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Costin A,Shaak A,Teizer J,Pfeffer G,Khanzode A,Saripally D,Chao O,Schoner B,Shah S

Passive RFID-based asset tracking and project management on a large hospital project

Abstract: As construction job sites get larger and more complex, the need to increase building protocol control and safety is becoming more necessary. Having a real-time tracking system for materials, equipment and personnel of a job site will help project managers to enhance the safety, security, quality control, and worker logistics of a construction project. In this paper we will present the method of integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) for real-time tracking of materials, equipment, and personnel. The purpose is to generate real-time data to monitor for safety, security, quality control, and worker logistics, and to produce leading indicators for safety and building protocol control. The concept of reference tags will be utilized along with a cloud server, mobile field devices, and software to assist the project managers with staying connected with the job site, from supply chain management to installation. Hardware components include RFID tags, portal RFID readers, fixed turn-style readers, and mobile handheld devices. The system was deployed on a 900 thousand square feet hospital project that consisted of three major buildings, 125 contractors, and 1,200 workers. Preliminary results show that the integration of these technologies enhances productivity, reduces scheduling issues, assists in subcontractor management, and provides real-time information on deployed crews and building activities. High-level metrics have been developed at the project and large contractor level. Additionally, the system also provided real-time information on local worker participation as part of the project goal. Based on experimental analysis, we demonstrate that the RFID and BIM system is a practical and resourceful tool to provide real-time information and location tracking to increase safety, security, and building protocol control.

Keywords: Asset tracking,Building information modeling (BIM),Building protocol,Cloud Server,Human resources,Passive radio frequency identification (RFID),Project management,Quality control,Safety,Security,Worker Logistics

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Dijkstra J, Timmermans H, B de Vries

VR based simulation of user behaviour within the built environment to support the early stages of building design

Abstract: Architects are often faced with the problem to assess how their design decisions will affect the behaviour of individuals. Various performance indicators are related to the behaviour of individuals in particular environments. One approach to deal with this problem is to develop a system that relates user behaviour to design parameters. The paper discusses the framework of a multi-agent system approach for investigating visualized simulated pedestrian activity and behaviour within a building. The approach will lead to a system that may serve as a toolkit in the design process for a better understanding what the design look like, and perhaps more importantly have users will behave in that particular environment. Agent technology is derived from DAI which is also applied in the construction industry (Onuegbu O. Ugwu e.a., The application of DAI in the construction industry, CIT2000, pp. 959-970). The concept of this system is based on micro-simulation of pedestrian flows and multi-agent technology. In this context, pedestrians are people navigating within the built environment. The system simulates how agents move around in a particular 3D environment, in which space is represented as a network which is a lattice of cells with local states, subject to a uniform set of rules, which drives the behaviour of the system. Agents represent pedestrians with their own behaviour, moving over the network. The 3D environment is a virtual environment of the design of a new building or the revitalization of an existing building. Thus, a virtual building environment with virtual pedestrians will be constructed using multi-agent simulation. In this particular environment, a set of instances corresponding to the elements of multi-agent simulations is designed. We distinguish user-agents that represent pedestrians in the simulation. We call the individual that is supposed to walk through the environment a subject-agent and all other simulated pedestrians in the system actor-agents. Thus, subject-agent and actor-agents are user-agents that navigate in this virtual environment, each with their own behaviour, beliefs and intentions. With the simulation system, we will get more insight into the pedestrian activity behaviour and thus in the pedestrian flows in buildings, not yet existing. This will be of great importance in the assessment of design performance. For a designer or researcher, this system approach results in a decision support tool for the early stages in the design process of the construction of a building.

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Full text: content.pdf (484,430 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.029736) class.analysis (0.014083) class.impact (0.008671)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


E. Ergen & G. Guven

Assessing the Need for Storing Data on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags

Abstract: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been used within multiple research projects for identification and tracking of components in the construction industry. Although RFID has on-board data storage capacity, not all the studies used this capacity to store some object-related data directly in the tag. In some of the case studies performed, RFID tag was used only as an identifier for tracking various objects or for matching the related object with the additional information that is stored in a remote database. In this paper, the goal is to determine under which conditions an RFID tag needs to be used as a local data storage unit. To identify these conditions, previous research studies that were performed in the construction industry were investigated. The characteristics of cases that were described in the studies were identified and data storage needs were determined. Also, types of information items that were stored in the tags were identified. The results show in which types of cases RFID was used to store additional data. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of storing data on the tag and on a remote database were discussed.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Froese T, Q YU K, Liston K, Fischer M

