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A Redmond, A Hore, R West, J Underwood, M Alshawi

Developing a Horizontal Integrated Life Cycle Costing Analysis Model through BIM

Abstract: Advancing interoperability between design team applications has been a major challenge for advocates of open standards. The buildingSmart alliance and Open Geospatial Consortium Inc in the U.S. have developed and implemented an Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner Operator, Phase 1 Testbed that streamlines communications between parties at the conceptual design phase to establish an early understanding of the tradeoffs between construction cost and energy efficiency. The results of this Testbed combined with an on-going collaborative R&D project ‘Inpro’ co-funded by the European Commission to identify business and legal issues of Building Information Modeling in construction were used as theoretical propositions underlying a 2010 Delphi survey. This paper presents the results of one questionnaire of that overall study. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to (i) identifying the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii) detecting the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii) examining the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, (iv) exploring the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information, and (v) investigating the industry’s perception on whether the development of a Cloud based BIM Life Cycle Costing would be of significant use to the Irish and UK construction industry. The rationale for this research is to refine the results of the initial questionnaire, AECOO-1, and Inpro R&D projects in order to determine if a prototype based on developing a cloud integrated LCC model through BIM could be generated in the UK and, Ireland and if so, what would be the legalities of implementing such a project.

Keywords: Cloud, BIM, Information Exchange, Interoperability, LCC

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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AD Dawson & N Pham

Process Complexity and Cultural Baggage - Barriers to Change

Abstract: Recent research at Deakin University in Australia has focused on developing a highly detailed understanding of current organisational interactions and information flows in the construction industry. This is leading to the development of a detailed process model which is being tested against a field study construction project. The field study reveals highly complex information flows and interdependencies between stakeholders such as designers, project managers, clients, contractors, subcontractors and suppliers. This, combined with the results from a recent project identifying inhibitors to the take up of IT in the construction industry undertaken by the IAI-Australasian Chapter allow conclusions to be drawn as to whether the current construction industry structure lends itself to increased levels of ICT or whether fundamental cultural changes are required before further beneficial ICT implementation is able to be achieved.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,382,166 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Alina Delgado, Frank DeTroyer

Process Model for Understanding Stakeholders Expectations in New Projects Development

Abstract: There is in construction a fundamental change in the making and delivering of successful new projects: the focus shifts towards value adding for projects based on a better understanding of stakeholders expectations. The process of modelling this new paradigm in construction will put “the creation of value in the eyes of the client”, central in the development of new projects. This paper describes a model that is designed to help stakeholders to achieve their expectations regarding urban and housing projects. The process of integrating different sub-models (costs and qualities) is examined and includes quality evaluations based on people’s preferences and willingness to pay. The model is developed through a methodological pluralism, identifying people-oriented variables. The different parts of the model are described, besides data requirements for each part. The development of the model was based on a case study carried out on the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador. Information obtained from a field work research was used for testing of the model. The study examines implications and limitations of the use of the model for inclusion of stakeholders. The paper concludes with findings regarding the identification of most preferred attributes by housing users and the use of alternatives methods to incorporated additional value to the projects, translated in more appealing profits for developers and the provision of better and affordable houses for the users.

Keywords: urban process model, stakeholders, value, profitability, affordability

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Alshawi M, Underwood J

A process and an object oriented analysis to integrate design and construction

Abstract: This study is aimed at identifying design related problems encountered by contractors with the intention of minimising them. A full process analysis was carried out on the design function of concrete framed ofice buildings whereby site problems were traced back to the relevant design information. Design processes that significantly contribute to these problems were highlighted along with their data flows. An Object-Oriented Analysis method has then been applied to model the information in terms of the fundamental ideas that underlie object- oriented technology i.e. object types and classes, methods, requests, encapsulation and inheritance. Proceeding through the five major activities of Coad & Yourdon's OOA method, a complete OOA model has been developed with potential to improve the construction related problems.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,068,128 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.047990) class.analysis (0.011928) class.store (0.004918)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Amor R, Marsh R, Hutchison A

