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Amit Dayan and Rafael Sacks

Cognition Enhancement Using Virtual Reality in Apartment Customization

Abstract: The design and construction of customer configured apartments is challenging when customers are unable to interpret construction drawings or lack the knowledge or competence to deliver the decisions and information that is required from them. Builders dedicate significant managerial and technological effort to manage the customization process with their customers, and this process is commonly recognized to be inefficient. Studies suggest that one root cause is the fact that most customers are not construction professionals, hence decision making is often a challenging and sometimes unpleasant task for them due to insufficient product cognition. In this study we developed a virtual reality tool for the facilitation of an immersive presentation of yet to be built apartments to customers, speculating that cognition may be enhanced and facilitate the customization decisions. An experiment was conducted to identify and measure cognition differences. Some areas of measured cognition shown noticeable improvement which imply for significant cognition enhancement. Exploitation of the findings by future adoption of the examined method is discussed and suggested to construction companies.

Keywords: Product Customization, Apartment Design Changes, Virtual Reality, Residential Construction

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0184

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Bouchlaghem N M, Liyanage I G

Virtual reality applications in the UK's construction industry

Abstract: A survey has been conducted to investigate the use of Virtual Reality and its applications within the construction industry in the UK. It surveyed the general perception of the new technology and its potential in improving design and construction processes as seen by practitioners in the industry and reviewed the work being undertaken by researchers in the academics' field.In recent years there has been attempts to apply Virtual Reality to various sectors of the construction industry, however due to the high cost of the new technology in terms of hardware and software most of these applications, as shown by the survey, remain unknown by the construction practitioners. The survey also showed that there is a lack of understanding of the new technology that is not surprising in an environment where even some more traditional aspects of IT are still to be improved to achieve the intended purposes.The survey first traced the history of Virtual Reality applications and its developments during the last forty years and then reviewed the different systems available in terms of hardware and software. It discussed the level of sophistication offered from desk top to fully immersive comparing and contrasting them with traditional visualisation techniques. A review of current and potential applications of VR in the construction industry was also undertaken covering those sectors likely to benefit the most from it. Design applications were found to be at a more advanced stage due to the fact that computer visualisation and modelling techniques have always been an important part of building design. However attempts to use the technology as a tool to improve construction processes have been made but most of them are still at the development stage.The results of the survey are presented and discussed in this paper and the future role of VR in the construction industry is debated in the light of the current and proposed work by researchers in the field.

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Series: w78:1996 (browse)
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Class: class.roadmaps (0.036580) class.strategies (0.029776) class.environment (0.015793)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Carozza L,Bosché F,Abdel-Wahab M

Image-based localization for an indoor VR/AR construction training system

Abstract: Virtual /Augmented Reality (VR/AR) technologies have been increasingly used in recent years to support different areas of the construction industry. Their simulation capabilities can enable different construction stakeholders to evaluate the impact of their choices not only on the built environment, but also with regard to the correct execution of operational procedures. Training providers, such as Further Education (FE) colleges, can also enhance their trainee’s experience through the simulation of realistic construction contexts whilst eliminating health and safety risks. Current approaches for the simulation of learning environments in Construction, such as Virtual Learning Environment (VLEs), provide limited degree of interactivity during the execution of real working tasks. Whilst immersive approaches (e.g. CAVE-based) can provide enhanced visualization of simulated environments, they require complex and expensive set-up with limited practical interaction in real construction projects context. This paper outlines a localization approach employed in the development of an Immersive Environment (IE) for Construction training, cheaper than CAVE-based approaches and which has the potential to be rolled-out to the FE sector for maximizing the benefit to the construction industry. Pose estimation of the trainee is achieved by processing images acquired by a monocular camera integral with his head while performing tasks in a virtual construction environment. Realistic perception of the working environment and its potentially hazardous conditions can thus be consistently delivered to the trainee through immersive display devices (e.g. goggles). Preliminary performance of the localization approach is reported in the context of working at heights (which has a wide applicability to a range of construction trades, such as scaffolders and roofers), whilst highlighting the potential benefits for trainees. Current limitations of the localization approach are also discussed suggesting directions for future development.