System architectures for AEC interoperability

Abstract: "This paper discusses several issues relating to computational system architectures to support interoperability among distributed, model-based AEC/FM applications. The approach is based on tiered layers where applications interact with local “Building Objects” software components that, in turn, interact with a variety of distributed data repository alternatives in a data layer. International Foundation Classes (IFCs) models are used as the primary data model in each of the layers and communication between layers uses several XML standards. One issue is an approach to multiple meta-models within the many components of a distributed system. IFCs focus on strongly-typed models that describe AEC concepts and objects in an explicit manner. One of the requirements for applications that implement IFCs is that they must understand the semantics of the IFCs and map the IFC models to the application internal application models. However, software applications used in AEC processes are not always based on an internal model that can be explicitly mapped to a strongly-typed model such as the IFCs at development stage. Instead, it is common that some of the applications are either purely generic without an explicitly defined domain schema, or generic enough so as they must deal with run-time databases whose schemas cannot be pre-defined during the development of the applications. In order to allow this type of software to share and exchange data with other applications through the models such as the IFCs, data schemas must be mapped at a higher and abstract level that allows for run-time model schema configurations and mappings. The Interactive Workspace for Project Management (IWPM) is a CIFE (Center for Facilities Engineering) project that integrates several research decision support systems, commercial project management systems, and advanced collaborative human-computer interaction approaches using emerging industry data standards and internet technologies. To illustrate an example of using the meta-model approach, the paper applies the use cases in IWPM to demonstrate how meta-models can be used to implement IFC project management related models in such an integrated software environment."

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Full text: content.pdf (595,267 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.049095) class.standards (0.036666) class.communication (0.035658)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


G Kapogiannis, F Khosrowshahi, J Underwood

Digital Services for Construction Small and Medium Enterprises: A Conceptual Business Model

Abstract: The rapid deployment of web technologies delivers information from diverse sources in the world of digital business in a unified way. Within the construction industry the demand for investments in the digital dimension has raised very fast indicating a trend towards on-line collaboration services usually offered through a web portal. The main purpose of this research is to examine how the use of a web portal enhances the mission of construction Small Medium Enterprises (SME) in the local, national and international economy. Therefore, features and services captured from existing construction web portals are listed quantitatively to indicate those that are important to support the enterprise needs of construction managers and directors. Additionally the common practical and essential features considered in the technical and contextual design of a web portal geared for the use within the domain of construction SMEs in order to promote enterprise continuity in digital business are briefly presented. Results indicate potential support of interaction and collaboration among partners in the construction industry due to direct information accessibility as well as an attractive web platform developed based upon their daily needs. Therefore the need to develop a web business model is suggested to enhance the role of construction SMEs with a focus on online collaboration (online services). This model aspires to provide potential practical on-line dissemination of knowledge within construction SMEs to help the world of construction managers and directors in order for them to be more efficient, effective and creative when developing new businesses, new ideas and new projects. This model is partitioned to accommodate for flexible and scalable technological infrastructures that offer the necessary web services addressed to construction SMEs.

Keywords: Construction SME, Web Portal Technologies, Web Services, Virtual Organisation, Communication

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Grabowska A, Klosowski P

Teaching teleworking and autoCAD - teleCAD case study

Abstract: In the following article we present the Internet based system for TeleCAD course preparation anddelivery. The system was developed to meet the Distance Education Centre at Technical University(DECTUG) needs. The Centre delivers Internet based courses, and is involved in course productionat local and international level. Example instructions (documents) concerning the pilot course willbe presented.

Keywords: Distance Education (DE), Internet, Web Based Training (WBT), AutoCAD, teleworking.

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Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Heinisuo Markku, Jenu Markku

Knowledge based design tool of steel structures including economical and structural aspects

Abstract: The paper deals with a knowledge based expert system (KBES) developed for the design of structural steel joints. The KBES can be used for the selection of suitable joints taking into account the expert knowledge stored into the database. The expert knowledge is so far shallow and it contains force transmitting abilities, fabrication and erection cost differences of joints. The KBES is used also for the choosing of suitable values of joint parameters by taking into account both generic rules (appearing in the codes of practice) and specific rules of individual joints and the combinations of both of these rules. The KBES suggests also local analysis models of the joints. The KBES gives an estimation of cost of the whole skeleton by combining the product model (PM) of the material entities and the cost database. The product model for the analysis of the whole steel skeleton is also proposed by the KBES. The PMs are made following IS0 10303, so we are working in an open environment.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Hong Ha Le, Hans-Joachim Bargstaedt

A Simulation Approach to Integrate the Weather Impact into the Execution Planning

