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E Ergen, A Dikbas,I Tekce, D Ilter, H Giritli, M Jablonski, A Kowalska

Investigation of price banks and life cycle inventoriesfor pan-European life cycle costanalysis system

Abstract: When comparing alternative strategies for a project, owners and users should not only consider the initial capital cost, but also the running costs which are incurred over its operating life. Total life cycle cost (LCC) is a recognized approach to identify the future total cost implications of individual building elements or the entire building in the future. However, as sustainability gained significance in the construction industry, it became clear that LCC is not the only the only factor to be considered. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of a building is also of great importance. LCA need to be performed to determine the effect of the construction and constructed structure on the environment (i.e., CO2 emission). To provide comparable LCC and LCA results and outputs, significant amount of work is needed to normalize data in existing sources. This paper describes the characteristics of the current databases that can be integrated with the Pan-European life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) system, which is an ongoing EU 7th framework CILECCTA (Construction Industry LifE Cycle Cost Analysis software) project. The goal of the CILECCTA project is to develop an online decision support system for assessment and identification sustainable and economic options for pan-European construction and renovation projects. This tool will provide comparable LCC and LCA results for different project options and assist users in selecting the most appropriate option. It will be compatible with various price banks which supply necessary data for LCC, and life cycle inventories (LCIs) that provide data for LCA across Europe and beyond. The tool will also allow for consideration of uncertainty (e.g., in design and functionality), which is inherent in construction, renovation and through life cycle of a structure. The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics (e.g., classification systems, data availability) of existing price banks and LCA databases in Europe.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Cost, Life Cycle Inventory, Price Bank

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Full text: content.pdf (97,810 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Elger D, Russell P

Teaching knowledge management using distributed practice simulation

Abstract: The paper describes attempts by the authors to convey the importance of teamwork in architecture to students, be it in the process of architecture or the object itself. One of the main postulates of the work is that pedagogically, teamwork is better trained than taught. This is further compounded when the technological burden of distributed practice is introduced. Using Internet based communication technologies, the authors have sought to create a design studio environment that simulates real world situations where major planning partners are located in different cities and even different countries. Using experience gained over four years of networked studios, the authors were able to enrol five other universities for a semester-long experimental design studio. In essence, the students undertook to solve the design problem in teams spread over different universities. From 43 students, 14 teams (each with 3 members and one with 4 members) were assembled with no two students from the same university in the same team. Furthermore, each team was assigned a tutor from a fourth (or fifth) university. The different universities were far enough separated so as to preclude easy face to face meetings. Instead, the Internet was used as a communication medium. The entire range of available technologies was put to use. A central web site which logged user presence served as a virtual "place" where the students and tutors could meet to carry out informal discussions or arrange to transfer the discussions elsewhere (e.g. to a chat room or a videoconference). The web site platform also provided the entire group with supporting information such as personal diaries, common calendar functions, email lists and directories of student work. The students made their work available on the web throughout the semester in order to communicate with their tutor as well as with one another. Essential to the successful communication was an initial acquaintance session. This took the form of a 3-day workshop at the beginning of the semester. While this workshop ostensibly focussed on the design problem, it effectively served as a social engineering exercise in order to shake out compatibility among potential team members. After the workshop, the group met again 15 week later for a final review. Halfway through the semester, the individual teams travelled to their tutors for a mid-term review. Otherwise, all communication took place over the Internet (or through conventional telecommunication methods). The theme itself was certainly selfreferential: to design a centre for a virtual university. This cross-pollination of design method and design theme was an additional encumbrance for most students, but also provided a fertile bed for a wide range of design solutions. It is important to note that all of the teams were able to complete the assignment and postsemester questionnaires show an overwhelming positive reaction to the experimental studio, notwithstanding the high costs of travel and telephone. The paper discusses the feedback from the students and possible implications for future iterations of the concept.

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Full text: content.pdf (890,508 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.093221) class.social (0.038530) class.collaboration (0.035454)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Elvekrok D R, Johansen B W, Syvertsen T G, Totland T

