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Marianthi Leon, Richard Laing, Jake Loveday, David McClean and Sandy Beattie

Development of an Urban As-Built Model: The Case Study of Aberdeen

Abstract: This paper is focusing on the local strategic development plan for the city of Aberdeen, UK, and examines the initiation of applying a regeneration plan to the city centre. For that purpose, Aberdeen City Council commissioned Robert Gordon University to develop a 3D as-built model of the city centre. The researchers developed a novel process to tackle data acquisition for urban scale as-built visualisations that would afterwards promote stakeholders' collaboration. A workflow was developed and tested with the aim to provide not only geometric accurate data of the current state but also meta-data in relation to historic and future applications. Terrestrial LiDAR systems were employed and rapidly advancing hardware and software was tested, evaluated and utilised.This project aims to have an impact to the 3D data acquisition in relation to urban scale projects that apply Terrestrial Laser Scanning technologies. Furthermore, the suggested workflow can be generalised for the production of urban scale as-built models for the purposes of design and planning decision making and delivery of sustainable infrastructure, transportation systems and overall sustainable communities. The paper concludes with further suggestions for the generalisation of the process and its adaptation depending on the application, i.e. transportation, green spaces.

Keywords: 3D Laser Scanning, As-Built Modelling and Visualisation, Data Acquisition

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0141

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Nassar K, Gunnarsson H G, Hilal L A

Parametric cost estimate of forming and placing of concrete using neural network

Abstract: Neural Networks have found their way to many applications in construction. One of the most common applications of neural networks in construction is to develop parametric estimates of construction projects or specific construction operations. Due to their versatility and ability to handle fuzziness, they have performed well in estimating specific construction operations for which cost is dependent on specific parameters. This paper presents a back-propagation Neural Network (NN) for the development of a parametric cost-estimating model of concrete forming and placement using a commercial forming system (Steel-Ply ). The main objective is to develop a neural network cost-estimation model and verify its accuracy using actual data. Actual project data, from a local contractor in western Illinois, was used to develop the NN model. The model was developed and optimized on a spreadsheet format. Parameters considered include the season of the operation, the wall thickness and height, the method of placement, and the shape index of the structure. The same data used to develop the NN cost-estimating model is used to perform a linear regression analysis to predict the cost of forming concrete. Outputs of the developed NN model were compared with estimates obtained from multiple linear regression models. The results indicate that the back-propagation NN model can be used satisfactorily to estimate the forming and placing of concrete. Furthermore, practitioners as well as students can use the developed NN model to learn about mechanism of neural networks.

Keywords: cost, estimating, parametric estimating, Neural Networks, construction, concrete forming, spreadsheet modeling, linear regression

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Series: itaec:2003 (browse)
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Oloke D A, Edwards D J

An intelligent system for improving plant information management

Abstract: The modern economy is reliant upon the application of mechanisation to sustain economic growth and prosperity. However, plant users must invest substantial and continuing capital resources in order to maximise turnover and profit. An exact quantification of profitability and performance resulting from plant usage can only be achieved through the effective documentation and utilisation of plant records. This paper sought to review existing information management systems for off-highway plant and equipment (e.g. excavators, rigid dump trucks, telehandlers and so on) and determine whether such represent an appropriate solution to modern industrial needs. Pilot study findings reveal paper based and electronic documentation formats resident on PC and local networks; PC being the most common system utilised. Overall, information management systems employed within the off-highway plant sector compare rather poorly to more technological advanced industries (e.g. rail and aviation). Based upon these findings, a new Internet based 'intelligent, multi-user functional' application is proposed that essentially consists of an integration of three core components, namely: (i) a web-based Relational Database Management System (RDBMS); (ii) a dynamic Model Base Management System (MBMS); and (iii) a Knowledge Base Management System (KBMS). The paper concludes with direction for future work that aims to model aspects of plant history file data collected.

