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Blackmore J M

Computer aided development of knowledge in the construction process

Abstract: Modern regulations control the performance of our built environment rather than the methods and materials of construction. The designer has freedom to fulfil specified objectives any way he chooses, but he must show that he is fulfilling the regulatory intention, and fulfilling it well enough. How does he convince the building surveyor that his building will provide an acceptable level of compliance? Where does he find the information to justify his choice of solutions to the regulatory problems? And where does the regulator find the information needed to determine whether or not a proposed solution is acceptable? The answers lie in the sea of regulatory information and research that is the source of all building reedation. Required levels of compliance are implicit in ixaditional, prescriptive regulations. Background research data, legal rulings, records of committee decisions, articles, advisory notes, commentaries, accreditation reports, cornon practice - all give an indication of the level of compliance that society and the regulators are willing to accept and help the designer and the regulator establish criteria of acceptance. This vast array of knowledge helps the regulator determine the intentions of existing regulations and write realistic rules for the performance of buildings. But where does the search fgr knowledge begin? Information technology can structure the search and help find a way through the jungle of data, macheteing obstructions to the introduction of innovative solutions. A structured, selective search can give the regulator access to all the data he needs to support his arguments, allowing the full realisation of the benefits of performance regulation. Linked to a powerful expert system that assists and checks his passage through the regulations, CSBO is creating an IT system to facilitate these benefits.

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.085813) class.analysis (0.024178) class.synthesis (0.023322)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Brien M J O', Al-Biqami N M

Survey of information technology and the structure of the Saudi Arabian construction industry

Abstract: While technical advances are the main drivers in the adoption of Information Technology (IT) in the construction industry, such advances can only be incorporated through a due appreciation of the structures of the industry. Earlier work has shown how the organisational structure of the industry is in large part determined by the nature of the economic and financial exchanges which takes place. New IT initiatives succeed to the degree to which they are congruent with those financial exchanges. In short, economic benefits must accrue. This in turn begs the questions: who benefits, and how are the benefits to be distributed amongst the various parties? The answers to these questions provide the basis for establishing a successful implementation. This short-term 'economic benefits' argument does not, however, preclude a more substantial organisational shift at some later point. In this paper we provide an analysis of the economic structure of the construction industry in Saudi Arabia, and in particular the degree to which IT has established itself in that industrial sector. The Saudi Arabian Construction industry is one of the largest in the world, being devoted to the provision of a large-scale infrastructure. However, in many of its characteristics it is unique. It is these elements of uniqueness which make this particular industry interesting: the uniqueness poses new problems for the developers of novel and innovative IT construction systems. Yet despite these aggregate figures and anecdotal facts the small-scale nature of the construction industry has been poorly researched and documented. The analysis of the economic and organisational structure of the Saudi Arabian IT construction industry provided in this paper provides the fine-grained matrix within which new IT systems can be built. The paper describes an ongoing study of the Saudi Arabian construction industry. It draws together existing facts on the industry and new ones which are being elicited though a large survey of the industry. Finally, it is envisioned that tentative conclusions will be provided on the economic and organisational structure of the industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (82,648 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.028723) class.strategies (0.014463) class.roadmaps (0.014116)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


C Argiolas, F Melis, E Quaquero

Knowledge management in building process

Abstract: Over the last few years, the management and organizational aspects of the construction process have undergone a profound reflection that is closely linked to the development and the clear changes in the market. Such market is characterized by a rapid change, a strong growth in technology, and by a widespread and transparent information. International character, knowledge and innovation are key elements to win an increasingly exasperated competition. Moreover, the growing complexity of the construction sector - due both to the rapid proliferation of products and innovative technical solutions, and to the need to take into consideration side, but not secondary, aspects of the object (environmental impact, energy efficiency, durability, safety, etc.) - points out that present management patterns of the construction process are no longer appropriate to the context in which one operates. Therefore, the construction sector faces an inevitable process of growth in which knowledge is an indispensable resource. The present article aims at showing how Knowledge Management techniques (KM) might represent a possible tool to assist in achieving such goals through a rational organization of large amounts of data and through a corporate use of the knowledge that characterizes the various stages of a building process.

Keywords: knowledge management, building process, interoperability, collaborative design

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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C Klinzmann & D Hosser

Probabilistic Building Inspection and Life Assessment - a computer program for reliability based system assessment

Abstract: The collaborative research centre (CRC) 477 explores innovative methods for structural health monitoring. In project field A1, methods and strategies, the modular knowledge-based computer program PROBILAS (Probabilistic Building Inspection and Life ASsessment) is developed. Its main focus lies on the optimization of structural health monitoring measures. One opportunity to optimize the monitoring process is to concentrate the monitoring measures on a few critical weak points of a structure. These critical weak points are identified by using methods of the system and reliability theory. Additionally these methods provide the opportunity to evaluate and to assess the probability of failure of a system. This paper concentrates on the implementation of the described methods into PROBILAS. Especially the database model, its integration into the program modules and the calculation procedure used for reliability analysis are discussed further.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Conrad Boton, Sylvain Kubicki, Gilles Halin

