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Amor R W, Hosiung J G

Multi-disciplinary views for intqrated and concurrent design

Abstract: The definition and implementation of user views is likely to be a major factor in the success of the ISO-STEP standard for computer-based representation of building components and their inter-connection. The development of a method for describing user views to a particular model is also likely to increase the usage of existing design tools. Currently, the arcane languages and the detailed knowledge required of the physics and terminology of the specific domains of many of these tools limit their use by designers. This paper addresses these issues by describing a system that can present information from a base computer model of a building to a given user. The language and level of detail of the system are directed at the needs and understanding of the user. This system allows multiple concurrent views to the base model, each view tailored to a particular discipline (eg, architect, structural engineer, services engineer, etc) and further tailored to meet the specific needs of the particular user in terms of understanding of the various disciplines and the level of information required. Used with a system that integrates various design tools through a computer based building model, this system will offer users information from a range of design tools at a level that they can comprehend.

Keywords: multi discipline views; product modelling; user interaction

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Bindslev B

Facing a new reality in the computerazationN of the industry

Abstract: The introduction of computers in the management of building projects has gone on since the early sixties. In recent years the use of personal computers has increased and will soon become widespread within the organizations of the industry. This development has followed the mechanization of manual work on building sites and in component factories in the fifties. The mechanization of information processing is a logical consequence of the ongoing industrialization of the society, because mechanized production requires adequate and efficient management of activities, In this situation organizations will undergo changes and will collaborate according to new patterns in order to profit by the new technology [ref 11. In Europe the introduction of the Inner Market will have effects which will require measures to ease communication between the parties of the industry. Therefore, the idea of a common artificial language has gained increasing interest. It has become necessary for technical reasons but also in order to facilitate communication among nations that use different natural languages. This paper outlines some of the problems related to formalization of co-ordinated communication in an industry facing a new reality [ref 21. Keywords Classification; Communication; Computer-aided Design; Databases; Neuro-linguistics; Project Management; Symbolic Logic.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,016,066 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.053222) class.social (0.037187) class.synthesis (0.026611)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Bloomfield D, Amor R

I-SEEC: an internet gateway to european construction resources

Abstract: For the construction industries to move into the knowledge society and knowledge economy they need to be able to build upon their existing information base. This information base is unique within individual countries (though often with significant overlap between countries, for example, with Eurocodes utilised across Europe) and usually widely dispersed. Drawing together the information resources within nations, and then connecting them with each other to form trans-national resources enables a more effective, informed and intelligent industry. I-SEEC is a collaborative project funded by the European Union with the overall goal of creating an infrastructure to enable and link high quality commercial electronic information services throughout its member countries. This project started in March 2000 and finishes in April 2001. It builds upon a previous EU project - CONNET (CONstruction information service NETwork). This paper provides a description of the final state of the infrastructure, services and business models available through I-SEEC. The countries participating in I-SEEC are Finland, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. CONNET provides access to a range of high quality Internet-based services for the construction industry in Europe. It provides both a European entry point to identify resources and national entry points for localised service delivery. The European CONNET entry point provides a range of technology park services as well as industry-specific services. These services include: · Management of security services, including installation and monitoring of security systems · Help desk, providing a point of contact for potential service providers and for problem resolution · Information broker role, enabling transparent access to information in the CONNET services · Technology observatory service, including leading edge, current and best-practice technologies · Provision of user profiles, allowing personalised delivery of updates in areas of interest · Multi-classification support, permitting handling of national systems used across the EC. · Inter-service communication services, allowing all comparable services to be identified and a query to be passed from one service to another service to answer. · Multi-language support, enabling EC languages to be handled correctly and to provide basic translations between them. The services offered by I-SEEC include a Technical Information Centre, Waste Exchange Centre, Electronic News Service, Calculation and Software Centre, Who's Who in Construction, Specialist Equipment Directory and a Best Practice Information service. The CONNET infrastructure and the I-SEEC information services provide the means to promote effective use of information by construction industry professionals in an efficient and cost-effective way. The ability to pass queries from one high quality service to another in a different country is a substantial contribution to the CIB goal of providing information to achieve performance. This paper draws out lessons learned - both technological and practical - in the course of this multi-country initiative to develop a portal for the construction industry. It also invites participation in this open initiative and describes how existing and developing services across the world can be made interoperable within a CONNET (and any Internet portal) environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (416,345 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.056731) class.deployment (0.046867) class.collaboration (0.041581)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansson P

