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Al-Hajj A, Aouad G

The development of an integrated life cycle costing model using object oriented and vr technologies

Abstract: There is an increasing realisation of the importance of operation and maintenance as opposed to capital costs throughout the life of an asset. In addition, new styles of contracts such as PFI (Private Finance Initiative) are becoming more popular. This will require that the building product is addressed within its holistic picture including the design, construction and maintenance. It is therefore vital to embed the life cycle costing element of a facility within its design and construction. Whole Life Costing is a technique used to facilitate effective choice between alternatives in the search of economic solutions. Information technology, particularly integrated databases and VR (Virtual Reality), can provide the mechanism to facilitate the integration of the whole life cost information. The research project described in this paper aims to add a life cycle costing element to the design phase of the OSCON integrated database developed at Salford University in the UK. The current integrated database within OSCON supports the functions of design, estimating and planning. The proposed system will allow the user within a VR environment to navigate inside the building retrieving information about building components that need replacement or repair. A colouring mechanism will be developed to show various elements in different colours according to cost criteria. This would allow the user to easily inspect the building and get rough ideas of repair and maintenance programmes, running costs and cash flows. The system will allow data to be updated continuously so that it will enable the comparison with initial plans and estimates and provides a fresh view of future action and feedback.

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Full text: content.pdf (77,170 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.029049) class.processing (0.019301) class.software development (0.013495)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Alain Zarli, Eric Pascual, Daniel Cheung

Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent and Integrated Controls in Buildings: Current Developments and Future Research

Abstract: A common and acknowledged vision today is the one that, in the future, buildings, along with their components, equipments, and their environment will communicate and be able to provide information on their status ubiquitously. This real-time available information will be interoperable via common protocols for holistic automation & control. The whole building will be supervised by intelligent systems, able to combine information from all connected devices, from the Internet or from energy service providers in order to efficiently control HVAC (heating & cooling), lighting, and hot water systems along with energy production, storage and consumption devices inside the building, taking into account the users' needs and wishes. In such a context, ICT is recognised as key for empowering people in the (built) universe in which they live, with smart e-metering and new smart e-devices – as well as becoming fully pervasive in the future optimization of energy in the built environment - where “Energy-efficient smart buildings” are to be buildings which contain systems that manage information for an optimal operation of building energy flows over the whole building lifecycle.In such a context, CSTB has developed an open framework for data collection and processing, to be installed in any built environment. It supports networked heterogeneous sensors and actuators (with appropriate communication protocols technology), allows assembling various “business” functions (with easy evolution and extension capability thanks to a concept of service composition and event-driven management between modules), can accommodate any hardware platform constraint (memory, computing power), and can be executed in any environments supporting a Java SE implementation. The framework is itself based on an OSGi platform. The notion of “sensor” is to be considered in a comprehensive way: physical sensor (analogic or logic), complex sub-system or meta-sensor (e.g. Agilent data acquisition system or alike), or even external services (e.g. getting weather data via the Internet). Fields of applications are energy-efficiency in the built environment, but also Ambient-Assisted Living (AAL), internal air quality assessment, collection of data related to inhabitants behaviours, etc..The REEB coordination action (European strategic research roadmap to ICT enabled Energy-Efficiency in Buildings and construction), as a European R&D technology roadmap initiative (achieved in the context of an EC-funded Coordinated Action - http://www.ict-reeb.eu) has identified ICT contributions to the energy efficiency of buildings mainly via improvement (and corresponding RTD) in integrated design (and indeed ICT tools for Energy-Efficient design and production management), integrated and intelligent control, user awareness and decision support to various stakeholders throughout the whole life of buildings, energy management and trading, and integration technologies. As far as the integrated / intelligent control field is concerned, REEB has fundamentally identified the following areas for future investigation:• automation & control: system concepts, intelligent HVAC, smart lighting, ICT for micro-generation & storage systems, predictive control;• monitoring: instrumentation: smart metering;• quality of service: improved diagnostics, secure communications;• wireless sensor networks: hardware, operating systems, network design.The paper will first introduce to expectations, requirements and potential future scenarios for ICT to support integrated and optimised control in future so-called smart buildings. It will then introduce to the current trend of developments at CSTB in this area, and will present the CSTBox as a tool federating and/or complementing functions (potentially relying on already installed systems) in the built environment. After a short presentation of the REEB project, the paper will follow up with exhibiting the outcome of the REEB project in terms of roadmapping RTD activities in this technological field, also providing with a first insight of their potential impact in the future.Acknowledgement: the authors wish to thank the European Commission (DG INFSO) for its financial support to the REEB co-ordinated action. Moreover, the authors are also grateful to the REEB Consortium partners, namely ARUP, ACCIONA, CEA, LABEIN, TUD, UCC & VTT.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Intelligent and Integrated Control, REEB project, CSTBox framework, Data collection and storage

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Blain M

Cognitive theory in relation to the ACTof drawing in electronically generated programs

Abstract: "Visual perception processes in sequential samples or fixated forms. Therefore, if we are to achieve unified perceptions there must be an integration of visual input over time. These sensations are not rich enough to mediate perception, we as perceivers must add to them. This elaboration of sensation involves inferential processes, semantic, semiotic and metaphorical associations, utilizing memory, habit, etc. This paper forms a basis for looking at these inputs as abstractions and how this enables a better understanding of: Cognition, visual and computational perception Computational descriptive rules Constructivist machine vision programs uses of Cognitive and visual theories within the mechanics of drawing. This examination expands towards exploring issues of presence and absence and the confusion of boundaries between inside and outside, hybridity, infiltration and dispersion, non-grounds and objects within."

