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Alina Delgado, Frank DeTroyer

Process Model for Understanding Stakeholders Expectations in New Projects Development

Abstract: There is in construction a fundamental change in the making and delivering of successful new projects: the focus shifts towards value adding for projects based on a better understanding of stakeholders expectations. The process of modelling this new paradigm in construction will put “the creation of value in the eyes of the client”, central in the development of new projects. This paper describes a model that is designed to help stakeholders to achieve their expectations regarding urban and housing projects. The process of integrating different sub-models (costs and qualities) is examined and includes quality evaluations based on people’s preferences and willingness to pay. The model is developed through a methodological pluralism, identifying people-oriented variables. The different parts of the model are described, besides data requirements for each part. The development of the model was based on a case study carried out on the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador. Information obtained from a field work research was used for testing of the model. The study examines implications and limitations of the use of the model for inclusion of stakeholders. The paper concludes with findings regarding the identification of most preferred attributes by housing users and the use of alternatives methods to incorporated additional value to the projects, translated in more appealing profits for developers and the provision of better and affordable houses for the users.

Keywords: urban process model, stakeholders, value, profitability, affordability

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Avani Goyal, Ahmet Kilinc, Minkyung Kang and Burcu Akinci

Energy Efficient Improvements to the Envelope of Low-Income Housing: A Case Study of Habitat for Humanity Homes

Abstract: Low-income families pay substantial portions of their total expenditure on household energy bills, making them vulnerable to rising energy costs. Habitat for Humanity houses are built for low-income families and made affordable with volunteer work and construction material donations. Hence, the trade-off between the homes initial construction costs and their life-time energy costs must be evaluated carefully. This paper targets to support better-informed decisions that balance the affordability of certain construction materials with their potential for energy efficiency. In collaboration with Habitat for Humanity of Westchester, we created an energy simulation model of an existing low-income house and calculated the homes annual energy usage with different design alternatives for windows and walls. The resulting estimated annual energy savings are then evaluated alongside their initial investment costs, which were retrieved from RS Means standard construction cost data and quotations from industry. The results show that it is possible to reduce the energy cost of these houses without significantly increasing the construction costs through exploration of different wall and window options. While specific enclosure suggestions apply to this case-study, the utilized approach on exploring different options to identify opportunities to save energy can be used to understand impact on the lives of low-income families.

Keywords: Low-Income Housing, Energy Efficiency, Cost Analysis, Residential Housing, Habitat for Humanity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0067

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C Gouy-Pailler, H Najmeddine, A Mouraud, F Suard, C Spitz, A Jay, P Marchal

DISTANCE AND SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR SENSORSSELECTION IN HEAVILY INSTRUMENTED BUILDINGS:APPLICATION TO THE INCAS PLATFORM

Abstract: Energy management in residential buildings is taking an increasing role in the construction workflows.It entails understanding thermal processes at stake in the buildings and quantifying energyconsumption, which meets inhabitants comfort requirements. Experimental platforms such as INCASaim at providing experts with a practical way to study such problems in real conditions. These heavilyequipped buildings yield huge amounts of real-time data (sampling rates, number and types of sensors)for which new automatic approaches could be useful to thermal experts. Generic similarity measuresfrom data-mining could therefore provide comprehensive analysis tools to thermal experts. This paper focuses on the ability of some distance and similarity measures to organize millions ofdata from homogeneous and heterogeneous sensors into coherent clusters. Simplifying datainterpretations to thermal experts in highly equipped buildings, this approach could also stand as abasis for studying smart grids of less equipped domestic houses studies. Two types of similarity measures are explored. The first one consists of a set of three distances,and accounts for differences in terms of amplitude scaling and shifting between pairs ofmeasurements. It relies on the comparison of homogeneous sensors by quantifying the relativeproximity of their amplitude in terms of mean value, variance and time shift. The second type ofsimilarity measure employs a pre-processing step transforming continuous signals into binary events.The resulting spike trains are then compared by quantifying the amount of unitary transformations(events moves or events deletions/additions) needed to align pairs of events sequences. These proximity measures are computed on real data from experimental buildings of the INCASplatform. It comprises three experimental buildings (with different construction types) dedicated totesting various approaches regarding systems, control and energy-saving policies. These geometricallyidentical buildings are equipped with hundreds of sensors measuring temperature, humidity,differential pressure, and others data at various positions of the structures with sampling rates of onemeasurement per minute. Simulation-based temperatures are integrated in the sensors set providing acomparison between real and simulated data. Results illustrate the contribution of the applied methods when dealing with large amounts ofmeasurements related to instrumented buildings behaviors. Actually results show that coherent clustersregarding distinct signal properties are automatically generated. These clusters can be used fordimensionality reduction (clusters of sensors could be summarized by a single virtual measurement),or relative comparisons between sensors or between real and simulated datasets.

Keywords: INCAS, low-energy consumption, sensor selection, multivariate data mining

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Drogemuller R M, Smith J

Integrating the building procurement process using knowledge based technology

Abstract: Computer based methods for facilitating building procurement have been proposed for over twenty years, but progress on such systems has been slow. This paper describes a project built around a three dimensional computer model of the building to be constructed, Knowledge based techniques are used to build up the level of detail required at each stage of development. Data entry requirements are minimised since only the information unique to the project need be entered. Standard information is stored as default values from previous similar projects. The user interface is simple, with a combination of menus to control the flow of information and dialogues to enter textual information. An intelligent CAD interface is used to enter the building geometry. The system has been developed around the design and construction of detached houses, but the principles demonstrated are relevant across the standard building types. In its current form the user can access the geometric and spatial parameters of the building, derive costing data and perform thermal analyses. There is an option to export scheduling information to an eaernal CPM program. This furnishes the basis for planning the construction activities. The flexibility of the system indicates that knowledge based systems are a viable technology for assisting construction management.