Knowledge communication in the building industry - the knowledge node concept

Abstract: In the paper are given fundamental support to high level structuring and modelling of the building process. The concept of a knowledge node is explained and demonstrated in ongoing research projects together with industry. The enabling technologies accounted for are rich user interfaces in the form of multimedia, the World Wide Web, relational databases, and object-oriented languages as Java. The main conclusions from research projects combining a holistic visionary approach and practical implementations are that the described knowledge nodes with underlying general models act well as both distributed knowledge containers and knowledge communication tools both during the design of the node itself and its later targeted use.

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Full text: content.pdf (223,590 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.060342) class.collaboration (0.033263) class.communication (0.022475)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Eastman C, Augenbroe F

Product modeling strategies for today and the future

Abstract: Today, there is a growing set of technologies being developed for information exchange in the construction industry. These range from Aspect Models in specific product areas to large scale integrated product models, to new languages such as EXPRESS-X and EXPRESS-2. The purpose of this paper is to sort out and review these various efforts, from several different perspectives: * in terms of what can be used now or in the near future in a production form; * in terms of the significant technical issues and limitations that may require generation changes in exchange technologies; * in terms of external business practices (reflecting case studies), practical benchmarks and adoption criteria, political and other externalities that are affecting these efforts. The survey will review the following issues: * current capabilities of ISO-STEP Part definitions to support information exchange in the building industry; * current efforts by IAI, BCCM in STEP, and other parallel activities and their potential contribution and pitfalls (problems to be overcome); * different current research efforts and the problems and solutions they identify, including COMBINE, EDM-2, VEGA, work at CIFE at Stanford University. Hitherto underdeveloped model aspects, such as capturing the semantics of the client's brief, or capturing design evolution (program, decisions and rationale), modeling performance assessments, and others such as relevant standards, construction site handling, etceteras will be reviewed and priorities assessed. Over the last ten years, the set of requirements that a building product model must meet in order to be accepted in practice as a significant 'productivity enhancement has incrementally expanded. That is, as various research goals have been set, then met, the true extent of the challenge for realizing production-based building product modeling has grown. We will review this expanding set of requirements and attempt to scope their final range. These requirements include, among other aspects: * 'semantic coverage', * level of interoperability across applications, * level of embedded project management control, and * maintained linkages to parallel 'unstructured' information flows, e.g. managed by Engineering Data Management and Document Management software. It will be argued that a viable growth scenario regarding the semantic coverage of building models is likely to be a determining factor in the way that CAD vendors will embrace these as the basis for developing the next generation of architectural CAD software. Priorities of development will be identified and compared with perceived market pulls. The perspective taken will emphasize the US point of view. However, we will endeavor to also weight significantly the European situation and efforts. The result of these perspectives will be to identify 2-3 scenarios of future evolution in the area of building product modeling, with an assessment of their likelihood of coming to be, and the critical issues needed to accomplish them.