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Full text: content.pdf (199,792 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.036182) class.roadmaps (0.021100) class.software development (0.012792)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Ct S,Trudel P,Snyder R,Gervais R

An augmented reality tool for facilitating on-site interpretation of 2d construction drawings

Abstract: Two-dimensional drawings are the only type of design document that is legally approved for construction. For large construction projects, because of the drawings high level of abstraction and because of the very large number of drawings, interpretation and correct understanding of drawings is identified by some construction firms as their greatest single challenge. To do the building work as designed, the builder must understand the meaning of the drawings, and this comes from establishing a visual correspondence between the abstract 2D drawings and the physical environment. Unfortunately, that correspondence may not be easy to obtain when the structure of interest is not clearly visible from the users position (occlusion, differences between the model and the actual building, etc.). In this paper, we propose a technique that enables the display of 2D drawings into the real world using augmented reality in a way that can overcome those kinds of limitations. The tool enables users to browse the real world in search of drawings, or to request the real location that a specific drawing represents, and to view each drawing within a context composed of a combination of captured photographic reality and designed virtual modeling. Augmentation is achieved by displaying the drawing using either an animated sliding plane that shows it being inserted into the real building, or a clipping technique that displays the drawing inside a clipped 3D model which in turn is inside the real building. The 2 techniques were implemented and tested in a situation where section drawings are visualized from the outside of the building. Our results show that those visualization techniques provide good 3D perception in a representation that is easy to understand visually. They also enable quick localization of the drawing in its environment, and provide a better understanding of the drawing with respect to its context: the 3D model and the built environment.

Keywords: Augmented reality,panorama,construction,2D drawings,design,3D model

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Haghighat F

Development of a procedure to evaluate the air leakage distribution from fan pressurization test - validation of three airflow models

Abstract: A number of airflow models have been developed to assist the designer in the design of energy efficient and healthy built environment. The models range from very simple empirical algorithms to calculate the global airflow rate to sophisticated computerized fluid-dynamic techniques solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The multi-zone approach falls between these two extreme cases. This approach assumes that the interior of the building is divided into regions of differing pressures interconnected by leakage paths. The advantage of multi-zone models, besides being able to simulate infiltration in larger buildings, is that they can be used to calculate mass flow interactions between the different zones inside buildings as well as inside and outside. This knowledge is needed for the design of heating/cooling and ventilation systems. An essential part of the development of any computer model is its validation, and the essential information needed for validation of airflow models is the distribution of air leakage distribution. This paper first describes a methodology to distribute global air leakage of whole house and whole garage among cracks and gaps on exterior walls and roof, and report the validation of three airflow models. From the comparisons it can be seen that there are good agreement between the predictions made by the models and measured data, as well as between three models. Therefore, it can be concluded that the methodology for air leakage distribution is correct, and the performances of COMIS, CONTAM and ESP-r for predicting airflow rates in single-family house are similar.

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Full text: content.pdf (198,669 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Hanser D, Halin G, Bignon J C

A hyperdocument representation of the project for a user-adaptive groupware

Abstract: This paper describes the representation of a project inside a groupware tool dedicated to heterogeneous and short-lived teams. With a few exceptions, the concurrent engineering tools taken from industry and services are not used in building projects. These tools transpose in computer terms existing situations with hierarchical rules. Therefore, these tools couldn't respect the strong autonomy, of the actors in the French building context. The solution, we propose, give a relational vision of the cooperation and of the interactions existing during the processes of conception-construction in architectural works. Our first interest point concerns the representation of the actors, the documents and the assignments as a relational network and not as a hierarchical tree, mostly used in the groupware tools. In a second point, we use this relational network to produce a hyperdocument representation of the project data. This hyperdocument representation gives an adaptive view of the project organization and evolution to each actor in order to display information related to him only.