World wide web as a coordination technology for knowledge work

Abstract: This paper will bring some understanding of the World Wide Web as an information and coordination technology, and suggest some principles and metaphors for Web working. The suggestions will be underpinned by recent experiences from a collective Web-working project, and a transformation of a technical standard into hypertext format. Some ideas and visions for future developments based on the new medium are presented. World Wide Web is more than a tool or a technology, it is a new medium based on a set of very simple principles that enable us to cope with a vast Ocean of information and knowledge. The basics of World Wide Web and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) will be explained. A small-scale experiment in collective writing in Web will be reported. The task was development of the PAKT Yearbook of 1994, where a dozen of contributors worked concurrently on individual pieces around a shared Yearbook structure. This small project may in some sense resemble an engineering project, where many discipline experts are performing individual tasks around a shared goal and work breakdown structure. The experiment was based on use of Microsoft Internet Assistant which provides a simple add-on that makes Microsoft Word a combined Web reader and writer. Using this interface to the Web, working there is as simple as traditional word-processing. This mode of working can easily be expanded with any kind of tool based on the same concepts of process linking. There is, however, no support for the work processes associated with creating the product (in our case a Yearbook), or the organization of the processes. Based on our experiences, we suggest some metaphors and practical approaches to efficient Web working. Another experiment has been in the domain of technical standards. A couple of existing, paper- based standards from the petroleum industry have been converted to HTML, with cross-references transferred to active hyper-links. Using WWW as a one-way information server and as a shared working space will be illustrated. We see at least three future aspects of Web development; active objects replace static information, information structures will be supplemented by knowledge processes (enterprise modelling), and the information economy will evolve based on integrated flow of transactions.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,745,393 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.065275) class.collaboration (0.038981) class.economic (0.022244)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Fridqvist S

Implementation of a dynamic information system for design

Abstract: This paper reports an implementation of the conceptually most important features of the BAS.CAAD information system, and the use of this implementation to create models of different levels of generalisation in the construction context. The foundations for the BAS.CAAD information system, which have been presented in an earlier paper, are briefly described. It is a dynamic information system for design, built on a generic ontological framework. The system supports the definition of classes in different levels of universality; the classes may originate from different standards or the individual designer, and allows a free combination of attributes.

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Full text: content.pdf (106,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.020092) class.legal (0.004521) class.standards (0.003381)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Futcher K G

User survey on a wan portfolio M.I.S. used for porfolio/project management in Hong Kong.

Abstract: This paper presents the results of recent research into the user expectations for a Management_Information_System (MIS) for the project/portfolio-managed delivery of a large and diverse range of projects. In 1998, the Works Bureau of the Government of Hong Kong undertook objective measurement of the extent that an MIS, called the PW_MS, contributed to the successful project and portfolio management of its large and diverse portfolio of more than two thousand public works projects. This rolling-programme of projects includes up to 72 types of public infrastructure. The delivery process depends on a highly differentiated organisation in which each of the public works departments has different staffing levels, workloads, locations, and each undertake different types of work. The objective of the assessment was to determine: ∑ the extent that the PW_MS was successfully used for the management of individual projects; ∑ the extent that the PW_MS was successfully used to help manage the portfolios-of-projects overall; ∑ the extent that other means of data collection and reporting that are otherwise used for both of these functions; and, ∑ to identify the requirements for an improved MIS. This paper presents the results of this postal survey of a population of five hundred and eighty-four authorised users of the PW_MS. It is a complex WAN system, with 168 terminals in the client and public works offices for operational access to the MIS. It has routines for the planning, reporting and monitoring of the cost, time and scope aspects of each project in the PWP. It establishes a fixed plan for each project and provides an audit trail of progress towards completion. The data in the system is combined to provide summary reports of portfolios of projects. A random selection from the User-population was used to form a population-sample for the postal questionnaire survey. The sample frame was constrained to ensure a 95% confidence limit that the response was statistically indicative of the population; and that it included sufficient numbers of the primary classes of users to also ensure a 95% confidence limit that the response was indicative of these strata of the population. This methodology is described in the paper. A sixty-five percent response was achieved. The results show that the User satisfaction with the PW_MS is not high. The results state a range of User dissatisfactions but they do not call for a fundamental change in approach: they validate the exploitation of proven, readily available, information technology for the management of portfolio-of-projects. Portfolio-management and project management is enabled by these techniques although the survey results indicate that more can be done to improve the man-machine interface. The results identify key-areas for such improvement. These findings are presented in the paper.

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Full text: content.pdf (182,628 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.023977) class.impact (0.022037) class.strategies (0.021118)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


G.B. Ozturk-Barlak, D. Arditi, H.M. Gunaydin, S. Kale & I.Yitmen

Factors Affecting the Learning Process of Professionals in Architectural Design Firms

Abstract: Learning is considered to be a sophisticated process and a source of competitive advantage. Learning is essential in project-based environments. The one-of-a-kind structure of the operations of architectural design firms triggers special learning needs and requires a continuous learning activity. Learning is considered to improve an architectural design firmís efficiency by recognizing the role of individuals in enhancing the firmís objectives. However, theoretical research on individual professionalsí learning process in the architectural design is rather uncommon. The process of individual learning is composed of (1) data acquisition (2) assessment of the acquired information and (3) implementation of the knowledge gained in a group setting. Ten factors were identified to assess the effectiveness of the learning processes of professionals. This study is the first study in the field of architecture that presents a conceptual model about the factors that affect the effectiveness of the learning process of professionals.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Goulding J S, Alshawi M

Generic IT training: a process protocol model

Abstract: Construction companies have to strategically structure and focus their Business Strategy (BS) in order to maximise benefits. This requires detailed knowledge of the operating environment, stakeholders, resource implications and the management of risk. Information Systems (IS) and Information Technology (IT) can perform a crucial role by supporting and underpinning this strategy. A key element of the IT strategy is generic and specific IT training. These requirements must consider many issues, not least, resource implications, organisational culture, infrastructure and disparate training needs. These needs may also encapsulate both group and corporate issues, in addition to individual, operational, managerial and strategic requirements. This research investigates the use of a Process Protocol training model to analyse the key sequential stages (gates) and links needed, to satisfy, or close, the 'performance gap' between the BS, IS Strategy and subsequent IT Training Strategy.

