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A Ekholm, L Häggström

BUILDING CLASSIFICATION FOR BIM – RECONSIDERING THE FRAMEWORK

Abstract: The purpose of building classification systems is to provide the sector with agreed and standardised ter¬minology and semantics, e.g. in systems for technical specification, cost calculation, and exchange of information. There is a growing need to use classification systems in a BIM context. In inter¬¬national construction projects and international construction product trade there is a need both to translate between national classification systems and to develop common systems. The idea behind the inter¬¬national framework standard for building classification ISO 12006-2 is that national systems would be easier to compare if they adhere to the class definitions suggested in the standard. A study of two classification systems, the BSAB system in Sweden and the DBK system in Denmark, both within the framework and yet not compatible, has risen the idea of a deeper analysis of the theoretical basis for the ISO 12006-2 classification system to find a solution to this problem. The project has developed such a theoretical framework in order to clarify the relationship between classes representing parts of buildings in the ISO 12006-2 standard, specifically the Construction entity part, Element and Work result classes. This is specifically needed when the standard is used in the context of BIM, since building models include both specialization and compositional relations among information objects representing parts of buildings. The proposed theoretical framework is based on a systems view on the built environment that distinguishes constructions in four main compositional levels: construction entities, technical systems, building elements and components. Based on the theoretical framework developed in this project, possible new interpretations of the classification standard ISO 12006-2 are discussed.

Keywords: building classification, ISO 12006-2, BSAB, DBK

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Full text: content.pdf (215,256 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A.V. Hore, R.P. West

CITAX: A COLLABORATIVE ICT STANDARDS MODEL FOR THE IRISH CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Abstract: The Irish construction industry is facing a series of fundamental challenges that is affecting every player in the AEC lifecycle, from architects to engineers to quantity surveyors to owners to tenants. Despite technological advances in recent years, the Irish construction industry lags behind other industries in respect to ICT investments. Although there is a pressing need for innovation, existing procurement and tendering procedures in Ireland largely discourage new ideas and put further pressure on thin margins that characterise the competitiveness of the construction sector. The low level of inter-company ICT connectivity reflects the general fragmented and adversarial nature of the Irish construction industry, where the absence of dominant players has precluded the imposition of de facto inter-company ICT standards, as has been the case in the retail supermarket sector. This paper will present the results of a two-year research project which sought to demonstrate that, by the adoption of readily available ICT tools, particular business processes in construction could be dramatically improved. The paper goes on to describe the opportunities and challenges that have arisen as the project draws to a close. It will, in particular, focus on the introduction of ICT standards within the Irish construction industry. The ultimate goal is not only to have ICT standards in place, but also to provide the impetus to ensure that as many stakeholders as possible use them. How this might be achieved is also part of the project and its success will be judged by the extent of the adoption of the standard by the industry.

Keywords: Construction, ICT standards, re-engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (170,868 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Amor R W, Hosiung J G

Multi-disciplinary views for intqrated and concurrent design

Abstract: The definition and implementation of user views is likely to be a major factor in the success of the ISO-STEP standard for computer-based representation of building components and their inter-connection. The development of a method for describing user views to a particular model is also likely to increase the usage of existing design tools. Currently, the arcane languages and the detailed knowledge required of the physics and terminology of the specific domains of many of these tools limit their use by designers. This paper addresses these issues by describing a system that can present information from a base computer model of a building to a given user. The language and level of detail of the system are directed at the needs and understanding of the user. This system allows multiple concurrent views to the base model, each view tailored to a particular discipline (eg, architect, structural engineer, services engineer, etc) and further tailored to meet the specific needs of the particular user in terms of understanding of the various disciplines and the level of information required. Used with a system that integrates various design tools through a computer based building model, this system will offer users information from a range of design tools at a level that they can comprehend.

