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A Asadi, A Hadavi, R J. Krizek

Bridge Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks

Abstract: Life-Cycle Cost analysis can significantly assist in making investment decisions. Several recentstudies have recognized the potential benefits of Life-Cycle Cost analysis and call for use of suchanalyses when making infrastructure investments, including investments in bridges. The Life-CycleCost of a bridge consists of the total investment throughout the life of the bridge. This includes theinitial construction cost, repair and rehabilitation costs, and all maintenance costs. The ability toaccurately determine the Life-Cycle Cost of a bridge will help agencies evaluate the asset value ofexisting bridges, make better decisions on the design and construction of new ones, and chooseimproved methods and approaches for rehabilitating existing structures. Research has shown thattimely maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation can lower the Life-Cycle Cost of a bridge. However, thisis a complex and nonlinear problem, and previous studies have failed to develop a satisfactory model. One effective technique for solving nonlinear problems with complicated functions is an ArtificialNeural Network. A neural network is a powerful data-modeling tool that captures and representscomplex input/output relationships. Using a set of input and output data belonging to a particularproblem, a neural system can be trained to predict outcomes for new versions of the same problem.Accordingly, an extensive set of data (bridge dimensions, age, initial cost, and Life-Cycle Cost) for 14Chicago bridges was used to quantify the degree of success that could be achieved with this model.Sixty percent of the data was used as input to train the model and the remaining forty percent was usedto assess the success of the model for predicting the Life-Cycle Cost. The results achieved wereencouraging and suggest that the neural network model is a promising tool for predicting the LifeCycleCost ofa bridge.

Keywords: life-cycle cost, artificial neural network, Chicago Trunnion Bascule bridges. initial cost, repair and rehabilitation cost

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Full text: content.pdf (239,502 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Al-Ghassani A M, Kamara J M, Anumba C J, Carrillo P M

A tool for developing knowledge management strategies

Abstract: While organisations recognise that Knowledge Management (KM) is essential for improving performance, many have difficulties in developing strategies for implementation. The nature of knowledge is of particular complexity in organisations such as those within the construction industry characterised by temporary 'virtual' organisations formed for the completion of projects. A significant proportion of construction organisations realise the benefits of KM but most remain at the infancy stages of developing and implementing KM strategies. This paper identifies the need for a methodology to help organisations establishing these strategies. It then describes a framework developed within the CLEVER (Cross-sectoral Learning in the Virtual Enterprise) project at Loughborough University. The framework introduces a methodology that supports KM at both the tactical and strategic levels in order to aid organisations, especially in the construction and manufacturing industries, in developing KM strategies. The methodology was encapsulated into a prototype software system to achieve a simpler format and is easier to use. Industrial collaborators evaluated both the paper format and the prototype software and it is evident that the developed methodology has the potential to provide a very useful way for developing KM strategies and that very little exists elsewhere to assist companies in developing KM strategies in this way. The software prototype was seen as an important enhancement to the paper version. The inviting format, simplified guidance, reduced input duplication, and automated report generation were found the most significant enhancements. The focus of this paper is on the development and operation of the prototype. Its key benefits and lessons learned in implementing it are highlighted in the paper.

Keywords: Construction organisations, knowledge management, KM strategies, software prototype.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/5 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Alekhin V,Antipin A,Gorodilov S,Khramtsov S

Numerical simulation of wind loads on high rise buildings

Abstract: Article presents a methodology of the numerical simulation of the wind on high-rise buildings, which was developed by the Department of Computer-aided design of structures of the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. Paper includes the results of researches on development of a technique of determination of wind pressure upon high-rise buildings by means of numerical modeling in an ANSYS package. The investigation was carried out within the grant of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences. The results are applied to calculation of wind pressure upon a number of high-rise buildings under construction in Yekaterinburg City (Russia). Simulation is performed in the program ANSYS. The simulated building is placed in a domain that is the numerical analogue of wind tunnel. Domain sizes are chosen in such a way that simulated buildings do not affect the flow of air on its boundaries. Shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model has been used. This model effectively combines the stability and accuracy to the standard k-? model in the areas, which are placed near the walls and the effectiveness of the k-e model at a distance from the walls with a smooth transition between them (input expansion functions). For the numerical solution of the governing equations the finite volume method was used (FVM). The scale of the turbulence is assumed to be 200-300m. Use of the developed technique is shown on the example of calculation of wind pressure and wind velocities in pedestrian area for high-rise building under construction in the City of Ekaterinburg.

