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A A Akanmu, C J Anumba

Experimental Investigation of Chirp Spread Spectrum-Based Swarm Sensors for Construction Resource Tracking

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Alain Zarli, Eric Pascual, Daniel Cheung

Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent and Integrated Controls in Buildings: Current Developments and Future Research

Abstract: A common and acknowledged vision today is the one that, in the future, buildings, along with their components, equipments, and their environment will communicate and be able to provide information on their status ubiquitously. This real-time available information will be interoperable via common protocols for holistic automation & control. The whole building will be supervised by intelligent systems, able to combine information from all connected devices, from the Internet or from energy service providers in order to efficiently control HVAC (heating & cooling), lighting, and hot water systems along with energy production, storage and consumption devices inside the building, taking into account the users' needs and wishes. In such a context, ICT is recognised as key for empowering people in the (built) universe in which they live, with smart e-metering and new smart e-devices – as well as becoming fully pervasive in the future optimization of energy in the built environment - where “Energy-efficient smart buildings” are to be buildings which contain systems that manage information for an optimal operation of building energy flows over the whole building lifecycle.In such a context, CSTB has developed an open framework for data collection and processing, to be installed in any built environment. It supports networked heterogeneous sensors and actuators (with appropriate communication protocols technology), allows assembling various “business” functions (with easy evolution and extension capability thanks to a concept of service composition and event-driven management between modules), can accommodate any hardware platform constraint (memory, computing power), and can be executed in any environments supporting a Java SE implementation. The framework is itself based on an OSGi platform. The notion of “sensor” is to be considered in a comprehensive way: physical sensor (analogic or logic), complex sub-system or meta-sensor (e.g. Agilent data acquisition system or alike), or even external services (e.g. getting weather data via the Internet). Fields of applications are energy-efficiency in the built environment, but also Ambient-Assisted Living (AAL), internal air quality assessment, collection of data related to inhabitants behaviours, etc..The REEB coordination action (European strategic research roadmap to ICT enabled Energy-Efficiency in Buildings and construction), as a European R&D technology roadmap initiative (achieved in the context of an EC-funded Coordinated Action - http://www.ict-reeb.eu) has identified ICT contributions to the energy efficiency of buildings mainly via improvement (and corresponding RTD) in integrated design (and indeed ICT tools for Energy-Efficient design and production management), integrated and intelligent control, user awareness and decision support to various stakeholders throughout the whole life of buildings, energy management and trading, and integration technologies. As far as the integrated / intelligent control field is concerned, REEB has fundamentally identified the following areas for future investigation:• automation & control: system concepts, intelligent HVAC, smart lighting, ICT for micro-generation & storage systems, predictive control;• monitoring: instrumentation: smart metering;• quality of service: improved diagnostics, secure communications;• wireless sensor networks: hardware, operating systems, network design.The paper will first introduce to expectations, requirements and potential future scenarios for ICT to support integrated and optimised control in future so-called smart buildings. It will then introduce to the current trend of developments at CSTB in this area, and will present the CSTBox as a tool federating and/or complementing functions (potentially relying on already installed systems) in the built environment. After a short presentation of the REEB project, the paper will follow up with exhibiting the outcome of the REEB project in terms of roadmapping RTD activities in this technological field, also providing with a first insight of their potential impact in the future.Acknowledgement: the authors wish to thank the European Commission (DG INFSO) for its financial support to the REEB co-ordinated action. Moreover, the authors are also grateful to the REEB Consortium partners, namely ARUP, ACCIONA, CEA, LABEIN, TUD, UCC & VTT.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Intelligent and Integrated Control, REEB project, CSTBox framework, Data collection and storage

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Alekhin V,Antipin A,Gorodilov S,Khramtsov S

