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A Asadi, A Hadavi, R J. Krizek

Bridge Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks

Abstract: Life-Cycle Cost analysis can significantly assist in making investment decisions. Several recentstudies have recognized the potential benefits of Life-Cycle Cost analysis and call for use of suchanalyses when making infrastructure investments, including investments in bridges. The Life-CycleCost of a bridge consists of the total investment throughout the life of the bridge. This includes theinitial construction cost, repair and rehabilitation costs, and all maintenance costs. The ability toaccurately determine the Life-Cycle Cost of a bridge will help agencies evaluate the asset value ofexisting bridges, make better decisions on the design and construction of new ones, and chooseimproved methods and approaches for rehabilitating existing structures. Research has shown thattimely maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation can lower the Life-Cycle Cost of a bridge. However, thisis a complex and nonlinear problem, and previous studies have failed to develop a satisfactory model. One effective technique for solving nonlinear problems with complicated functions is an ArtificialNeural Network. A neural network is a powerful data-modeling tool that captures and representscomplex input/output relationships. Using a set of input and output data belonging to a particularproblem, a neural system can be trained to predict outcomes for new versions of the same problem.Accordingly, an extensive set of data (bridge dimensions, age, initial cost, and Life-Cycle Cost) for 14Chicago bridges was used to quantify the degree of success that could be achieved with this model.Sixty percent of the data was used as input to train the model and the remaining forty percent was usedto assess the success of the model for predicting the Life-Cycle Cost. The results achieved wereencouraging and suggest that the neural network model is a promising tool for predicting the LifeCycleCost ofa bridge.

Keywords: life-cycle cost, artificial neural network, Chicago Trunnion Bascule bridges. initial cost, repair and rehabilitation cost

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Redmond, A Hore, R West, J Underwood, M Alshawi

Developing a Horizontal Integrated Life Cycle Costing Analysis Model through BIM

Abstract: Advancing interoperability between design team applications has been a major challenge for advocates of open standards. The buildingSmart alliance and Open Geospatial Consortium Inc in the U.S. have developed and implemented an Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner Operator, Phase 1 Testbed that streamlines communications between parties at the conceptual design phase to establish an early understanding of the tradeoffs between construction cost and energy efficiency. The results of this Testbed combined with an on-going collaborative R&D project ‘Inpro’ co-funded by the European Commission to identify business and legal issues of Building Information Modeling in construction were used as theoretical propositions underlying a 2010 Delphi survey. This paper presents the results of one questionnaire of that overall study. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to (i) identifying the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii) detecting the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii) examining the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, (iv) exploring the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information, and (v) investigating the industry’s perception on whether the development of a Cloud based BIM Life Cycle Costing would be of significant use to the Irish and UK construction industry. The rationale for this research is to refine the results of the initial questionnaire, AECOO-1, and Inpro R&D projects in order to determine if a prototype based on developing a cloud integrated LCC model through BIM could be generated in the UK and, Ireland and if so, what would be the legalities of implementing such a project.

Keywords: Cloud, BIM, Information Exchange, Interoperability, LCC

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Yurchyshyna, M Léonard

Making a smudge on collective (un)conscious: designing collaborative platforms for construction

Abstract: Collaboration and collaborative environments have been playing an increasingly important role in theconstruction domain. Designing and process modeling, knowledge management and dissemination,communities of practice – this is just an initial list of the building-related activities that benefit fromcollaboration- and services approaches characterizing the construction industry. In this paper, we discuss the phenomenon of collaboration in construction, study the existingcollaborative platforms that are used (or might be applicable) for different building-related activitiesand identify the main challenges that are currently not addressed in the current researches. Wefurthermore underline the role of services-oriented technologies for modeling industry- and businessrelatedprocesses,andshowhowtheyhavebeendefactoimplementedfortheconstructionindustry.Despitea largenumberofdifferentfit-for-purposecollaborativeplatformsforconstruction,weneverthelessunderlinethenecessityofa semanticallyrichcollaborativeenvironmentforheterogeneousconstructionexpertsthatwouldallowthemtokeeptheirownterminologyandworkingpractices,buttoacquireasharedunderstandingofacommontaskwithoutlosingitsintegrity.Inordertodoso,weintroduceourservices-basedapproachforactionalizingthe expert knowledgeand developing an information kernel of a discussed task. This approach forms a theoreticalfoundation for developing a collaborative platform, the Cross-Pollination Space, the semantics ofwhich is dynamically modeled by ontologies and the related interactions are enabled by services. Weshow how this framework allows enriching the collaborative environment during its functioning andsupports expert collaboration without imposing an artificial platform-specific terminology and/orcollaboration patterns.Finally, we canvas the ongoing and future works related to this research and discuss the particularitiesof their contextualization for the construction industry.