Keywords: knowledge based systems; knowledge based estimating; multi-expert system; geometric reasoning; Prolog

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Duarte J P

Introducing cam technologies in pavicentro housing production system

Abstract: Pavicentro is a Portuguese factory that mass produces prefabricated houses based on a concrete box system. Among the goals that directed the development of this system were concerns for quality and customized production. Nevertheless, while quality improved, the initial concern for customization soon faded into common mass production. The paper points out the opportunity provided by CAD/CAM technologies to develop a truly customized mass production process. Such a process would extend design diversity and enhance design quality, thus increasing customer satisfaction. The paper identifies areas of production with a greater potential for the introduction of CADICAM, which are related to the production of secondary elements, including precastconcrete and nonconcrete elements.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Grabska E, Borkowski A

Generating floor layouts by means of composite representation

Abstract: The paper deals with the design of single-family houses. Within the framework of graph trans- formations we introduce the composite representation. It facilitates reasoning about design at two levels: the syntactic level and the semantic level. The design process includes the interaction of constraints and design context with the graph rules used to describe topological properties. Several examples demonstrate application of the developed software.

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Hakkanen M

Metex - a maintenance evaluation tool for apartment houses

Abstract: METEX is a spreadsheet application by which annual running costs for maintenance and repairs can be estimated simply. It is meant for apartment houses (condominiums ), but there is no bars to use it for any building type. It can be used both for economical cost controlling in design stage of building process and in annual cost budgeting. The development work was financed by Ministry of the Environment in Finland and VTT.

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Helena Johnsson, Linus Malmgren, Stefan Persson

ICT support for industrial production of houses the Swedish case

Abstract: The Swedish construction sector is currently undergoing great changes. The large costs for labour have forced the construction companies to rationalise and minimise labour intense work operations. Therefore, the current trend in construction to adopt the principles of lean production and transform it into lean construction, suits the Swed-ish way of working and the entire Swedish construction sector has caught on. A growing market is the prefabrication of building elements that are transported to site and then erected. The development has been taken so far that modular houses i.e. vol-umes/rooms are prefabricated. Companies in the prefabrication industry within construction fall between two sectors; the construction industry and the manufacturing industry. In terms of IT support the contradiction between the two sectors become evident. Software developed for the construction sector seldom provide enough detailing to suffice as a basis for industrial production, while software supporting the manufacturing industry are incapable of delivering standard construction documenta-tion. The current study presents a multiple case study where six Swedish industrial manu-facturers of timber houses were studied. The process from tender acceptance to mod-ule delivery is described. Alongside, a survey of the building sys-tem revealed that much still needs to be done in terms of documenting a building system. The results show that the ques-tion of IT support is more a question of consequent information strategies than eloquent IT tools. The pressing need for a method for documenting building systems is stressed and different methods are discussed.

Keywords: timber houses, industrial construction, lean construction, timber buildings

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Jardim-Goncalves R, Sousa P, Pimentao J, Steigergarcao A, Grilo A, Tadeu L

Integration of planning and control activities for building and construction: experiencing standards

Abstract: The effective exchange of information regarding the planning and control activities (schedules, resources, materials, cost, cash flow) between the different parties involved in building and construction projects is a critical success factor to avoid projects' time and costs overrun and to insure better quality. However, current applications and research and development efforts on electronic exchange of information are usually restricted to the exchange of technical design information, particularly CAD exchange amongst designers and between these and contractors; and of business data (purchase orders, invoices, remittance advice, etc.), between contractors and builders, merchants and suppliers. This paper will review current practitioners' approach to the exchange of planning and control information, and discuss the business need to the seamless flow of scheduling, resource, materials, and cost information between firms. Different technical solutions available to address the subject will be described. Through the description of the experience in this area of two European projects, RoadRobot and SUMMIT, the paper will also describe the state-of-the-art regarding the development of international standards for the exchange of planning and control information, particularly at the EDIFACT, STEP and IAI levels. RoadRobot - Operator Assisted Mobile Road Robot for Heavy Duty Civil Engineering Applications, was a project devoted to implement a general standard-based architecture to support the information management for road construction environments, covering from the road design to road construction, embracing the site, cell, machine and tool levels. SUMMIT - Supply Chain Management In Construction Industry, is an end-user driven project which envisages the creation, implementation, test and evaluation of an EDI, STEP and IAI/IFC based communication infrastructure on a specific project of building prefabricated houses, connecting project manager, contractor and suppliers. This paper shows that international standards for planning and control information in B and C are not yet enough developed and that further developments are required.

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Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.016652) class.software-machine (0.015641) class.commerce (0.015140)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


M Lapointe, R Beauregard & S DAmours

An exploration of design systems for mass customization of factory-built timber frame homes

Abstract: Demographic trends are forcing the homebuilding industry to speed up the industrialization process through mass customization. Our survey of companies in the sector of factory-built timber frame homes shows that data processing for the prefabrication of houses and their structural components comprises many iterations which generate a bottleneck at the technical design function. Companies must generate considerable agility in their design function to deal with repeated change in orders and to coordinate multidisci-plinary information, while controlling costs, delays and quality. In order to develop mass customization of factory-built timber houses, our study proposes a design system framework, taking advantage of a product platform based solution. The framework aims at integrating functional requirements and constraints in house engineering and manufacturing. Such conceptual work is an initial step towards emulating a multi-agent based method capable to provide proper coordination through proper data exchange required for the processes of the homebuilding value creation network.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitt Dresden.


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