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Barlow R P G, Amirudin R

Structural steelwork planning and design evaluation - a knowledge based approach

Abstract: This paper discusses the application of design-for-manufacture and design-for-construction methodologies to the building industry through the use of electronic prototypes developed by using knowledge based engineering (KBE). A working group representing British Steel divisions and consulting engineers agreed key processes and rules affecting initial structural steelwork solutions. The pilot scheme now in progress will allow the structural designer to use concurrent engineering techniques to work with other members of the design team, to investigate the functionality of the design, agree design parameters across design disciplines and freeze the design at an earlier stage than was previously possible. The result should produce design solutions which are both functionally and financially viable.

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Full text: content.pdf (55,004 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.030568) class.impact (0.015619) class.environment (0.010120)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Bharat D

Building industry and the agents of change

Abstract: The infornmtion technology and the changes it brings about are recent and evolving phenomena. In the absence of established historical perspectives, many previous studies have focused on the information technology issues that are of only immediate concern to the building industry and thus provide only limited perspectives. In this paper, we suggest that it is an appropriate time to look beyond the technological bottlenecks such as incompatibility of software or hardware, prohibitive resource investments, and others that are often cited as the reasons impeding applications of the information technology in the building industry. With the new developments taking place in the information technology, the gradual and paced changes in the building industry organizations will be rephced by changes with a bigger scope and a higher momentum. These changes will not result in simply a new breed of professionals who become another discrete part of the web comprising the building industry; they will affect the very web defining the building industry. Additionally, the technological developments that will bring about such changes are presently being carried out by forces external to the building irtdustty thus further obscuring their potential impacts. Five key information technology advances are submitted here as the agents of significant change in future: networks, groupware, robotics, flexible manufacturing, and microprocessor embedded building components. It is argued that the building industry needs to expand the debate about the role of the information technology by taking account of developments which presently lie outside its immediate and traditional concern. The paper initiates this discussion and describes a number of likely impacts of the new technology on the educational, professional and organizational spheres in the building industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,994,845 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.050231) class.environment (0.047416) class.man-man (0.024687)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Bjork, Bo-Christer

Requirements and information structures for building product data models

Abstract: The term computer-integrated construction (CIC) is often used to describe a future type of construction process characterised by the extensive use of information technology. The key to successful CIC is the comprehensive integration of currently isolated computing applications in different phases of the construction process. Among the several types of data exchange standards needed to support such integration, the standards for structuring the information describing buildings (building product data models) are particularly important. No fully operational building product data models have as yet been formally standardised either on the national or international level, but the topic has been a subject of intensive research during the last few years. Building product data model proposals are usually defined using object-oriented information modelling techniques. The research which is presented in this summarising thesis was carried out primarily during the years 1988-92 at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The report begins with a brief introduction to the general background of research concerning CIC and building product data models. Fundamental concepts of object orientation and product modelling are explained in a separate chapter. In order to position the author's research results, the "state of the art" in this research field is briefly reviewed. The research results are presented against the background of a kernel-aspect model framework, in line with current thinking among several leading researchers in this field. The results can loosely be classified into three distinctive groups: a number of requirements which building product data models should fulfil; specific information structures in building product data models; and the integration of product models with other types of information used in the construction process. The specific information structures which were studied include the abstraction hierarchies used in building product data models, the type object mechanism and information structures needed for modelling spaces and enclosing objects. The report ends with a discussion of the results, comparing them with the proposals and results of other researchers. Some directions for further research are also outlined.

Keywords: Building Product model, computer-integrated construction

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Bjork, Bo-Christer

Information Technology in construction: domain definition and research issues

Abstract: This article discusses the scope of research on the application of information technology in construction (ITC). A model of the information and material activities which together constitute the construction process is presented, using the IDEF0 activity modelling methodology. Information technology is defined to include all kinds of technology used for the storage, transfer and manipulation of information, thus also including devices such as copying machines, faxes and mobile phones. Using the model the domain of ITC research is defined as the use of information technology to facilitate and re-engineer the information process component of construction. Developments during the last decades in IT use in construction is discussed against a background of a simplified model of generic information processing tasks. The scope of ITC is compared with the scopes of research in related areas such as design methodology, construction management and facilities management. Health care is proposed as an interesting alternative (to the often used car manufacturing industry), as an IT application domain to compare with. Some of the key areas of ITC research in recent years; expert systems, company IT strategies, and product modelling are shortly discussed. The article finishes with a short discussion of the problems of applying standard scientific methodology in ITC research, in particular in product model research.

Keywords: Information technology, construction, research, integration, methodology

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Björk B-C

Document management - a key IT technology for the construction industry

Abstract: The IT infrastructure of today offers excellent opportunities for the construction industry to workmore efficiently by managing its documents in a digital form on the Internet. Nevertheless IT has sofar had more effect on the production of documents than on their efficient transfer and retrieval. Inthis paper the historical developments in construction computing over the last decades are outlined;how technical innovations such as photocopying, the fax, the personal computer, local areanetworks and finally the Internet have effected the production, storage, duplication and transfer ofinformation. Key features in current web based document systems are shortly described, withspecial emphasis on alternative search methods such as hierarchical folders or meta datarepositories. The integration of document management systems with other Internet based ASPservicesin vertical construction industry portals is also discussed. The paper finishes by outliningsome current trends, which seem to be leading towards the survival of a few dominant systems.