Keywords: multi discipline views; product modelling; user interaction

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Full text: content.pdf (625,133 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Hosking J, Mugridge W

A declarative approach to inter-schema mappings

Abstract: The requirements for the specification of mappings between tools in an integrated and interactive design system are described in this paper. The declarative mapping language, VML, is introduced. VML allows a high level, bidirectional specification of mappings between two arbitrary schemas. To illustrate the utility of VML, a demonstration system consisting of plan definition and code conformance tools is integrated via a common data model using VML mappings. The VML mappings are capable of handling both relational and object-oriented style schemas as well as interactive and batch style design tools. We illustrate the use of VML to specify correspondences between classes, conditional application of correspondences, different styles of equivalence, initialisation conditions as well as method handling for interactive systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,068,779 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.030558) class.software development (0.027038) class.represent (0.019168)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Turk Z, Hyvarinen J, Finne C

CONNET: a gateway to Europe's construction information

Abstract: "The EC funded project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/) has developed a set of Internet-based information services for Europe. These services are linked through a European gateway for the construction industry which provides a ""virtual technology park"", accessible to the whole industry regardless of national boundaries. The gateway provides mechanisms to link all information services for the construction industry, and to establish national gateways to services which can then inter-operate across Europe. The CONNET consortium is moving to establish the existing services in all European nations, and to encourage further existing or planned information services to be linked. A suite of five Internet based services has initially been developed, comprising: a technical information centre; a waste exchange centre; manufactured product services; a calculation and software centre; and an electronic news service as described below: 1. The Technical Information Centre provides a single point of entry to locate technical information from quality providers, initially in the UK. The centre draws upon information held by the major publishers in the UK, with over 200 identified to link into the service. Once a publication is identified a user is able to place an order to purchase, or browse, the item. An automated notification service for users, based on their areas of interest, is also available as part of this centre. 2. The Waste Exchange Centre extends the current UK based system to better enable the disposal and reuse of site waste across organisations Nationally and in Europe. Availability of, and requests for, waste materials are automatically matched in order to broker greater reuse of materials. 3. The Manufactured Product Service enables Finnish and export-market users to identify manufactured products which match their design specification by incorporating product attributes into the selection system. Users are able to identify certified products and drag-and-drop CAD information into their designs. 4. The Calculation and Software Centre provides the European entry point for information on all software products available for the civil engineering domain (over 3,900 collated to date). Online demonstrations, online purchase, and even pay-per-use software is available. 5. The Electronic News Service enables members of the construction industry to register an interest in specific topics and to be notified of any Internet published news that matches their interest. The news sources are drawn from the main information providers and professional institutes in the industry, both within the UK and Internationally. Currently over 14,300 Internet sites have been identified and indexed for this service. This paper describes the infrastructure which has been developed for the European gateway and the benefits it can offer to linked services within a single nation, or across Europe. The virtual technology park infrastructure developed in CONNET provides for user identification, centralised user profiling and profile management, automated and periodic user profile servicing, classification system management and mapping, discussion groups, secure communication and service validation, etc. The way in which these technology park services are able to be used and adapted in independent, but linked, national services is highlighted in the paper. The five individual services are also described briefly, highlighting the benefits they offer to the European construction industry and the possibilities they offer in terms of ensuring national services are inter-operable across all of Europe."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.014414) class.communication (0.010000) class.man-software (0.007679)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


António Ferreira, António Antunes, and Álvaro Seco

Planning Implications Of The Inter-Municipal Mobility Patterns Of The Oporto Region

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Full text: content.pdf (3,168,325 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Bloomfield D, Amor R

