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A Cemesova, Y Rezgui, C J. Hopfe

Possibilities and challenges created by a smart material in building performance simulation

Abstract: Smart materials are predicted to ‘revolutionise’ the A/E/C industry. They are supposed to enable a building to change colour, shape, size and opacity. However, past research shows that smart materials are still not used very often in engineering applications to their full potential. In this publication we advocate that materials should not be only chosen for simple properties such as visual, physical and insulating characteristics, but for capabilities such as being able to save/generate energy, store information, and to react to stimuli from their local environment. Therefore, this paper will research into the addition of SolaVeil to a window, its physical configuration and the possibility to model and analyse it through Building Performance simulation (BPS). This material is primarily designed to eliminate glare and redirect light. As a result it can reduce energy use caused by air conditioning and artificial lighting systems. This paper researches into the behaviour of SolaVeil in a computer simulation using two different case studies. The first will compare how changing the width but maintaining the reflective area affects illuminance distribution, and the second will determine which physical properties of SolaVeil are most effective. Finally, conclusions are drawn based on the case studies and it is shown that smaller width light shelves are the most suitable for an anti glare product. It is also determined that for SolaVeil to minimise glare in a room without compromising illuminance levels, it should have a light shelf angle of 40 degrees, cover between 40-60% of a window and its strips should be spaced 5mm.

Keywords: SolaVeil, smart materials, building system design, illumination.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Akbas R, Fischer M, Kunz J, Schwegler B

Use of domain knowledge, product models and geometric algorithms for generation of construction zones

Abstract: We present a layered approach for automated generation of construction zones from 3D CAD models for construction planning and scheduling. The existence of 3D models and product models provides an opportunity for planners and schedulers to consider zoning alternatives and represent and visualize production information in detail. Construction zones are spaces, or groups of spaces, which serve as units of work in the construction planning process. Failure to define construction zones properly may increase overall project duration and impact workflow adversely. Today, zone definitions are generally ad-hoc. Formal definitions and mechanisms to generate construction zone information are not available in commercially available software.We have defined a three-layer computational framework in a prototype construction management software tool to generate detailed information about construction zones. The framework separates the construction-based information from the product model representation and geometric information. Each layer is extensible and testable without the other layers. The highest layer (Layer3) contains domain knowledge about zones, i.e., types of zones and factors or constraints affecting construction zone definition. For example, a shape factor takes into account the changes in production rates due to local variations of geometry. The shape factor also allows the representation of an idle crew because of a nearby activity, missing support or unavailability of materials. Layer 2 manages the changes in the product and process models that are necessary to generate zones. Additionally, it uses zoning knowledge to maintain consistent schedules at multiple levels of detail. Layer 1 is the geometric level that contains the geometric algorithms to create the subdivisions and aggregations using the geometric shape representation of the building components. Instead of considering a fixed geometric representation for a component, we provide a flexible triangular mesh shape representation, breaking-up or aggregating component geometry as necessary. With the results of this research, professionals will be able to simulate and visualize construction processes more accurately and link design and construction data more tightly to explore design-build scenarios rapidly and communicate them effectively.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,076,021 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.028985) class.environment (0.026386) class.represent (0.022098)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Alan Hore, Barry McAuley and Roger West

BIM Innovation Capability Programme of Ireland

Abstract: The Irish Government has requested that Enterprise Ireland, an organisation responsible for the development and growth of Irish enterprises in world markets to actively promote the use of BIM in Ireland. This promotion has taken the form of an opportunity for Enterprise Ireland clients to apply for a grant under their BIM Enable and BIM Implementation schemes and also through their funding of the BIM Innovation Capability Programme (BICP) of Ireland. The BICP is a two-year project (2016-2018) which seeks to capture the capability of the Irish Construction Industry and the Higher Education Institutes to respond to the increased requirement for BIM in Ireland. One of the primary responsibilities of the BICP research team is to collate data to assist the Irish National BIM Council (NBC) in the formulation of a National BIM Roadmap. To achieve this a global and local BIM study was undertaken in 2016. This involved extensive desk-top based research exploring the value proposition behind what governments and professional bodies are doing to advance BIM in their respective countries. The research identified a number of common themes or pillars that Ireland will need to further address before a roadmap is formally disseminated. After exploration of these pillars, within an Irish context, it was found that despite a lack of standards and contractual frameworks, it has not prevented the industry from deploying BIM on Irish projects