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Full text: content.pdf (101,814 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.064027) class.commerce (0.013914) class.environment (0.011012)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Graham Brewer, Thayaparan Gajendran

A Case Study of the Effects of Attitude, Behaviour, and Project Team Culture on Building Information Model use in a Temporary Project Organisation

Abstract: It has been established that in the construction industry maximal benefit from ICT investments can best be achieved where they are used collaboratively, in a project setting, using business processes that span the boundaries of individual firms. It can be argued that this has its ultimate expression in the building information model when it is utilised from the earliest stages of project feasibility, through the design and construction phases and beyond, yet it is all too commonly reported that this rarely eventuates. This state of affairs has less to do with technology issues as much as human relationships. Recent research has found evidence that diverse influences on the formation of individual attitudes result in boundedly rational decision-making behaviour, which has a significant effect on the likelihood of ICT integration. Parallel research has linked the effect of individual attitudes on the formation of project team culture and it's receptiveness to ICT integration. This paper presents preliminary results from a detailed case study that employers both frameworks of analysis to reveal the link between the individual attitude formation of key project personalities, their subsequent ICT decision-making behaviour, resulting in the formation of a differentiated project team culture, and sub optimal BIM performance.

Keywords: BIM, attitudes, behaviours, project team culture, TPO.

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Gu, Ning

A Grammatical Approach to Autonomous Design in 3D Virtual Worlds Using Generative Design Agents

Abstract: 3D virtual worlds are networked environments designed using the place metaphor. 3D virtual worlds as Computer-aided Design (CAD) tools have shown promising potentials in areas such as design simulation, distant team works as well as interdisciplinary design collaboration. Recent developments in collaborative 3D virtual worlds focus on interactivity, flexibility and adaptability. Rather than creating virtual environments in which the 3D objects have intelligent behaviors, we take a different approach to develop an agent model that is associated with an individual designer in a 3D virtual world as a personal design agent. This paper presents Generative Design Agents (GDA), a kind of rational agents that dynamically and automatically generate, simulate and modify designs in 3D virtual worlds. The core of a GDAís design component is a generative design grammar that is able to generate designs capturing a specific style in 3D virtual worlds. 3D virtual worlds augmented with GDAs provide a grammatical approach to developing autonomous generative design systems.

Keywords: Autonomous agents, 3D virtual worlds, design grammars, generative design

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Full text: content.pdf (694,329 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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H Deshpande, H Leslie

A STRATEGY TO DEVELOP A FRAMEWORK FOR DISTRIBUTED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN THE AEC-FM INDUSTRY

Abstract: This paper reviews and analyses the problem of distributed decision-making in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction and Facility Management (AEC-FM) industry and at the operation and management of a supporting information system. These problems include uncoordinated information gathering, reporting and management, as well as multiple redrawing and re-keying of information, which lead to unnecessary costs, increased errors, and misunderstanding. While major advances have been made since CIDA articulated these problems fifteen years ago, particularly in relation to the Building Information Modelling (BIM), its call for easy access to standardized information relevant to each industry sector is yet to be fully answered. While individual industry sectors and organisations have made significant advances in their respective areas of concern, significantly less progress has been made when it comes to the access and exchange of information between sectors or over the life-cycle of a facility. In order to advance the agenda, this paper first takes a comprehensive look at the way the project decision-makers access, process and exchange information, and at how that data is managed over space and time. The paper then describes a strategy to develop a framework for an integrated system for information management that is comprehensive and well integrated, addressing the needs of all sectors of the industry and all phases of the facility life-cycle. The strategy also makes it possible to bring together all the diverse developments such as BIM, IFCs, IDEF, IFD, in the framework, thus helping to manage the information in all its myriad aspects. As many of the concepts raised here are similar to but slightly different from those in current circulation, the paper identifies and describes a number of key concepts used to formulate the strategy. The paper describes the proposed system in functional terms and outlines the simple demonstration packages within it that illustrate the wider picture and provide a context within which individual interest groups can act.

Keywords: Distributed information management, Performance-based project data, Product/Process data management. BIM

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Full text: content.pdf (139,053 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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