Abstract: The construction planning is complex because of many uncertainties occurring during the execution process. One of the uncertainties, which clearly affects construction activities, is bad weather conditions. From management perspective, it is worth simulating the construction process regarding to weather factors in order to make it more realistic and effective. In practice, the effect of weather can be included in planning stage based on the historical weather data or typical weather patterns of local areas. However, the weather condition variation is often complex and not always the same as how it used to be. Therefore, in the executing stage, the actual weather forecast on site should be considered, so that the execution plan for the next days will be more realistic. In the research project “Simulation of Outfitting Processes in Shipbuilding and Civil Engineering” (SIMoFIT) by the Bauhaus-University Weimar and the German shipyard company The Flensburgers, a constraint-based simulation approach was developed to improve the construction planning in civil engineering. The constraint-based concept is implemented using discrete-event simulation. Attributes and relations between work steps are described by hard and soft constraints. Thus the practical workflow schedule can be flexibly calculated, where all hard constraints are fulfilled and soft constraints are fulfilled as many as possible. This paper presents a simulation framework to incorporate the impact of weather factors into constraint-based simulation of construction processes, where the weather effects are described as constraints. Besides, a “WEATHER” component is described, which generates weather conditions and decides on the impact of weather on each work step. In this research, the data of 5-day free weather forecast retrieved from internet is utilized, where it is updated every 3 hours everyday. Finally, the non-weather- and weather- related-duration of execution processes are achieved and compared.Describing the impact of weather as constraints is a flexible, useful method to include weather effects into a execution process. Further research will concentrate on developing the “WEATHER” component more deeply, defining and optimizing construction strategies within a time-restricted space, and developing the assigning strategies of workers concerning the impact of weather conditions.

Keywords: Weather impact, construction planning, constraint-based simulation

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Howard R

Classification of building information – European and IT systems

Abstract: Introduction Organisation of the information needed to design, construct and manage a building is still based upon traditional trades and classification tables. European countries have established sources of information: specifications, element tables and product databases, based on categories, such as SfB, defined 50 years ago. The Danish Centrecontract on Building Classification is following projects in several other countries, to update its systems, provide greater integration of data, and keep up with new information technologies. This paper presents experience from studying developments in several countries, relating them to the needs of Denmark, and anticipating the future demands of IT. IT context The possibilities with IT for more flexible searches on advanced representations of building entities require fundamental changes in integrating, exchanging and accessing information. There is a proliferation of web portals and project webs, and some common structure that relates to international practice is needed. Methods of searching are changing from traditional categories to full text and structured keywords. New methods of representing building data such as the IFCs and XML are having a major influence alongside standards for building data. The Centrecontract is relating these to the current practice in many types of firm in the Danish building industry. Objectives The Centrecontract is due for completion in 2002 but the research being carried out by DTU will be presented at the end of 2000 and 2001. The broad objectives are for the partners to develop tools for building elements, schedules of rates and product classification, within a common framework, and to promote these and provide education. The research has defined the needs of Danish industry, is learning from experience in other countries, and will predict the likely influence of IT developments in future. This paper reports on some of the information systems being developed in other countries. Methodology The approach taken was to talk to experts rather than to collect new statistical information. In each country at least one developer of new information systems was interviewed, one researcher and one user organisation. They were asked about the systems currently used in their country, new systems being developed, and any experience of their use. They were also asked about how changes had been, or could be, made in the general organisation of information about building. Relevant standards and the many building information services on the Web were also studied to find the common elements, and see how Denmark could develop systems to suit local needs. Some preliminary findings Factors from Denmark include the need to link to the familiar SfB system, using the same structure right through the process, the importance of the client and resistance to standards. Other countries studied so far are developing improved systems, with Sweden leading the way with BSAB 96, the UK with Uniclass to unite its different classification systems, and Holland and Norway proposing Lexicon and BARBI respectively. Common factors are the list of tables defined in ISO 12006-2, the work of EPIC in product classification, the influence of the IFCs and the use of the Web and XML. This work will be completed at the end of 2000 and recommendations made to the other partners in the Centrecontract for the systems that will help meet the needs of the Danish building industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (872,669 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.092484) class.represent (0.059640) class.standards (0.053428)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Howard R

A new Danish classification system to meet local needs and link to international and IT developments

Abstract: Denmark is a small country with few large companies in construction, but the industry is well organized, makes advanced use of IT, and is capable of designing and constructing high quality buildings and huge bridges. It was an early user of the SfB building classification system and there are many well-organized sets of data, but it does not have a complete framework for building information meeting new international standards and reflecting developments in IT. The Centre Contract Building Classification is a 3 year collaboration project funded by the Building and Industry ministry and managed by the Technological Institute. It will finish at the end of 2002 with proposals for tables of building elements, schedules of rates and building products. The research at DTU was completed at the end of 2001 and looked at international experience and the effects of future IT systems. While a Danish system must relate to the specific needs and experience of Danish industry, and allow convergence with existing sets of data, it must also relate to international developments to maintain collaboration with other countries and export of building materials. Future IT systems will allow even more sharing of data and members of a project team, wherever they are located, should have a common understanding of the structure of the data they share. Standards such as IFCs for building modeling and ISO 12006-2 for building information, are important and experience from other countries shows that it is necessary to test the Danish proposals against these and set up suitable arrangements for promoting and supporting the new classification. It will also be necessary to educate students and mid-career professionals in the use of a new system.

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Full text: content.pdf (538,955 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.040741) class.standards (0.019440) class.represent (0.013401)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


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