes a number of likely impacts of the new technology on the educational, professional and organizational spheres in the building industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,994,845 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.050231) class.environment (0.047416) class.man-man (0.024687)
Similar papers:
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


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