Numerical simulation of wind loads on high rise buildings

Abstract: Article presents a methodology of the numerical simulation of the wind on high-rise buildings, which was developed by the Department of Computer-aided design of structures of the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. Paper includes the results of researches on development of a technique of determination of wind pressure upon high-rise buildings by means of numerical modeling in an ANSYS package. The investigation was carried out within the grant of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences. The results are applied to calculation of wind pressure upon a number of high-rise buildings under construction in Yekaterinburg City (Russia). Simulation is performed in the program ANSYS. The simulated building is placed in a domain that is the numerical analogue of wind tunnel. Domain sizes are chosen in such a way that simulated buildings do not affect the flow of air on its boundaries. Shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model has been used. This model effectively combines the stability and accuracy to the standard k-? model in the areas, which are placed near the walls and the effectiveness of the k-e model at a distance from the walls with a smooth transition between them (input expansion functions). For the numerical solution of the governing equations the finite volume method was used (FVM). The scale of the turbulence is assumed to be 200-300m. Use of the developed technique is shown on the example of calculation of wind pressure and wind velocities in pedestrian area for high-rise building under construction in the City of Ekaterinburg.

Keywords: high-rise building,wind impact,simulation,wind loads

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Anders Robertson, Rogier Jongeling, Anders Ekholm, Thomas Olofsson, Alain Zarli

Investigations in the BICT project of state-of-the-art ICT for industrialization of house building processes

Abstract: The research presented here is part of a project named BICT, Evaluation of benefits of ICT for the indus-trialization of project and product processes in the construction industry. Its overall objective is to establish a mutual understanding between the construction industry and R&D actors of the needs and possibilities of ICT. The project is a cooperative effort between Swedish and French researchers and industry representatives within the EraBuild program. It includes an investigation of the processes and ICT tools in a representative house building project, together with a study of the State-of-the-Art of ICT for immediate, short and medium term uptake. This paper presents the main results of the State-of-the-Art study with specific focus on: - Visualization and coordination using digital mock-ups of 3D models; - Model based quantity take-off; - Integration of applications for product design; - Reuse of experience based knowledge. The presented study concludes that the use of integrated 3D applications must be introduced early in the project lifecy-cle in order to pave the way for the use of object-oriented information in downstream processes. This requires common standards for 3D based deliveries developed in cooperation between industry and R&D actors through joint analyses of actual information management both in industrialised partnering-like processes, and fully industrial building proc-esses.

Keywords: construction processes, house building, industrialization, ICT, digital mock-ups, model based quantity take-off, integration of applications

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Full text: content.pdf (748,792 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Bester A, Huhnt W

Tendering process model for application of reliability analysis

Abstract: Construction data is a useful source of information for construction project management. The sources of data for various aspects of construction management is, in addition to the current project information and the engineers professional experience, also historical data from previous projects. An example of the use of historical cost data is in the application of the Limit State Cost Function (LSCF) model to perform construction project risk modelling. The LSCF-method was developed for assisting the consulting civil engineer to make a quantifiable judgement in the selection of a project tender. It is based on the reliability of estimating the outcome of the cost for a specific tender in terms of the risks involved in a project, by using construction cost data. The way in which this data have been captured has shown deficiencies which limits the utility of it if the scope of the data captured and the processes of both capturing and applying the results are not carefully planned. The application of the data can therefore not be seen without the process in which it is generated. The process is characterised by the generation and processing of data by the co-operation of several groups of persons at the different stages of the project. These groups of persons execute different tasks, for which appropriate subsets of information at different levels of detail are needed. The paper is focused on the specific requirements that have to be supported to model such processes. Tools are presented to support the specification of the process model. These tools enable the investigation of the model with respect to completeness and correctness. In addition, the tools support the implementation of an information system that is used in the execution of tasks during the tender process.