Keywords: high-rise building,wind impact,simulation,wind loads

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Alfredo F. Serpell, José M. Rueda

Modeling a project scope using a case-based reasoning approach

Abstract: The availability of a good, complete scope definition in the early stages of a project is widely recognized by industry practitioners as a key factor for overall project success. This paper presents a Project Scope Modeling Methodology for computerized decision support during the definition of a new project scope. The methodology is based on the effective reutilization of historical project scope definitions through the application of Case Based Reasoning (CBR), an Artificial Intelligence approach. In CBR, the previous experiences are reused in solving new situations re-ducing the complexities of modeling reasoning processes. By using CBR, the scope modeling methodology helps to find and reuse the most relevant historical information, allowing to easily consult and combine information from multiple scope definitions in a computerized environment. The resulting scope definitions are ready to serve as input information for different planning purposes. The application for conceptual cost estimating is discussed.

Keywords: project, scope, planning, modeling, case-based reasoning, methodology

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Full text: content.pdf (529,639 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Arthur W T Leung, C M Tam

Assessment of Impacts of Project Technical Complexity on Building Production Using Clustering and Knowledge-Based System

Abstract: Site production layout planning is highly correlated with the technical complexity of a building project. Building structures, building layouts, scales of project and external site conditions are the major components affecting allocation and positioning of site facilities and construction plant. The relationships between these attributes are well known by experienced project managers. In the planning and tendering process, project managers and planners would assess and decide the site production layout by applying their cognitive knowledge using intuitive rather than quantitative approaches. They recognize the benefit of using quantitative models in decision making, which however present much difficulty when modeling the intwined and complex relationships between large numbers of variables. This study proposes an assessment model to examine impacts of technical designs, building layout designs and site conditions on building production with respect to the site layout plan using a data-based platform, which can assist decision making in site planning.The system consists of two components, the Building Production Impact Assessment Model (BPIA) and the Building Production Impact Database (BPIDB). The BPIA adopts the natural clustering technique, the self-organizing Map (SOM), to classify building project samples in terms of technical complexity to compute the technical complexity index for the sample projects. The sample projects and their index are uploaded to the BPIDB forming the data records. In the assessment platform, planners can input the project information of a new project, and the system will return with a complexity index and three sample projects with the highest similarity. The objective of the proposed system is to generate both a quantitative complexity index derived by the clustering model and the cognitive knowledge through the selected projects to improve the quality of decisions. The conceptual framework of the system will be discussed and illustrated with examples.

Keywords: technical complexity, building production, clustering, database

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Full text: content.pdf (73,314 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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B Vladimir, T Maile, J T. O’Donnell, C M Rose, N Mrazovi_

DATA ENVIRONMENTS AND PROCESSING IN SEMI-AUTOMATED SIMULATION WITH ENERGYPLUS

Abstract: Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is increasingly used worldwide to quantitatively justify building design decisions and building operations strategies. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the results of such simulation are often questionable, cannot be trusted, and may lead to wrong decisions. Poor simulation model definition and the use of inappropriately acquired and transformed data are two of the most common causes of this. The use of LBNL methodology for semi-automated BEP simulation data input automates data acquisition and transformation, which removes human decision making from the simulation input data definition process. The first of the three major software components (the Geometry Simplification Tool or GST) is already in use. Work on the second component (an interoperable HVAC graphic user interface for EnergyPlus) is under development. The third component (an internal loads generation tool) will be developed in the near future. The original HVAC GUI for EnergyPlus component has evolved into a BEP simulation platform code-named Mojito. A new internal data model which defines all object/attribute/ relationship sets used in BEP simulation, called SimModel, is the central feature of Mojito. Modeling imprecision is very characteristic of geometry representation in building models submitted by the Architecture-Engineering-Construction-Owners-Operator (AECOO) industry. This, and the lagging and very slow development of CAD utilities that can generate higher-level space boundaries needed in BEP simulation, has forced the development of a new tool (SBT) that calculates higher-level space boundaries from IFC-compliant definition of basic building geometry from any model-based CAD tool. It has also forced the addition of new data transformation rules in GST. This paper describes the principles and high-level views of SimModel, SBT and GST internal architectures, and discusses some of the model and tool functionalities. It also provides a brief summary of quality assessment characteristic of building models generated in the AECOO industry.

