Construction 90/ development project for conceptual classification
Abstract: Construction/90 - development project for conceptual classification
The aim of this development project is to continue the tradition of
the national classification systems on the construction branch by
introducing a new conceptual classification - Construction/90
which is an offspring of the previous classifications: Building-70 and
Building-PO. The first phase of the development work was finished
in May 1988. It creates the theoretical basis for the design of the
detailed classification system which will be operative from 1990.
The structure of the classification consists of three facets Any of the
facets is to be able to cover all the costs involved independently, in
order to make an economical control possible from different points
of view. Thus every facet totally covers its own particular point of
view: giving a complete list of the conceptual items Being a
conceptual classification, the emphasis lies on the concepts, n7hich n
pr3c1icd use are substituted by selected terms It may as such be
called a nomenclature. too. For computer use, however. there will be
an alphanumeric characteristic for every item as well
Every facet has its principal use. The facets and their users are:
Product facets: describes the product structure
(elements of building) of the project. Principal user: the
Resource facet: describes the resource structure
(commodities, labour, subcontracts, site machinery) of
the project. Principal user: contractor'spurchasing.
Production facets describes the operations structure
of the project. Principal user: the site management.
The Construction/90 classification covers all construction work. i.e.
architectural, civil engineering and mechanical works. It also covers
all phases of construction from preliminary and technical design to
contracting and maintenance It has been designed to meet the
needs of the object oriented computer aided production.
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Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.016088)
class.software development (0.015047)
Sound: read aloud.
Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.
Xiaoning Ren, Zhenhua Zhu and Zhi Chen
Automatic Monitoring of Operating Equipment Efficiency for Air Pollutant Emission Estimation
Abstract: Construction activities are considered as one of the major air pollutant emissions sources. Specifically, construction equipment produces a large share of the emissions, including carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, etc. on construction sites. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor and control the operating efficiency of the onsite equipment in order to reduce the amount of its air pollutant emissions. However, the current practices for monitoring and measuring the operating equipment efficiency is heavily dependent on the practitioners’ observations. It is labour-intensive and time-consuming. The main objective of this paper is to present a novel method for automatically monitoring the operating equipment efficiency (OEE) with the fusion of visual and thermal data. Under the method, construction equipment is firstly located and tracked in the visual and thermal data. Based on the locating and tracking results, the equipment value-added activities are identified to determine its valuable operating time. Moreover, the total operating time is determined by checking the duration of the equipment with the running engine. This way, the OEE can be measured as the ratio of the valuable operating time over the total operating time. The method has been tested on the construction site of Poste De Lorimier in Montreal. The test results indicate its effectiveness.
Keywords: Operating Equipment Efficiency; Automation; Video Analysis; Thermal Data; Air Pollutant Emissions
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