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Full text: content.pdf (234,503 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.052641) class.economic (0.016156) class.impact (0.011672)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Brochner J

Construction process improvements in market networks

Abstract: Most construction projects are carried out in market networks with several design and production firms involved. It is unlikely that the use of information technology (IT) will proceed at an even pace in firms. A vital task in coordinating the construction process is therefore to bridge technology gaps between firms. The analytical framework for this investigation is derived from the theory of transaction costs, with focus on how network participants perceive incentives for sharing and preserving project information. Issues such as information feedback from later to earlier stages of the process and professional liability for information provided are dealt with in this context. The main points are illustrated by results from recent and ongoing Swedish R&D projects within the field. Emphasis on IT use at the client/designer interface and at the construction site interface is expected to grow. Improved digital telecommunications for rapid transmission of graphics with attached databases are seen as a development with far-reaching consequences for efficiency in the construction process.

Keywords: construction process; networks; transaction costs; design feedback; Swedish construction

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Full text: content.pdf (668,490 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


C C Wang, A Chew

Investigation of the Current Status of Document and Information Management

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Full text: content.pdf (285,175 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2013 (browse)
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CA Jacoski

Prototype of semantic interoperability between different modalities of 2D-CAD design

Abstract: The diffusion of specific computational tools for Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) has generated a great amount of digital data in the last years. However, it is necessary for the sector to promote a standardization of such data so that they can be shared among the participants and partners of a design project. Trying to correct the problem of information exchange and mainly of data interoperability, a research project was carried out within design offices in the south of Brazil, identifying the problems and quantifying losses according to the lack of interoperability. For generation of information starting from the CAD design and as a way of enlarging the communication among the partners, a study was held about the use of the IFC classes (Industry Foundation Classes) - a pattern used to transfer data among design modalities. The result was an application of syntactic conversion of attributes of the IFC classes for XML, to attest the viability of technical integration and to transfer information to a web-based environment. As a result of the investigation, a prototype was elaborated for transferring information from CAD design to web-based applications. By using IFC classes, a program was developed in Java language for the syntactic and semantic exchange, with the automatic conversion of the information for standard XML. It was observed that the decrease of interoperability problems, checking the viability of technical integration of the design with the shared information through the web.

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Full text: content.pdf (263,581 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitt Dresden.


Chandansingh R A, Vos CH J

Modelling the effects of information technology on construction

Abstract: Quantitative statements on effects of IT are needed desperately to manage IT in construction, but are hard to make. This paper describes an approach to model the effects of IT on construction, based on the work of Mowshowitz (1992a-c). This approach makes use of graph theory to build a formal model of the construction process which allows for investigation and quantification of the effects of IT on construction. The approach is presently being used to model the cost-effects of CAD systems in concrete construction.

Keywords: IT; production digraph; information commodity; CAD; value; concrete construction

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Full text: content.pdf (576,950 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Clarke P, Clarke J

Analysis of phenomenological perceptions of effectiveness of information technology in computerised maintenance management

Abstract: The general aim of this empirical research was to examine the phenomenological perceptions of both asset managers and support or ancillary staff using qualitative and quantitative analysis for the purpose of assessing efficiency of information technology in a public sector building construction maintenance management environment, particularly to develop a framework technique that will be useful to investigate such fundamental phenomenological facets as efficiency of training and information technology, the effect of information technology on human relations within the workplace, the perceived impact of information technology on the efficiency of occupational performance, and a summative evaluation of information technology in the asset management environment. Empirical investigation by structured interview with both management and support staff within a public sector asset management organisation was undertaken. The data was analysed through unpaired t-tests between asset managers and support staff, and dichotomous questions for experienced versus inexperienced employees and employees as differentiated by age. The results of the analysis revealed that both asset managers and support staff perceive information technology as beneficial in terms of both qualitative and quantitative outcomes. Further it would appear that individually at all levels within the maintenance management sphere exhibited phenomenological perceptions of information technology that were particularly favourable and overall were consistent with the conclusions of researchers who had observed information technology's benefits in terms of other quantitative and qualitative outcomes, in industry. Further research is suggested in the areas of customer satisfaction both prior to and subsequent to the implementation of more sophisticated information technology systems in addition to investigating the interaction between actual productivity levels and phenomenological perceptions of beneficial outcomes as a function of information technology.

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Full text: content.pdf (63,348 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.043979) class.impact (0.034129) class.economic (0.021698)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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