Keywords: Image-based,localization,VR/AR,construction training

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Castronovo F,Nikolic D,Liu Y,Messner J

An evaluation of immersive virtual reality systems for design reviews

Abstract: With the growth of building information modeling (BIM) approaches to facility design, architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry has been shifting to the use of three-dimensional (3D) virtual facility mockups during design. Studies have shown that 3D models when displayed in an immersive projection display environment allow users to interact with the virtual environment at full scale, and review the designed space in a more intuitive manner. Virtual environments and VR systems however, can vary greatly in levels of immersion and user experience they offer. Thus, for a novice user choosing an appropriate and effective system for specific tasks can be daunting. To understand the benefits of specific VR systems for facility design, this research presents results from conducting design reviews in two immersive display systems. The first system was a fully immersive 5-wall CAVETM environment, while the second was a semi-immersive 3 screen display system. For each design review, the user experience of a reviewing team was documented and analyzed through targeted questionnaires. The large screens, field of view, level of immersion and the overall value of both systems for design reviews were rated consistently high. Furthermore, based on the comments provided by the project team, the fully-immersive system was found to be more appropriate for smaller groups that desire a higher level of immersion. Additionally, the semi-immersive system with a larger footprint was found to be more suitable for larger groups for various use cases. These results aim to guide future users to make an informed decision when selecting an appropriate immersive display system.

Keywords: virtual construction ,virtual reality,design review,immersive projection

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Charles Woodward, Jani Lahti, Jukka Rönkkö, Petri Honkamaa, Mika Hakkarainen, Jani Jäppinen, Kari Rainio, Sanni Siltanen, Jouko Hyväkkä

Case digitalo – a range of virtual and augmented reality solutions in construction application

Abstract: We describe a range of Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) solutions applied during the planning and construction of VTT’s new head offices, the Digitalo (“Digital House”) in Espoo, Finland. During the building phase as well as in later evaluations 2003-2006, the various approaches used for Digitalo’s visualisation included: radiosity rendering by still images; immersive virtual reality visualisation; mobile outdoors augmenting; augmented scale model; augmented web camera; 3D landscapes; and interior design by means of virtual and augmented reality. We employed various display devices ranging from HMD video glasses to CAVE screens, and from PDA’s to varying kinds of PC solutions. Some of our solutions, for example the augmented web camera and scale model systems, have not been previously presented and they appear here for the first time. Also, we describe the current status of the applied methods, as well as directions for future research. Altogether, we believe this case study to be among the most comprehensive ones in the world to include such a wide variety VR/AR techniques applied in a single building project.

Keywords: virtual reality, augmented reality, CAVE, HMD, web cameras, mobile computing, feature detection, markers, tracking, tangible user interfaces

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Dunston, Phllip; McGlothlin, James; and Arns, Laura

An Immersive Virtual Reality Mock-Up For Design Review Of Hospital Patient Rooms

Abstract: Having identified a scarcity of evidence-based design principles and practices for patient-centered healthcare environments, researchers at the Purdue University Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering have developed a Virtual reality (VR) mock-up of a hospital patient room to explore its efficacy for identifying how physical environment and design elements impact behavior, processes and safety. The VR patient room mock-up is designed to have a high degree of interactivity to facilitate evaluation of the designed space as a “healing environment.” Positive feedback from healthcare practitioners regarding the mockup has motivated the Investigators to leverage their experience to create VR mock-ups for other hospital units and venues.

Keywords: CAVE, mock-up, design review, patient room, patient-centered design

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Faddoul, Mera; Maldovan, Kurt D.; Messner, John I.