Collaborative Construction Planning: Towards 4D Visualizations Adapted to Practitioners Requirements

Abstract: Managing the intervention of various actors during the construction phase is a recurrent issue in the construction sector. This is partly due to the multiplicity of stakeholders and the need to manage interfaces necessary for efficient planning and coordination of construction tasks. 4D CAD technology appears to be an innovative approach to answer such issues. It consists in combining a 3D model with the time dimension, in order to simulate the progress of works construction along the time.Our main hypothesis is that the use of 4D to support the actors’ collaborative work is not adapted enough to the need of the sector because the classical view (Gantt + 3D model) does not take into account the specific requirements related to particular usages (planning of interventions and reservations request for a contractor; simulation and integration of works’ interfaces for an engineer, etc..). It is therefore challenging to adapt the visualization to business needs of users.Developments in Human-Machine Interface and Information Visualization fields could allow us selecting user views properties (i.e. Structure, Quantity of information displayable, Graphical attributes, Content description, Interaction principles, Business view) and compose Coordinated Multiple Views. Therefore, the article propose a taxonomy to describe user views in order to setup a method for 4D visualization design, enabling to:1) Identify business practices (usages) related to the roles of different users, 2) Offer services tailored to different usages, and 3) Suggest visualization modes fitting each usage on the basis of our visualization model.In a case study we formalize a collaborative process to identify the usages of each practitioners involved in the collaboration construction process planning. It especially targets collaborative management of works’ interfaces. Then, after defining the required services, we suggest combining visualization methods suitable for each use in order to achieve views composition for each stakeholder.

Keywords: Construction process, Collaboration, 4D CAD, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Dawood, Nash and Shah, Raj Kapur

An Innovative Approach for Improvement Of Communications through Visual Schedule Model in Road Construction

Abstract: Innovative Visualisation Technologies applied to construction simulation and optimisation have the potential to improve communications and coordination amongst the construction team. In this context and in the drive for innovation in the construction management, a framework for automatic generation and visualisation of construction processes in road construction has been conceived, designed and developed. The framework is composed of road design data, quantities of cut and fill, productivity models, algorithms for modelling ground profiles and road profile visualiser. The paper details a Visual Schedule Model (VSM) that has been developed in the course of this research to realise the framework outlined above. The model is currently being evaluated using real life case study. Conclusions and future development have also been presented.

Keywords: Innovative methodology, Visualisation model, Detail schedules, Road profiles, RoadSim

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Full text: content.pdf (150,968 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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De Grassi M, Giretti A, Caneparo L, Mecca S

Teaching construction in the virtual university: the WINDS project

Abstract: "This paper introduces some of the Information Technology solutions adopted in Web based INtelligent Design Support (WINDS) to support education in A/E/C design. The WINDS project WINDS is an EC-funded project in the 5th Framework, Information Society Technologies programme, Flexible University key action. WINDS is divided into two actions: ·The research technology action is going to implement a learning environment integrating an intelligent tutoring system, a computer instruction management system and a set of co-operative supporting tools. ·The development action is going to build a large knowledge base supporting Architecture and Civil Engineering Design Courses and to experiment a comprehensive Virtual School of Architecture and Engineering Design. During the third year of the project, more than 400 students all over Europe will attend the Virtual School. During the next three years the WINDS project will span a total effort of about 150 man-years from 28 partners of 10 European countries. The missions of the WINDS project are: Advanced Methodologies in Design Education. WINDS drives a breakdown with conventional models in design education, i.e. classroom or distance education. WINDS implements a problem oriented knowledge transfer methodology following Roger Schank’s Goal Based Scenario (GBS) pedagogical methodology. GBS encourages the learning of both skills and cases, and fosters creative problem solving. Multidisciplinary Design Education. Design requires creative synthesis and open-end problem definition at the intersection of several disciplines. WINDS experiments a valuable integration of multidisciplinary design knowledge and expertise to produce a high level standard of education. Innovative Representation, Delivery and Access to Construction Education. WINDS delivers individual education customisation by allowing the learner access through the Internet to a wide range of on-line courses and structured learning objects by means of personally tailored learning strategies. WINDS promotes the 3W paradigm: learn What you need, Where you want, When you require. Construction Practice. Construction industry is a repository of ""best practices"" and knowledge that the WINDS will profit. WINDS system benefits the ISO10303 and IFC standards to acquire knowledge of the construction process directly in digital format. On the other hand, WINDS reengineers the knowledge in up-to-date courses, educational services, which the industries can use to provide just-in-time rather than in-advance learning. WINDS IT Solutions The missions of the WINDS project state many challenging requirements both in knowledge and system architecture. Many of the solutions adopted in these fields are innovative; others are evolution of existing technologies. This paper focuses on the integration of this set of state-of-the-art technologies in an advanced and functionally sound Computer Aided Instruction system for A/E/C Design. In particular the paper deals with the following aspects: Standard Learning Technology Architecture The WINDS system relies on the in progress IEEE 1484.1 Learning Technology Standard Architecture. According to this standard the system consists of two data stores, the Knowledge Library and the Record Database, and four process: System Coach, Delivery, Evaluation and the Learner. WINDS implements the Knowledge Library into a three-tier architecture: 1.Learning Objects: ·Learning Units are collections of text and multimedia data. ·Models are represented in either IFC or STEP formats. ·Cases are sets of Learning Units and Models. Cases are noteworthy stories, which describes solutions, integrate technical detail, contain relevant design failures etc. 2.Indexes refer to the process in which the identification of relevant topics in design cases and learning units takes place. Indexing process creates structures of Learning Objects for course management, profile planning procedures and reasoning processes. 3.Courses are taxonomies of either Learning Units or a design task and Course Units. Knowledge Representation WINDS demonstrates that it is possible and valuable to integrate a widespread design expertise so that it can be effectively used to produce a high level standard of education. To this aim WINDS gathers area knowledge, design skills and expertise under the umbrellas of common knowledge representation structures and unambiguous semantics. Cases are one of the most valuable means for the representation of design expertise. A Case is a set of Learning Units and Product Models. Cases are noteworthy stories, which describe solutions, integrate technical details, contain relevant design failures, etc. Knowledge Integration Indexes are a medium among different kind of knowledge: they implement networks for navigation and access to disparate documents: HTML, video, images, CAD and product models (STEP or IFC). Concept indexes link learning topics to learning objects and group them into competencies. Index relationships are the base of the WINDS reasoning processes, and provide the foundation for system coaching functions, which proactively suggest strategies, solutions, examples and avoids students’ design deadlock. Knowledge Distribution To support the data stores and the process among the partners in 10 countries efficiently, WINDS implements an object oriented client/server as COM objects. Behind the DCOM components there is the Dynamic Kernel, which dynamically embodies and maintains data stores and process. Components of the Knowledge Library can reside on several servers across the Internet. This provides for distributed transactions, e.g. a change in one Learning Object affects the Knowledge Library spread across several servers in different countries. Learning objects implemented as COM objects can wrap ownership data. Clear and univocal definition of ownerships rights enables Universities, in collaboration with telecommunication and publisher companies, to act as “education brokers”. Brokerage in education and training is an innovative paradigm to provide just-in-time and personally customised value added learning knowledge."