Keywords: off-highway plant, information technology, information management, internet and intelligent decision support

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Schreyer M, Schwarte J

New building materials - knowledge transfer via the world wide web

Abstract: Web-based interactive information systems create new ways to transfer knowledge from civilengineering research institutions to practicing engineers. Although various systems have beendeveloped, the search for sophisticated technical knowledge is still unsatisfactory for architects andcivil engineers. The full text searches commonly used today do not fulfill the complex informationneeds on the rapidly expanding Internet. This paper describes the reasons for the current situationand it suggests, by example of the knowledge-based system "BiM-Online", solutions for betterinformation retrieval of materials data using metadata structures. In a first example the metadata ismodeled in a local relational database on a Web server. In section 5, the same concrete metadatastructures are modeled using the machine readable Resource Description Framework (RDF)standard, an XML application that allows searches on independent information systems on the Web.

Keywords: Retrieval of building material information, Internet, WWW, BiM-Online, Metadata, material testingdatabase, knowledge based dialog, XML, RDF

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Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Shen Q

The impact of construct IT and the management of organizational change

Abstract: The paper introduces preliminary findings derived from a research project that aims at exploring the state-of-the-art of IT applications in the construction and property industry in Hong Kong and assessing their impact on the industry, at both organisational and individual levels. It also aims to assist organisations in the industry to understand IT’s impact, and to act positively in designing and managing organisational changes, so as to enhance the competitiveness of local business and industrial sectors, and widen the scope of IT applications. IT applications are probably the most visible technological change in recent years. Through case studies, this paper illustrates the changes IT can bring into the construction and property industry, and the importance and methods of managing planned change, by which the ability of an organisation to adapt to changes can be improved, and employee behaviour can also be changed.

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Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.071331) class.impact (0.069461) class.economic (0.022297)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Shiva (Vahideh) Aram, Charles Eastman, Rafael Sacks, Ivan Panushev

Introducing a New Methodology to Develop the Information Delivery Manual for AEC Projects

Abstract: The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) create a neutral environment for interoperability by providing a comprehensive specification of the information throughout the AEC/FM project lifecycle, globally, across disciplines and software applications. However, IFC schema does not capture the ways in which information is created and shared by practitioners. And lack of defining specific exchange requirements for users in IFC schema has made it difficult to implement IFC compliant software solutions. The Information Delivery Manual (IDM) responds to these problems by proposing a methodology that captures business processes in AEC/FM projects and provides detailed user information exchange requirements specifications. To reach these goals the IDMs involve industry experts to capture their knowledge and industry best practices. In this paper, we propose a progressive method to develop IDMs. In this method Exchange Models (EMs) are utilized to provide the content of information exchanges between users and/or software applications. Exchange Objects (EOs) are introduced as the fundamental elements in an exchange model, which contain the description of information items in non-technical terms that require to be exchanged in an exchange model. EOs are then further developed to provide the detailed technical attributes of the information categories in exchange models. EOs may participate in several exchange requirements. Therefore, they are defined to be reusable within many exchange models. The level of detail and precision, and the representation type of EOs may vary in exchange models in different stages of the project lifecycle and are determined based on the business rules and with participation of industry experts. The details of the information capture to develop the IDM such that the IFC schema can be applied in national, local or even project contexts are further illustrated. The paper finally presents the application of the introduced approach, using the examples of architectural and structural precast concrete as a test base.

Keywords: Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), Information Delivery Manual (IDM), Model View Definitions (MVDs), Interoperability, Building Information Modeling (BIM)

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Singhvi V, Terk M

Prophet: a contextual information system framework

Abstract: Construction sites are information intensive environments. The timely and satisfactory completion of any project is dependent on the accessibility of project information to the team members. Accessing this information at the point of work, where and when it will be most effective, has been difficult or impossible. This paper describes Prophet, an information system architecture that integrates contextaware web services to provide construction workers with on-site contextual data and services. The system is designed to run on off-the-shelf handheld computing devices and uses wireless network for communication between the clients and the servers hosting services and data. This allows construction personnel to maintain continuous access to data and services as they move around the job site. The system uses the knowledge of user's context to help in managing the complexity of the construction data by proactively tracking current resource requirements and proactively obtaining access to context-relevant information and services. This paper outlines the architecture of this Prophet framework and provides a detailed description of the local and the network caches that supports context-based queries.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Soubra S, Coudret F, Duchon J, Torguet P, Gobetti E