Keywords: Construction, document management, Internet, ASP

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Full text: content.pdf (361,292 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Bloomfield D P

The role of case studies in the uptake of innovation in construction

Abstract: The UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions has initiated a Construction Best Practice programme. The primary objective is to improve management best practices. The technical performance of the industry also needs to be improved by identifying and promoting opportunities for industry to adopt new technical innovations and incorporate them into standard practices. Accordingly, a series of Technical Best Practice initiatives will be set up. One of these will cover Construction IT. It is expected that Case Study material will form an important element of the IT Best Practice programme. Concrete examples of use of technology in practice are likely to be more convincing than simple exhortations and theoretical reports. There are three major issues that need to be addressed. 1. A Case Study is, by its nature, very specific and it can be difficult for the reader to ascertain if there is sufficient commonality between the problem described and the situation that he/she faces in order to assess whether the solutions are applicable. 2. It is difficult to describe the problem and solutions in sufficient detail, yet in a way that encourages the material to be read, understood and used. Ideally a common format needs to be developed for describing the key facts. 3. A further aspect of importance is how to determine what applications are most in need of Case Studies. Limited resources are available and it is essential that these are targeted in such a way as to produce maximum returns for the industry as a whole. This paper describes a framework for addressing these three issues and will provide an update of the work of the UK Construction IT Technical Best Practice programme.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,114 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.009079) class.social (0.005934) class.legal (0.002856)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Bouchlaghem D, Rezgui Y, Hassanen M, Cooper G, Rose D

IT tools and support for improved briefing

Abstract: "The briefing stage is critical to the success of construction projects, however it is widely recognised that improvements are needed in this process in order to reduce the cost and optimise quality of buildings. Briefing involves understanding the client's needs and expressing them in a way that will ensure compatibility between the client's vision of the project and the resulting product. There are problems encountered in construction briefing which involve both clients and designers. There is little guidance and support for clients, whilst designers have difficulties both in capturing clients’ needs and conveying conceptual design options to them. There is a central difficulty, associated with language, communication and the exchange of information between clients and design teams, which is now gaining widespread acknowledgement. The CoBrITe (LINK/IDAC UK funded) project argues that the construction industry has yet to exploit the potential of IT systems to assist both parties during this critical phase. This is in contrast to later stages of design and construction where computer-based techniques and systems are commonplace. The overall aim of the CoBrITe project is to improve the briefing process through more efficient and effective use of existing and emerging information technologies that can support client and design teams. The project builds on the recent IDAC 88 project: Managing the Brief as a Process of Innovation, and its five key action areas for improvement: empowering the client, managing the project dynamics, appropriate team building, appropriate visualisation techniques, and appropriate user involvement. It is driven by the needs of solving challenges within the briefing and related design process, with IT a means to an end. The project brings together a group of companies from across the construction supply chain to work together towards the above aim. The methodology comprises: -An extensive literature review on construction briefing focusing on the process of briefing, human and cultural issues, and IT applications and their role within the process. ·The integration of the recent and current projects on briefing through interviews, establishing an electronic network and holding workshops. ·The formulation of a framework of enabling technologies and their potential role in facilitating the briefing process and overcoming human and organisational constraints. ·The development of a model which will facilitate the integration of activities and information sharing in the briefing process. The proposed paper will give a comprehensive overview of the CoBrITe project, including an analysis of the briefing practices and information requirement, an initial CoBrITe Briefing Process Model, the CoBrITe system architecture, and the description of the proposed framework that integrates a set of proprietary and commercial software applications aimed at supporting the briefing process."

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Full text: content.pdf (319,634 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.015409) class.processing (0.014768) class.economic (0.012134)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


C Argiolas, F Melis, E Quaquero

Knowledge management in building process

Abstract: Over the last few years, the management and organizational aspects of the construction process have undergone a profound reflection that is closely linked to the development and the clear changes in the market. Such market is characterized by a rapid change, a strong growth in technology, and by a widespread and transparent information. International character, knowledge and innovation are key elements to win an increasingly exasperated competition. Moreover, the growing complexity of the construction sector - due both to the rapid proliferation of products and innovative technical solutions, and to the need to take into consideration side, but not secondary, aspects of the object (environmental impact, energy efficiency, durability, safety, etc.) - points out that present management patterns of the construction process are no longer appropriate to the context in which one operates. Therefore, the construction sector faces an inevitable process of growth in which knowledge is an indispensable resource. The present article aims at showing how Knowledge Management techniques (KM) might represent a possible tool to assist in achieving such goals through a rational organization of large amounts of data and through a corporate use of the knowledge that characterizes the various stages of a building process.

Keywords: knowledge management, building process, interoperability, collaborative design

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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C Meng, C Huang, Y Meng

Development and Key Technology of Digital Line Selection System of Urban Rail Transit (URT)

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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C Yuan, H Cai

Key Nodes Modeling for Object Detection and Location on Construction Site using Color-Depth Cameras

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