Keywords: collaboration in construction, shared semantics, expert knowledge, collaborative platforms, service approach in construction

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A.K. Jallow, P. Demian, A.N. Baldwin & C.J. Anumba

BPM-driven Construction Client Requirements Change Management

Abstract: Changing client requirements is one of the principal factors that contribute to delays and budget overruns of construction projects which as a result causes claims, disputes and client dissatisfaction. Change management ensures that such changes are handled through a properly coordinated and controlled process and retained throughout the project life cycle. This paper presents an empirical study that investigated the potential for an automated process of managing changes to clients’ requirements in construction projects. An initial focus group meeting was set up as a preliminary study which was followed by two case studies. Participant observation was used to conduct the case studies during which technical documents were also reviewed. The results show that current requirements change management process lacks efficiency. The paper concludes that business process management (BPM) approach could be a solution to better manage the requirements change process

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Ahmed V, Mahdjoubi L, Feng X, Leach M

The learning of CAD for construction: technical abilities or visual?

Abstract: The increasing demands of the construction industry for individuals with good IT skills add continuous pressures on higher education to improve their methods of teaching. CAD training, as an important part of IT training for construction students, is becoming an essential part of the curriculum in most built environment schools. However, general CAD training is mostly concerned with providing students with technical skills rather than the initial ability of spatial visualisation. Indeed, existing training methods of CAD applications, do not take into consideration students? learning styles, and the differences in their spatial visualisation abilities. Considering that CAD students need to perform various activities within CAD applications to develop an understanding of building concepts and components, their spatial visualisation abilities and their learning style, remain the main barriers. This paper identifies the learning strategies required to assist with the learning of 3D modelling and describes a new approach adopted to examine students' Special Visualisation Skills. The paper also describes innovative e-learning approaches developed to reinforce students' learning of 3D CAD, tracking their progress and highlighting qualitative measures of their effectiveness.

Keywords: 3D modelling, e-learning in construction, CAL, CAA

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Al-Hajj A, Aouad G

The development of an integrated life cycle costing model using object oriented and vr technologies

Abstract: There is an increasing realisation of the importance of operation and maintenance as opposed to capital costs throughout the life of an asset. In addition, new styles of contracts such as PFI (Private Finance Initiative) are becoming more popular. This will require that the building product is addressed within its holistic picture including the design, construction and maintenance. It is therefore vital to embed the life cycle costing element of a facility within its design and construction. Whole Life Costing is a technique used to facilitate effective choice between alternatives in the search of economic solutions. Information technology, particularly integrated databases and VR (Virtual Reality), can provide the mechanism to facilitate the integration of the whole life cost information. The research project described in this paper aims to add a life cycle costing element to the design phase of the OSCON integrated database developed at Salford University in the UK. The current integrated database within OSCON supports the functions of design, estimating and planning. The proposed system will allow the user within a VR environment to navigate inside the building retrieving information about building components that need replacement or repair. A colouring mechanism will be developed to show various elements in different colours according to cost criteria. This would allow the user to easily inspect the building and get rough ideas of repair and maintenance programmes, running costs and cash flows. The system will allow data to be updated continuously so that it will enable the comparison with initial plans and estimates and provides a fresh view of future action and feedback.