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Full text: content.pdf (86,802 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.031024) class.roadmaps (0.018975) class.strategies (0.018828)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Finch E

The significance of markup languages in construction

Abstract: The adoption of a standard markup language offers significant benefits for construction firms who today are having to manage considerable amounts of project information. The term markup originates from the early practise of publishers who routinely made notes in margins to identify elements of text. Electronic data interchange (EDI) in construction has tended to focus on the exchange of CAD based information, but little advance has been made in the adoption of textual formats. This paper discusses the shortcomings of conventional methods of text based exchange and points to some of the radical departures afforded by markup based systems. In particular; the opportunities for collaborative preparation of documents during the design process; the opportunities for maintaining and reusing information; and the possibility of increased connectivity between documents and sites.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,068,426 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.046207) class.communication (0.041407) class.store (0.011887)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


H Ying, S Lee, Q Lu

Comparative analysis of the applicability of BIM query languages for energy analysis

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Full text: content.pdf (341,442 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2016 (browse)
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Haque M E

3-D visualization and animation techniques in structural design education

Abstract: As technology rapidly changes, the importance of educating and training diverse populations of civil/construction engineering/science students becomes more critical. With the advances in information technology over the last decade, the traditional teaching format of having an individual lecture to an audience has been supplemented, and in some cases, replaced by the rapid development and implementation of new distance learning methods. Traditional lecture format teaching methods sometimes fall short of conveying the complex analysis and design principles that need to be mastered in structural design. However when the theories are exemplified in a virtual environment with multimedia, animation, interaction, and manipulated image visualization techniques, students' conceptual understanding are enhanced. The important advantages of the virtual reality environment over other computer-based design tools, are that it enables the user to interact with the simulation to conceptualize relations that are not apparent from a less dynamic representation, and to visualize models that are difficult to understand in other ways. The interactive nature of virtual environments made it a natural extension to the 3-D graphics that enable students to visualize real life structures before actually building them. The main objective of this research was to create an innovative structural design concept visualization methodology on a web-based interactive virtual environment. The approach adopted in this research was to create the interactive learning environment using Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Languages (VRML). VRML was the primary language used to create a virtual environment and 3-D simulation, and Java applets were created for interactive analysis, design and structural behavior animation over the World Wide Web (WWW). The presented paper illustrates the design concept visualization techniques for reinforced concrete structure analysis and design.

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Full text: content.pdf (446,018 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.062502) class.education (0.055487) class.man-software (0.034286)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Hollister K C

An extended structured query language incorporating object data types for the construction industry

Abstract: will have a dramatic positive impact on productivity is the development of an appropriate database language. This research involved the development of a standard construction industry specific extension to the Standard Query Language (SQL), the de fact0 international standard for relational database query languages. Construction Industry-SQL (CI-SOL), is the first industrial extension to SQL and serves as a prototype for a host of other extensions from other ifidustries. CI-SQL uses object data, object attributes, and user-defined extensions to allow rapid access to industry databases. CI-SQL can play a significant role in the way infoi mation is retrieved by Construction industry, allowing the development of robust databases that support SQL. Ultimately the implementation of CI-SQL will force industry to reconsider the heavy duplication of information that negatively affects productivity and will allow the introduction of keyless data entry and retrieval systems that enhance the speed and accuracy of information handling. Examples in construction material procurement will be used to illustrate the potential for CI-SQL applications. The ultimate use of CI-SQL will be to allow the use of keyless data entry systems, the foremost of which is bar coding, in construction specifications. The key to developing a system of information handling in construction that

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Full text: content.pdf (1,474,912 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.027396) class.environment (0.024484) class.impact (0.023842)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


J. Beetz & B. de Vries

Building Product Catalogues on the Semantic Web

Abstract: In this paper we describe a prototype implementation of an ontology repository that captures the concepts in the Ontology Web Language OWL. We describe how these concepts can be used directly by embedding them in standard HTML pages and thus augmenting traditional product catalogues with semanti-cally rich information by means of RDFa. As an addition to the ISO part 12006-3, where such a mechanism is not specified explicitly, we propose a way to instantiate actual products, their types and attributes through an instance-of relationship. Building upon the rich family of Semantic Web standards such as SPARQL and RDFa, we demonstrate how information in building product catalogues can be made machine-accessible in more efficient and generic ways. Using the Open Source persistency frameworks we demonstrate how real-world products can be linked to 13,000+ concepts with some 44,000 names in different languages in efficient ways.

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Full text: content.pdf (82,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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