Electronic news service for the european construction industry

Abstract: "Abstract The Electronic News Service (ENS at http://www.connet.org/NS/Intl/) is an AltaVista-like service which is specialised for the construction industry. It has been developed as one of the services in the EC project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/). The ENS provides a searchable index of the contents of Internet sites relevant to the built environment. The database containing the source set of Internet sites to index has information on over 14,300 Internet sites across the world, categorised and classified by several criteria. This base set of Internet sites is drawn from all major lists offered to the construction industry (e.g., Yahoo, EEVL, UK-BRP, etc) and from published sources (e.g., Architect's Journal, Building magazine, etc). Over 35 major lists of site sources are utilised to build, maintain, and grow this set of 14,300 resources for the construction industry. The ENS service provides all in the industry with a free method of identifying sources of information based on the content of a web page or service based classifications. Users are able to define profiles for news they have an interest in and to be periodically, and automatically, notified of new or modified web pages and sites which meet their criterion. Running the ENS within the CONNET network provides mechanisms to link together all news services, which are available, to provide answers to user requests across complimentary systems, or even to take requests established for news and use them to identify other information sources of relevance (e.g., publications, software, products). This paper will describe the ENS, the methods it uses to gather and index construction information across the world, and the services it offers to the construction industry. However, the main content of this paper will be an analysis of the references gathered from the 35 major lists of resources which are established across the world. This analysis looks at the overlap that exists between the Internet sites referred to by each of these lists (which is remarkably small), the particular biases which appear in the lists (mainly towards English language and USA-based information), the currency of the sites in the lists (quite poor), and the predicted coverage of total construction-based Internet resources found in all of these lists. Our analysis of the lists also shows a relatively small number of 'must have' sites, which are included in the majority of the lists operated around the world. These 'must have' sites are highlighted and analysed to provide an understanding of what makes these sites of such great importance to the whole industry."

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Full text: content.pdf (885,898 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.028828) class.man-man (0.010240) class.analysis (0.010151)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Andresen J L

How to select an IT evaluation method - in the context of construction

Abstract: In a number of surveys (both national and international) it has been highlighted that companies from the construction industry have difficulties with evaluating IT investments (Andresen 1999;CICA and CIRIA 1995). The reasons for this are many but one of the major ones is the poor adoption of IT evaluation methods. This paper focuses on how companies can choose between the many available IT evaluation methods by presenting a framework for how to choose a matching method. The primary objective of the paper is to present the findings of a completed Ph.D. project, but also importantly to discuss why this topic is relevant for companies in the construction industry by highlighting the benefits of increased knowledge of the value of companies' IT investments. The framework has been developed on the basis of both theoretical and empirical data collection and analysis of the available methods, a questionnaire survey and five case studies. Firstly, 82 IT evaluation methods have been identified in a literature review (and the list is not complete), from which a number of characteristics have been derived, and this has enabled a categorisation of the identified methods. Secondly, a national survey was completed investigating the sophistication of the Danish companies' IT evaluation practice. This was done in order to establish an overview of current IT evaluation practice. Thirdly, five case studies were completed in which four different methods were tested according to their usefulness in real-life IT evaluations. The presented framework consists of (a) 21 parameters (which can be used to describe the characteristics of different IT evaluation scenarios), (b) a weighting system (allowing putting a higher emphasis on certain parameters) and (c) a set of procedures for identifying a matching IT evaluation method. The framework's output has been validated by comparing these with the experience gained in the case studies.

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Full text: content.pdf (520,674 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.021078) class.roadmaps (0.020571) class.processing (0.007171)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Annie Guerriero, Gilles Halin, Sylvain Kubicki

INTEGRATING TRUST CONCEPTS IN A DASHBOARD INTENDED FOR THE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Abstract: The growing complexity of AEC projects leads to increase the importance of the building construction coordinator’s role. Moreover, the uncertainty linked to the environment of the building construction activity makes way for the notion of trust. The coordinator canmake use of a multiple tools/views for accomplishing his mission (e.g. planning, meeting report) but these views offer only a limited vision of the cooperation context. So we suggest analyzing data coming from these different views to obtain some trust indicators informing the coordinator about trust in the good progress of the building construction activity. Our approach distinguishes 4 aspects of the activity conditioning the global trust level: task progress, actor’s performance, documents required to perform the task, and building elements resulting from the task. Our proposal suggests introducing these trust indicators in a dashboard included in a multi-view interface allowing the coordinator identifying the tasks with a low level of trust and understanding the nature of the potential dysfunctions.