I-SEEC: an internet gateway to european construction resources

Abstract: For the construction industries to move into the knowledge society and knowledge economy they need to be able to build upon their existing information base. This information base is unique within individual countries (though often with significant overlap between countries, for example, with Eurocodes utilised across Europe) and usually widely dispersed. Drawing together the information resources within nations, and then connecting them with each other to form trans-national resources enables a more effective, informed and intelligent industry. I-SEEC is a collaborative project funded by the European Union with the overall goal of creating an infrastructure to enable and link high quality commercial electronic information services throughout its member countries. This project started in March 2000 and finishes in April 2001. It builds upon a previous EU project - CONNET (CONstruction information service NETwork). This paper provides a description of the final state of the infrastructure, services and business models available through I-SEEC. The countries participating in I-SEEC are Finland, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. CONNET provides access to a range of high quality Internet-based services for the construction industry in Europe. It provides both a European entry point to identify resources and national entry points for localised service delivery. The European CONNET entry point provides a range of technology park services as well as industry-specific services. These services include: · Management of security services, including installation and monitoring of security systems · Help desk, providing a point of contact for potential service providers and for problem resolution · Information broker role, enabling transparent access to information in the CONNET services · Technology observatory service, including leading edge, current and best-practice technologies · Provision of user profiles, allowing personalised delivery of updates in areas of interest · Multi-classification support, permitting handling of national systems used across the EC. · Inter-service communication services, allowing all comparable services to be identified and a query to be passed from one service to another service to answer. · Multi-language support, enabling EC languages to be handled correctly and to provide basic translations between them. The services offered by I-SEEC include a Technical Information Centre, Waste Exchange Centre, Electronic News Service, Calculation and Software Centre, Who's Who in Construction, Specialist Equipment Directory and a Best Practice Information service. The CONNET infrastructure and the I-SEEC information services provide the means to promote effective use of information by construction industry professionals in an efficient and cost-effective way. The ability to pass queries from one high quality service to another in a different country is a substantial contribution to the CIB goal of providing information to achieve performance. This paper draws out lessons learned - both technological and practical - in the course of this multi-country initiative to develop a portal for the construction industry. It also invites participation in this open initiative and describes how existing and developing services across the world can be made interoperable within a CONNET (and any Internet portal) environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (416,345 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.056731) class.deployment (0.046867) class.collaboration (0.041581)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bourdeau M, Kazi, A S, Rezgui Y, Vakola M

An open system for inter-enterprise information management indynamic virtual enterprises

Abstract: OSMOS, Open System for inter-enterprise information Management in dynamic virtualenvirOnmentS, is a European RTD project aimed at the development of an Internet basedenvironment that supports share of information and task collaboration between non co-locatedteams in the context of extended enterprises, and especially in project based industries such asconstruction. The OSMOS infrastructure is to provide services for communication, co-operation,co-ordination and data exchange, that will be possibly integrated with legacy or commercialsoftware tools used within companies. OSMOS suggests a migration path from current documentbased information management towards semantic integration of documents, product models andproject co-ordination information. Two OSMOS-based Internet services will be set up as pilots.Deployment of OSMOS compliant services in Europe will be promoted via user interest groups inseveral countries. The focus of this paper is on the presentation of the aims, objectives, approach,and benefits to the construction industry at large as envisioned through OSMOS.

Keywords: Virtual enterprise, groupware environment, construction, information exchange

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Full text: content.pdf (211,727 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Carrillo P M, Anumba C J, Kamara J M

Knowledge management strategy for construction: key I.T. and contextual issues

Abstract: "Most business organisations often cite the staff as their greatest asset but have no appropriate mechanisms for managing the knowledge or intellectual capital that is embodied in these staff. The importance of Knowledge Management is now being realised and businesses are starting to formulate strategies and to invest in systems that will enable them to manage their corporate knowledge. This is a relatively new concept for construction organisations, which have a fundamental need to manage knowledge as they move from one project to another, working with different partners and supply chains. The aim of this paper is to explore the information technology (IT) and contextual issues involved in formulating an appropriate knowledge management strategy for construction organisations. It begins with basic definitions of knowledge and knowledge management, and then emphasises the importance of knowledge management in a construction setting. Drawing upon a number of research projects at Loughborough University, the paper discusses the contextual aspects of knowledge management. These include such issues as what types of knowledge should be managed, when and how; the business benefits that result from improving cross-project and inter-organisational knowledge management; the common groupings of knowledge classes, their appropriate transfer mechanisms and the implications for their management; the implications for an organisation’s policy, structure and working practices raised by managing knowledge across projects and enterprises; and how to develop an effective strategy for managing knowledge as an asset whilst enhancing the intellectual capital of an organisation within the constraints set by the business context for that organisation. Other issues relate to the relationship between knowledge management and improved business performance, and the cultural barriers to knowledge management. The paper also examines the role of information technology (IT) as an enabler for knowledge management, and reviews the some of the main IT systems that are being marketed as knowledge management tools. The concluding section of the paper formulates guidelines that will enable construction organisations to more appropriately develop IT and knowledge management strategies that will enable them to improve their business performance."

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Full text: content.pdf (275,360 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.035019) class.bestPractise (0.028224) class.commerce (0.027288)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Chen Hua, S W Poon, and F F Ng

Inter-Partner Fit And Performance In Construction Joint Venture

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Full text: content.pdf (458,179 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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