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Blackmore J M

Computer aided development of knowledge in the construction process

Abstract: Modern regulations control the performance of our built environment rather than the methods and materials of construction. The designer has freedom to fulfil specified objectives any way he chooses, but he must show that he is fulfilling the regulatory intention, and fulfilling it well enough. How does he convince the building surveyor that his building will provide an acceptable level of compliance? Where does he find the information to justify his choice of solutions to the regulatory problems? And where does the regulator find the information needed to determine whether or not a proposed solution is acceptable? The answers lie in the sea of regulatory information and research that is the source of all building reedation. Required levels of compliance are implicit in ixaditional, prescriptive regulations. Background research data, legal rulings, records of committee decisions, articles, advisory notes, commentaries, accreditation reports, cornon practice - all give an indication of the level of compliance that society and the regulators are willing to accept and help the designer and the regulator establish criteria of acceptance. This vast array of knowledge helps the regulator determine the intentions of existing regulations and write realistic rules for the performance of buildings. But where does the search fgr knowledge begin? Information technology can structure the search and help find a way through the jungle of data, macheteing obstructions to the introduction of innovative solutions. A structured, selective search can give the regulator access to all the data he needs to support his arguments, allowing the full realisation of the benefits of performance regulation. Linked to a powerful expert system that assists and checks his passage through the regulations, CSBO is creating an IT system to facilitate these benefits.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,214,097 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.085813) class.analysis (0.024178) class.synthesis (0.023322)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Cenling Xia and Yee-Chung Jin

Implicit Layered Moment Equations For Open Channel Flow Modeling

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Griffith E D, Hicks D K, McGraw K D, Case M P

Towards model based design - a case study: the modular design system

Abstract: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has developed a tool called the Modular Design System (MDS) to assist design professionals in the processes of planning, design, and construction document preparation for repetitive facility types. The use of early versions of MDS has demonstrated a reduction in time by nearly two-thirds typically required to design and award a construction contract. Initially developed to support Army Reserve Training Centers, the USArmy Corps plans to expand its use over a wider range of repetitive facility types. The current implementation is a hybrid document/model approach consisting of electronic drawings linked by an external database. Data consistency issues associated with this architecture limit its scalability. To meet expanded requirements, the USArmy Corps is developing a model based information approach utilizing emerging commercially available object based CAD systems. This redesigned information infrastructure marks a fundamental change from an implicit to an explicit model-based representation. Three key capabilities make MDS a powerful tool. First, the ability to capture and reuse corporate design criteria at the architectural function level. Second, it provides an integration framework for engineering analysis. Third, it manages and integrates the contract document production.The underlying MDS information infrastructure will move towards a model based approach. Future work will focus on collaborative processes such as conflict resolution and design review. Additionally, MDS offers the opportunity to transfer an information rich model downstream to operations and maintenance.

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Full text: content.pdf (98,970 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.023318) class.bestPractise (0.016810) class.store (0.013255)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Hegazy T, Moselhi O, Fazio P

Managing construction knowledge in patterns: a neural network approach

Abstract: Neural networks are AI-based computational tools with powerful capabilities of effective capturing and re-use of domain knowledge that are inherently implicit. This paper describes the modelling capabilities of neural networks with respect to construction problems, emphasizing the advantages associated with their representation of knowledge in the form of patterns. Several aspects related to proper management of knowledge are addressed for the purpose of developing practical and more reliable neural network models of complex construction problems. These aspects include: 1) problem structuring and patterns formation; 2) knowledge acquisition and data validation; 3) preparation and transformation of acquired data; and 4) analysis and interpretation of network state of knowledge. Guidelines pertaining to these aspects are provided along with considerations for modelling with noisy data and under high degree of uncertainty. The issues discussed are illustrated through a case study of a neural network for bidding decision support, developed based on knowledge acquired from contractors in Canada and the US. The case study demonstrates neural network modelling and illustrates the benefits gained through better management of acquired knowledge.

Keywords: neural networks; knowledge acquisition; construction; information technology; bidding strategy

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Full text: content.pdf (644,899 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Joyce Delatorre and Eduardo T. Santos

Relevant Properties and Relationships for Construction Defect Data Mining on Building Information Models

Abstract: A Building Information Model can be considered a construction data source which contains, among others, information about geometry and topology of construction elements. These information-rich structures can be a particularly good source for data mining systems on their goal of discovering hidden patterns if these are related to the size, shape and/or position of construction elements. That kind of pattern may be useful in execution quality control and productivity, maintenance, and Post Occupancy Evaluation, among other analyses. However, most of this information is in implicit form (e.g., which elements are in front of a given window) and need to be extracted from the model to be used in data mining systems.Data mining systems need certain properties from construction components as well as to identify some relationships between objects to be able to identify execution problem patterns related to the geometry and topology of these components. This work aims to determine which are the main properties and relationships needed for performing data mining from BIM models augmented with construction defect data. Execution quality data and after-sales maintenance records from two companies, comprising 26 projects, were collected and analysed. The identified problems were grouped in five classes. From this analysis, the relevant properties and relationships were proposed. This information can be used as basis for the development of a BIM data mining platform able to identify patterns in construction defects.