Keywords: Building construction, Coordination, Trust, IT-support, Dashboard, Model-Driven Engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (484,486 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Bloomfield D P

The role of case studies in the uptake of innovation in construction

Abstract: The UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions has initiated a Construction Best Practice programme. The primary objective is to improve management best practices. The technical performance of the industry also needs to be improved by identifying and promoting opportunities for industry to adopt new technical innovations and incorporate them into standard practices. Accordingly, a series of Technical Best Practice initiatives will be set up. One of these will cover Construction IT. It is expected that Case Study material will form an important element of the IT Best Practice programme. Concrete examples of use of technology in practice are likely to be more convincing than simple exhortations and theoretical reports. There are three major issues that need to be addressed. 1. A Case Study is, by its nature, very specific and it can be difficult for the reader to ascertain if there is sufficient commonality between the problem described and the situation that he/she faces in order to assess whether the solutions are applicable. 2. It is difficult to describe the problem and solutions in sufficient detail, yet in a way that encourages the material to be read, understood and used. Ideally a common format needs to be developed for describing the key facts. 3. A further aspect of importance is how to determine what applications are most in need of Case Studies. Limited resources are available and it is essential that these are targeted in such a way as to produce maximum returns for the industry as a whole. This paper describes a framework for addressing these three issues and will provide an update of the work of the UK Construction IT Technical Best Practice programme.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,114 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.009079) class.social (0.005934) class.legal (0.002856)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Brewer G, Gajendran T, McCann J, Chen S E

Creating a benchmarking service to measure ICT uptake for the australian construction industry

Abstract: As national and international competition in the Construction Industry (CI) intensifies, construction organisations are investing large amounts of money in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage. However, the beneficial outcomes of ICT are sometimes unclear and some organisations are dissatisfied with their ICT investments. This suggests that organisations are experiencing problems in their adoption and integration of new technology into their business practices. Benchmarking ICT uptake can aid an organisation in identifying and achieving its ICT goals, highlighting areas of deficiency. The Co-operative Research Centre for Construction Innovation (CRC CI) in Australia has commissioned a scoping study into the development of a benchmarking tool to measure ICT uptake in the CI. Initial research indicates the development of a web-based survey tool that can be expanded enabling other, unrelated issues to be investigated using the same infrastructure. This paper presents the rationale behind the tool and outlines its features.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


C M Tam, Arthur W T Leung

Using Construction Process Simulation to Assess Productivity of Laying Water Mains in Hong Kong

Abstract: Construction process simulation is becoming a general technique in managing design and construction processes in the western world (Hossain and Chua 2009). However, there is a paucity of records on its practical application in Hong Kong and in the Greater China. Thus, it still remains as a tool for generating academic papers within the academic arena. In Hong Kong, there is a plan to upgrade 45% of the existing 7,700 km of water mains, giving a total of 3,000 km of aged water mains to be replaced in the next couples of years. In managing this sheer amount of construction works, studying its productivity is of prime importance in order to complete the works on time and within budget. This study has applied one of the simplest simulation tools, Web-CYCLONE, to assess the productivity and explore ways to optimize it. The study reveals that Web-CYCLONE is user-friendly in assessing productivity. However, it has a number of shortfalls. For example, in running two consecutive programs, the system needs to be refreshed to renew the interface and trace the charts and diagrams generated. Besides, Web-CYCLONE has the limitation of inability in identifying the critical path of a project and thus the floats cannot be considered. Web-CYCLONE is also difficult in modeling projects with complex resource involvement.

Keywords: water mains construction, construction process simulation, productivity

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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