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Full text: content.pdf (77,170 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.029049) class.processing (0.019301) class.software development (0.013495)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Alexander Löfgren

Towards mobile lean communication for production management

Abstract: This paper reports on an ongoing case study of a mobile computing pilot project at Sweden’s largest con-struction company, Skanska AB. The company has recognized the potential of a mobile computing platform based on the tablet computer user device for construction site management teams. A global initiative within the company has started with the aim of improving information management and project communication at production site operations with the use of tablet computers. The paper portrays Skanska’s ambition towards the creation of usefulness and benefit of the tablet platform for the site based mobile workforce in the initial development and implementation process. The evolving mobile computing project has so far been directly influenced by the needs of intended end users and pro-gressed in a trial and error fashion. The paper also discusses the role of mobile computing and project communication in a wider industrialization perspective; integration of project organization and technology that enables an effective platform for collaboration to facilitate leaner communication in the construction process.

Keywords: mobile computing, construction site, production management, tablet computer, usefulness, implementa-tion, project communication

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Ammar Al-Bazi

ENTERPRISE SIMULATION OF THE PRECAST CONCRETE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Abstract: The lack of applied innovative tools, for improving the performance of the precast concrete products manufacturing industry, has led the researchers in this paper to develop an Enterprise Simulation Precast Concrete (ESPC) model, to improve the performance of the precast industry. As an initial stage, a detailed layout for the precast concrete production processes is developed in order to understand the relationships amongst the manufacturing processes in such industry. In addition, simulation methodology is developed to analyse the precast manufacturing system and identify the resource bottlenecks. Heuristic searching rule is developed in order to simulate the accommodation process of the produced items in a temporary stockyard area.The results indicated low utilisation of the used resources due to using only one curing area for storage and retrieval processes.

Keywords: Precast concrete products, enterprise simulation model, discrete event simulation modelling, manhole manufacturing system, heuristic searching rule

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Amor R

A UK survey of integrated project databases

Abstract: The UK network of experts in objects and integration for construction has now been in existence for a year. In this time it has built up to over a hundred members drawn in almost equal parts from industry and research. The initial meetings of this network have strived to identify areas of concern in the domain as well as to provide feedback to the supporting government agency in terms of policy issues, and to inform its members of the range of issues in the domain. The first published output of this network is to be a survey of integrated project databases (IPDB) in February 1998. This initial survey, analysed and described in this paper, looks at IPDB development and use in the UK. Preliminary work of the network determined a set of criteria to be used to measure the development and impact of various IPDB. These criteria were then used to survey a range of EC supported, UK developed, and commercial implementations of IPDB. Though not comprehensive in terms of the total number of IPDB developments in the world, it gives an initial benchmarking of the state of this domain. The results of this survey, and the ongoing surveys of IPDB developments, are being used to inform the network and government of the state of play in this area. It provides a point to determine: what work has previously been done; which data models might be re-used; where tools reside that could be re-used; where commercial developments have taken place which implement portions of the surveyed projects; what the problems of commercialisation have been; where there are gaps in research; and what life-cycle stages are poorly addressed by IPDB development.

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Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.035336) class.environment (0.032167) class.strategies (0.031179)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Avani Goyal, Ahmet Kilinc, Minkyung Kang and Burcu Akinci

Energy Efficient Improvements to the Envelope of Low-Income Housing: A Case Study of Habitat for Humanity Homes

Abstract: Low-income families pay substantial portions of their total expenditure on household energy bills, making them vulnerable to rising energy costs. Habitat for Humanity houses are built for low-income families and made affordable with volunteer work and construction material donations. Hence, the trade-off between the homesÕ initial construction costs and their life-time energy costs must be evaluated carefully. This paper targets to support better-informed decisions that balance the affordability of certain construction materials with their potential for energy efficiency. In collaboration with Habitat for Humanity of Westchester, we created an energy simulation model of an existing low-income house and calculated the homeÕs annual energy usage with different design alternatives for windows and walls. The resulting estimated annual energy savings are then evaluated alongside their initial investment costs, which were retrieved from RS Means standard construction cost data and quotations from industry. The results show that it is possible to reduce the energy cost of these houses without significantly increasing the construction costs through exploration of different wall and window options. While specific enclosure suggestions apply to this case-study, the utilized approach on exploring different options to identify opportunities to save energy can be used to understand impact on the lives of low-income families.

Keywords: Low-Income Housing, Energy Efficiency, Cost Analysis, Residential Housing, Habitat for Humanity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0067

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