Keywords: Building data, semi-automated simulation, simulation software, energy simulation data model, data transformation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,506,890 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Blain M

Cognitive theory in relation to the ACTof drawing in electronically generated programs

Abstract: "Visual perception processes in sequential samples or fixated forms. Therefore, if we are to achieve unified perceptions there must be an integration of visual input over time. These sensations are not rich enough to mediate perception, we as perceivers must add to them. This elaboration of sensation involves inferential processes, semantic, semiotic and metaphorical associations, utilizing memory, habit, etc. This paper forms a basis for looking at these inputs as abstractions and how this enables a better understanding of: Cognition, visual and computational perception Computational descriptive rules Constructivist machine vision programs uses of Cognitive and visual theories within the mechanics of drawing. This examination expands towards exploring issues of presence and absence and the confusion of boundaries between inside and outside, hybridity, infiltration and dispersion, non-grounds and objects within."

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Full text: content.pdf (199,792 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.036182) class.roadmaps (0.021100) class.software development (0.012792)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Brandon P, Watson I

An expert system for strategic maintenance planning

Abstract: Recent changes in legislation have made housing associations (HAs) more financially responsible for all aspects of maintenance of their new housing stock. Because of the levels of funding within HAs and the need to provide accommodation at a "fair rent,"the planning of maintenance, and the consequent planning of expenditure has never before been so vital. Moreover, most literature on maintenance, including government reports and research by professional bodies or academic institutions, identifies a need for improvement in decision making regarding building maintenance. The project has provided an expert system (ES) that assists maintenance and finance officers in strategic planning of maintenance. The system (called EMMY) is not a database for HAs building stock and their tenants, or a program that itemises maintenance jobs, handles invoices, and performs various accounting tasks. It is a strategic management tool. Whilethere are many programs in existence that estimate the life-cycle costs of buildings or provide maintenance management, they all share two major problems: They require voluminous data input to describe each building; They function as "black boxes;" that is, data is put in and answers are given with little indication ofhowthe answers were generated and what variables affected the results. Storing all the relevant information in a database and selecting only that information required for the building under consideration is one method of reducing data input. In this way one can construct a modelof the building from pre-packaged components, and calculations can then be performed using spreadsheets. This approach has the advantage ofreducing data input and being relatively low cost (Tuts 89). Althoughthere is avariety of computer software available to the industry, thetechnology with potentially the greatest benefits is still the least known and most rarely used - the ES. ESs can directly address both of the problems outlined above: by reducing t

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Full text: content.pdf (930,794 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.055604) class.social (0.033963) class.synthesis (0.021859)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Brisson E, Debras Ph, Poyet P

A first step towards an intelligent integrated design system in the building field

Abstract: This article presents the work the Knowledge Base Group is achieving towards the integration of Artificial Intelligence based facilities in the Building design process. After an overview of the current state of the integrated design process, we describe the context and the technical guidelines to realize computer integrated software in the building design field. Then some tools are presented to model the knowledge (the HBDS method) and t o implement such model in our Mips home-made knowledge modeling software platform (including object-oriented database management facilities, expert system reasoning facilities, hypertext edition facilities, 3D-design and 3D-view modules .. .). Finally we describe the Quakes application devoted t o assess detached house anti-seismic capabilities during the design process. A deep conceptual model takes in charge all the semantic entities (columns, resistant panels, openings, ...) involved in the anti-seismic expertise. Using both this conceptual model description of a detached house and the 3D design tool, we input the project. Then the seismic expertise is driven in a divide and conquer approach and records the alleged configuration recognized automatically linked to the corresponding section of the building regulation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,124,986 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.034298) class.analysis (0.022648) class.synthesis (0.019006)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


Christensen L C, Christiansen T R, Jin Y, Kunz J, Levitt R E

Extending enterprise modeling beyond engineering - a life cycle model of hydraulic systems

Abstract: In our work on enterprise engineering we are concerned with developing a fiamework and methodology for modeling real world enterprise. Our primary concern is that the resulting enterprise models should give insight into the operation of today's enterprise, and allow systematic studies to predict likely effects of proposed changes. Last year, at the CIB W78 workshop in Helsinki, we presented an initial overview of CAESAR, an architecture for enterprise modeling in the AEC industry. CAESAR addresses the Objectives, Product, Process and Organization (OPPO) aspects of enterprise, and covers the complete life-cycle, including requirements specification, conceptual design, detailed engineering, approval, fabrication/ installation, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. This year we apply the CAESAR framework to develop a simple model of a hydraulic system for oil production facilities. Such hydraulic systems are used for a variety of control tasks on offshore platforms, where different users have a range of different functional and operational requirements. We use the hydraulic system model to derive measures of coordination load, which may be used as input to simulate project execution as a set of information processing tasks. The Virtual Design Team OT) discrete event simulator is used to predict changes in development schedule and life-cycle cost due to changes in scheduling and execution of design and development.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,091,173 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.017132) class.impact (0.011087) class.economic (0.007888)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


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