Keywords: BIM, Building Information Model, Data Mining, Quality Control, Construction Defect

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0227

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Niclas Andersson, Pernille Hammar Andersson

Building Information Modeling in Engineering Teaching - Retaining the Context of Engineering Knowledge and Skills

Abstract: The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in construction supports business as well as project processes by providing integrated systems for communication, administration, quantity takeoff, time scheduling, cost estimating, progress control among other things. The rapid technological development of ICT systems and the increased application of ICT in industry significantly influence the management and organisation of construction projects, and consequently, ICT has implications for the education of engineers and the preparation of students for their future professional careers. In engineering education there is an obvious aim to provide students with sufficient disciplinary knowledge in science and engineering principles. The implementation of ICT in engineering education requires, however, that valuable time and teaching efforts are spent on adequate software training needed to operate the ICT systems properly. This study takes on the challenge of using ICT in engineering education without diminishing the body of technical disciplinary knowledge and the understanding of the engineering context in which it is taught, practiced and learned. The objective of the study is to describe and review an extensive role play simulation where students interact with real professional engineers. The role play simulation aims at providing a realistic learning context for the students in order to facilitate the learning objectives of the disciplinary knowledge of the course, which in this case is represented by adopting Building Information Modeling, BIM, for construction management purposes. Course evaluations, a questionnaire and discussions with students confirm a genuinely positive attitude towards the role-play simulation and interaction with industry professionals. The students engage in the role-play and express an increased understanding of the requirements and implicit rules of real-life engineering. The interaction between students and the professional engineers act as a prime mover for the students to perform their best, which in turn strengthens the learning of the disciplinary subjects.

Keywords: BIM, engineering teaching, role play, simulation, industry participation

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Full text: content.pdf (78,503 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Rebolj D

Virtual product model

Abstract: "In the cosmos there are no complex laws which would govern some huge monolithic structures. But there obviously are particles/energies and there are some basic laws, which condition the interactions between the particles. Because there exist many combinations of particles the outcome of interactions are not simple to predict. Independently of this fact the many combinations exist and it seems that they form more and more complex structures, which are not very concerned about their own complexity. More and more authors are recognizing the problem of modeling complex structures and many are asking themselves whether an all-including-product-model is a solution for an integrated information environment that should efficiently support the life-cycle of a product. It seems that rich experiences in product modeling in the last decade lead not to better and better models but rather to the awareness that the more complex the product models are, the more rigid and the less usable they become in reality. These recognitions already led to some suggestions for the future integration methods and product modeling. The article introduces a concept of the virtual product model, a network of loosely coupled particle models, interconnected by relatively simple but strong rules (like gravity in the macro-cosmos). The neighborhood of a particle model is defined through a process model, which also determines relations between particles. A special attention has been given to the content harmonization of particle models, which are representing parts of the virtual product model. The mechanism is based on harmonization agents, which are leaving the particles their individuality but also bind them to the whole. The author also doubts about the possibility of ever using a single complex standard for structuring and describing structures of product models, especially in civil engineering and construction, where many different views have to be considered through a product life cycle. Again a bottom-up principle has been used to enable communication between harmonization agents, which share and extend their own knowledge about structures through common dictionaries. Through the concept of the virtual product model it is believed that it is possible to preserve the independence and flexibility of particles - existing island models and applications (without implementing any interfaces) and the simplicity of mastering them, but also to preserve the positive integration effects of complex product models. The reason for this conviction lies in the simplicity of used principles and in their closer relation to natural mechanisms, which does not exclude implicit evolution."

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Full text: content.pdf (249,531 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.041034) class.represent (0.034655) class.man-software (0.024636)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


T Cerovšek

A Framework for CPD and 5D BIM process REUSE

Abstract: This paper tries to establish a framework for process reuse in ‘collaborative product development’ (CPD) with 5D BIM. 5D integrates 3D models with non-geometrical metadata, costs, and schedules that can be developed in three main ways (part-recipe, task-part or embedded link). For continuous process improvement (CPI), we identified barriers and enablers and proposed explicit and implicit process reuse support options via workflow systems, process repositories with new process querying.

Keywords: process reuse, 5D BIM, collaborative product development, workflows, BPM, CPI

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Full text: content.pdf (393,304 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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