Framework for Reviewing Mockups in an Immersive Environment

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Fadi Castronovo, Danielle Oprean, Yifan Liu and John Messner

Application of Immersive Virtual Reality Systems in an Interdisciplinary Design Studio Course

Abstract: The architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry has been witnessing a recent growth of application of visualization and virtual reality technology for design reviews. As our future generations of designers and engineers enter the industry, they will have to possess the ability to leverage such technology. This study aimed at evaluating the experience of students from an interdisciplinary design studio course, in performing internal design reviews with two different types of display systems. The research aimed at understanding which systems the students found most valuable, immersive, and enjoyable when visualizing their models. The first system utilized was a semi-immersive three screen display system, while the second was a single screen large LCD television system. The participants included five groups, with students from different disciplines, such as architecture and architectural engineering. The groups were randomly split into two tracks and took part in an ABBA experimental procedure. The studentsÕ responses were collected through a survey, which was administered after they reviewed their design with each system. Based on the findings, the researchers were able to conclude that the utilized semi-immersive display system promoted the studentsÕ sense of immersion, spatial presence, and enjoyment, over their regular collaboration pod using an LCD screen.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Design Reviews, Immersive Projection, Engineering Education

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0006

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Gokce Ozcelik, Burcin Becerik-Gerber, Ali Ghahramani and Yuchao Wang

Can Immersive Virtual Environments Be Used for Understanding Occupant-System Interactions Under Thermal Stimuli?

Abstract: OccupantsÕ interactions with building systems, as well as occupant-related factors considerably influence a buildingÕs energy consumption. However, understanding occupant-system interactions related to thermal changes in built environments could be cumbersome due to the resources needed to create these environments or the resources needed for conducting controlled experiments in existing Physical Environments (PEs). One avenue is to use Immersive Virtual Environments (IVEs) where occupantsÕ interactions with the built environment are measured in the context of thermal stimuli. However, for validating the adequacy of using IVEs for understanding occupant interactions with building systems and/or elements, it is imperative to first investigate if IVEs are proper representations of PEs. In this study, we benchmark IVEs to the PEs with regards to user perceptions relating to thermal stimuli. In a human subject experiment, we use surveys and subjective thermal votes both in the IVE and PE, where participants experience both hot and cold indoor thermal conditions. Perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction votes are analysed by using paired t-tests and ANOVA. The change parameters are defined for identifying the direction of perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction. Statistical inferences show that change in occupantsÕ perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction in IVE and PE are not significantly different, and direction of the change is positive in majority of the cases (i.e., 100% of the participants were comfortable in PE, almost 95% of the participants were comfortable in IVE, 79 % were satisfied in PE, 74% were satisfied in IVE at the end of the experiment).

Keywords: Immersive Virtual Environment; Virtual Reality; Physical Environment; Thermal Perception; Building Systems; Occupant-Building Systems Interactions

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0022

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Joao P. Carneiro and Burcin Becerik-Gerber

Impact of Immersive and Interactive Information Visualization on OccupantÕs Lighting Choices

Abstract: Feedback systems often use Information Visualization (InfoVis) to inform occupants about the impact of their choices on energy consumption, aiming at reducing occupant behaviour related waste in buildings. In this pilot study, we use InfoVis as a tool to influence occupantsÕ opinions about a roomÕs lighting quality instead of their energy consumption. Lighting significantly affects occupantsÕ mood, productivity, and wellbeing. We utilize InfoVis to present the light quality data throughout a day via an animated daylight cycle, as well as light levels and light distributions through static and animated heat maps to enable occupants to make more informed decisions related to lighting. InfoVis is presented within the spatial context by overlaying visualizations on the room itself, on its floor and the desk surface, using an immersive virtual environment. The results show that the participants changed their choices once provided with more information related to the quality and amount of lighting in the room. Specifically, the participants changed their choices significantly more when the illuminance levels and distribution over time (dynamic heat maps) were presented. The findings of this research can inform the development of better visualization techniques that could increase occupant awareness about environmental conditions in buildings.

Keywords: Immersive Virtual Environment, Immersive Interactive Visualization, Informed Decision, Lighting Data

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0210

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