Virtual integrated design and construction

Abstract: "Construction projects involve a large number of both direct stakeholders (clients, professional teams, contractors, etc.) and indirect stakeholders (local authorities, residents, workers, etc.). Current methods of communicating building design information can lead to difficulties including : ? Client di-satisfaction, due to incomplete understanding of the planned construction and the length of the design and construction processes ; ? Functional inefficiencies of the completed facility which could have been designed out had the users been effectively involved in the design ; ? Re-work leading to waste of time and materials due to inaccurate initial work or clashes between components due to conflicting information. Recent surveys [e.g. Egan report, Design and Build Foundation report] show that significant value improvement and cost reduction can be gained by substantially integrated solutions being applied by project teams as a mean of reengineering the project process. In particular, their is considerable benefit to be gained by the integration of design and construction. Objectives The aim of this paper is to present the research carried out in the frame of the CAVALCADE (Collaborative Virtual Construction and Design) project, funded under the European ESPRIT programme HPCN domain. CAVALCADE’s goal was to develop a collaborative virtual prototyping system. Using a distributed architecture, the CAVALCADE system aims to support and enhance concurrent engineering practices therefore allowing teams based in different geographic locations to collaboratively design, test and validate shared virtual prototypes. Several industrial sectors were presented in the CAVALCADE consortium (construction industry, automotive industry, transport industry and aeronautical industry). Representatives of each of these sectors evaluated and reported on the use of CAVALCADE in their business. In this paper, the CAVALCADE system will be presented in details. Technical and organizational difficulties encountered during the project will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on the evaluations done for the participating industrial sectors and these evaluations will be compared to the specificities of the construction sector. As a conclusion, the objectives of new IST project DIVERCITY (Distributed Virtual Workspace for enhancing Communication within the Construction Industry) that will build, among others, on the results of CAVALCADE, will be presented and the modules to be developed (1. Client-briefing workspace, 2. Design review workspace, 3. Construction workspace) will be detailed. 1 CAVALCADE (Esprit project n°26285) started in January 1998. The project is to be finished by December 1999. 2 High Performance Computing and Networking 3 IST project n°13365 . The start date of the project is January 2000."

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Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.050265) class.strategies (0.045200) class.man-man (0.009804)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Sulaiman M J, Ng Kok Weng, Cher Dong Theng, Berdu Z

Intelligent CAD checker for building plan approval

Abstract: In construction industry, architects need to have a deep knowledge of the uniform building by law and the local council requirements before designing a building or a house. The process of applying his or her knowledge in terms of building by law interpretation is critical during the design stage. Due to enormous amount of bylaws involved, architects may design with some non-compliance to the by-laws. This mistake will be costly especially if it causes the building plan to be rejected by the municipal council or the fire department. The mistake will probably cause a significant delay in the completion of project thus leading to penalty and other costs. Viewing from the point of the approval authority, the personnel involved in approving building plans is also prone to make mistake in approving building plans that have non-compliance to the by-laws. Such mistake may cause great harm to occupants of the building and the responsible authority may be accountable for any mishap caused by the non-compliance. Hence the proposed system discussed in this paper intends to eliminate any errors in interpreting as well as checking for bylaws non-compliance directly from a CAD file submitted by an architect. This system directly reads in the building design CAD file before checking it's attributes and specifications against the building by-laws and will report any non-compliance to the user.

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Full text: content.pdf (119,236 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.077622) class.social (0.013925) class.strategies (0.007529)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


T Theling, J Zwicker & P Loos

Enabling dynamic networks using an architecture for collaborative scenarios

Abstract: Collaborative business requires integration of involved enterprises' information systems. Characteristics of project networks like changing business partners or raising exceptions lead to dynamic structures within collaborations. This is a special challenge for a common IT infrastructure. This paper presents an architecture for dynamic cross-enterprise processes' planning, execution, and controlling on a conceptual level. In a first step, a distinction of local and global knowledge is provided in order to establish a Collaborative Business Process Management Lifecycle. Afterwards, requirements for a collaboration-supporting architecture are briefly upraised and the resulting architecture is presented. In a last step, the architecture is adopted to special requirements of AEC. Domain-specific data like placing units and specifications are introduced and the process of tender, placing and accounting is depicted within the architecture. Therefore, different parts of the architecture are involved.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


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