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Full text: content.pdf (199,771 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.066546) class.roadmaps (0.021380) class.man-software (0.019065)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Ito K, Kano Y

3-D graphical simulation for crane planning using object-orientedbuilding product model

Abstract: Temporary Facilities are the most expensive resources at a constructionsite. In particular, the selection, positioning, planning and operation of acrane for a construction site control influences the overall constructionplanning and selection of the combination of construction methods. InJapan, at most construction sites around or inside the large city, craneoperation is one of the big issues in determining the combination ofconstruction methods because of the site constraint restrictions.Therefore, the utilization of a crane directly influences theconstructability and productivity of its related construction operations. Itis also important for a construction planner, or construction manager, toconsider and to evaluate the construction work plans, and constructioncosts. This is so that they provide for the safety of the laborers, reducingconstruction costs, and maintaining the quality of the facilities. Duringthe crane planning, any possible lack of equipment power and/orresource bottlenecks, should be identified.On the other hand, an object-oriented product model is very powerful indescribing each building element as an object, including its attributes forthe crane simulation. Especially for the selection and positioning of thecrane for a construction operation, the loading ability of the crane orinterference between the elements and boom of the crane should beevaluated by using the location and attributes of building elements, suchas the weight of elements or materials of elements. Therefore, theauthors propose the 3-D graphical simulation system for crane planning,with an object-oriented building product model.This paper presents the development, present status and future directionsof the 3-D graphical simulation system for crane planning using theobject-oriented building product model. The work described in this paperis still in progress. The paper will conclude with a layout of future plansfor 3-D graphical simulation systems as the tool of virtual construction.

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Full text: content.pdf (211,278 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Moloney J, Amor R, Furness J, Moores B

Design critique inside a multi-player game engine

Abstract: The design critique process, used to provide expert feedback on a building design concept to students in architecture schools throughout the world, is reinterpreted within the context of an ITbased collaborative virtual environment. IT support for design critique allows new modes of participation where the experts do not have to be co-located to carry out their tasks and, through the ability to record criticisms, can join, or leave, a critique session as their time pressures allow. Students can guide tours through their virtual designs, yet those making the critique still have the ability to explore other aspects of the design which intrigue or concern them. Commentary and annotation on the design is attached to various aspects and views within the model and dialogues between the student designer and those making the critique can be built up over time. The resulting discussions recorded against the design can then be used for future reference by the student or as instructive commentary for newer students reviewing previous design approaches. A game engine provides the real-time 3D visualisation, base interactivity and multi-participant support upon which critique specific functionality has been incorporated.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Naaranoja M, Oestman L

Information technology strategies and adaptation of knowledge - a conceptual analysis in the construction industry

Abstract: The goal of this study is to construct an understanding of preparations, made for strategic decisions of information technology. The focus is on adaptation of knowledge and the types of knowledge adapted. The study concentrates on the software and hardware used for producing drawings and specifications in the construction industry - the companies suffer an unpredictable market environment and a large amount of published data. The study is based on two case studies - made in two different companies a multinational with operations in different countries, the other a medium size, mainly active on the regional market. Both of the companies are forced to make development decisions about information technology by estimating future benefits, costs, risks and intangible values. This should evolve from a thorough reflection based on selected information and an assessment of the situational data. According to their attitude towards CAD development these companies belong to different classes: pioneer and follower. The pioneer makes a broad scope selection of information and organises it for decision making. The follower estimates both the benefits of the software and the actions of the competitors. He calculates the revenues and costs carefully before the decision. There is a large amount of information offered by software developers, scientist and other experts. On the other hand the knowledge needed for strategic decisions has to be inside the company. According to the pragmatist philosophy, knowledge is gained through elaboration of experiences. In a fast developing field - such as software development and communication tools - the possibility of gaining experiences is good. The problem is - due to continuous progress - that new experiences are the only that can help you construct adequate knowledge. Sustainable decisions need to be based on long term experience, but in the case of information technology, the emphasis must

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Full text: content.pdf (50,324 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.026554) class.synthesis (0.015250) class.software development (0.012514)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Bjrk and Dr. Adina Jgbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


S Park, T-H Kim, S Chin

Smart Space with a Built-in Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN)-based Online Monitoring System at Sungkyunkwan University in Korea

Abstract: Recently, advances in smart sensors and information technology have made building structures more intelligent. In particular, the ubiquitous sensor network (USN) system, which consists of a range of smart sensors and a wireless communication network, is being employed widely as an essential tool to provide a safe and clean environment with a range of applications including automation, fire prevention and security. This paper presents, a smart space test-bed with a built-in USN-based online monitoring system established at Sungkyunkwan University in Korea for both functions of structural health monitoring and environmental monitoring. For the structural health monitoring function, accelerometers, strain gauges, tilt-meters were installed at the host structure and the vibration mode shape, deflection and displacement of a specific member of the host structure were monitored in real-time. Temperature sensors, humidity sensors, CO2 (Carbon dioxide) sensors, windy direction/speed sensors, CCTVs (Closed-Circuit Television) and motion sensors were installed at the appropriate locations for environmental monitoring inside and/or outside the host structure. In addition, all the information obtained from the deployed sensors was collected as a database and an integrated web server which can be connected very easily through the mobile apparatus of the various platforms such as a tablet PC (Personal Computer), a smart phone, MID (Mobile Internet Device), and etc. was constructed. Finally, the built in USN-based online monitoring was integrated with BIM (Building Information Modeling) maintenance for future guidance in ubiquitous environments.

Keywords: Smart Space, Ubiquitous Sensor Network, Structural Health Monitoring, Environmental Monitoring, Building Information Modeling.

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Full text: content.pdf (651,260 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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