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Full text: content.pdf (417,738 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.088602) class.deployment (0.042591) class.bestPractise (0.035370)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Delcambre B

Construction at the dawn of virtual images and multimedia

Abstract: Computerisation of the building sector is going ahead in leaps and bounds. It has already made an enormous difference to the day-today life of the building trades and improved the quality of structures. Huge progress in the presentation of data combined with a spectacular increase in computer power is opening up new possibilities. Multimedia, which corresponds far better to the building trades, will provide innovative, user-friendly applications. With the help of digital mock-ups, it will be possible to share data and pool viewpoints during the design stage of what can be described as the (( virtual project n. This tremendous evolution is already well underway.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Duarte J P

Order and diversity within a modular system for housing

Abstract: This study evolves within the larger context of developing a housing production process that uses new technologies in order to allow industrialization in an innovative way, and so avoiding traditional industrialized processes flaws, such as the lack of housing customization and neighborhood diversity. It introduces elements of a methodology to achieve order and diversity in the systematic design of street facades within a modular system for housing. In its context both order and diversity refer to the spatial arrangement of architectural elements; order emphasizes repetition, whereas diversity emphasizes variation.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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E Sabbatini, G M Revela, A Sicilia, M Böhms

Integration of an Infrared-based monitoring system with an EIIP (Energy Information Integration Platform) for innovative efficient indoor environment control

Abstract: An innovative thermography based measurement system for real-time estimation of thermal behaviour of a room is already developed as part of the FP7 project IntUBE. The applied approach is based on indoor measurements by an infrared (IR) camera and image post-processing to derive mean surface temperatures, thermal comfort indices, air temperature, number of occupants with the relative heat gains generated and presence of other heat sources (e.g. computers). The purpose is to provide spatially distributed room energy information in order to obtain instantaneous feedback displayed for the users or eventually for automatic HVAC control. Lumped parameter model of the room receives data from IR camera to compute exchanged heat rate and air temperature. A low-cost IR sensor, commercially available as surveillance system with automatic movement control that can provide qualitative data output, has been upgraded with a new interface to achieve quantitative data. The paper describes the integration of energy information related to the developed monitoring device (e.g. PMV - Predictive Mean Vote, PPD - Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied, room air temperature as output, humidity value from external sensor as input) within the IntUBE Energy Information Integration Platform (EIIP). The key aspect of the platform is smartness or “semantics”: ICT applications will communicate via this integration platform on the basis of semantic building objects. Performance Information Model (PIM) server stores data regarding the actual monitored performances of a building (energy, temperature, humidity, PMV etc.). These operational data together with the actual weather data can be used e.g. to compare actual performances with simulated performances and can lead to corrective actions. The paper demonstrates that an advanced monitoring/control system (as the IR-based one) can benefit from retrieving data from the EIIP through SPARQL queries, thus activating new functionalities with interoperability guaranteed by the Platform semantics.

Keywords: Thermography, Thermal comfort, Integration Platform, Interoperability, Semantics

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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