Keywords: BIM, Irish Roadmap, Public Works, BIM Innovation Capability Programme

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0079

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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systems’s disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications’ local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Arif A A, Karam A H

A comparative study: with insight into the use of IT in local architectural practices

Abstract: This paper reports on the use of Information Technologies (IT) in the South African building industry. It offers an insight into the architecture profession, a profession that plays a major role in the construction sector. The analysis is based on the results of a survey conducted in the Western Cape Province during the year 2000. In an attempt to uncover the similarities and differences between the local context and the international one, this paper outlines a few elements of IT for comparison. After a brief introduction to the IT map of South Africa, the analysis concentrates on the following four issues: Response and Respondents, General IT usage, Use of Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) and Use of Networks. Each of these issues is framed in both the local and the international contexts. Despite the shortcomings of using different questions with different emphasis when referring to other surveys, it is still believed that reporting on local practices is not extremely meaningful in isolation. It is hoped that this type of analysis will serve to unravel the particulars of the construction industry in South Africa providing its counterparts with a new perspective.

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Full text: content.pdf (141,121 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Arif A, Karam A

Architectural Practices and Their Use of IT in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

Abstract: The application of Information Technologies (IT) is moving forward with tremendous speed affecting all industries and professions; our building profession is no exception. To identify the extent of IT application in the building construction context of South Africa, a survey was conducted in the year 2000; it included IT as one of the many topics investigated. The Western Cape Province (WCP) was selected as the first subject of the ambitious national survey. The survey provides insight into the particular patterns in IT applications within the local architectural industry of the WCP and tracks its implications in terms of human resources and technical needs. This research paper presents a focused perspective of the findings of the survey on the local practices; their general profile, their computer technology profiles, their particular applications of technology and finally the effect of computer use on the profitability and cost reduction of their practices. The data presented in this paper highlights the high numbers of small-sized offices as a general characteristic of the local profile. Although a good percentage of these small offices seem to have a high need and use for IT applications, larger-sized offices are totally computerised and are all networked as well. The use of computers is clearly concentrated in three areas: administration, communication in addition to the core activity of construction drawings production. The survey reveals a major dependency on computer-aided-design (CAD) software where its use extends, in most cases, to clients' presentations. This dependency makes high demands on staff and principals' literacy and on the high competency levels needed for their use of technology. On the financial effect of IT use, many practices are not fully convinced that there is an actual reduction in their running costs. The exception occurs in the case of practices run by principals who use computers themselves; they have a positive perception of the financial benefits of technology. This research establishes a baseline from which to scale the progress in the use and application of IT in the architectural profession, being a key player in the construction industry. It serves as a measure for future surveys of the other provinces. It is hoped that it provides a foundation for many assumptions made by practitioners, technologists, consultants and educators of this field.

Keywords: Architecture - South Africa, Architectural Practices, Building Construction, Computer-Aided-Design (CAD), Survey - Cape Town

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/2 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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Augenbroe G L M, Lockley S R

Project management issues in remote cad outsourcing

Abstract: The paper addresses the management of CAD outsourcing over Internet. Recent advances in group ware and work flow management tools have made Internet based outsourcing of CAD and GIS production an interesting and potentially viable business prospect. The proliferation of web technology has created the opportunity to distribute work to remote locations (e.g. in developing countries) and thus add to the gamut of electronic commerce opportunities. In fact, recent surveys have shown that many Architecture/Engineering (A/E) firms are already engaging in outsourcing experiments. Many of these experiments have ended in failure, mostly because of lack of proper distant management capabilities and agreed enforceable Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. As a response to 'risky' open partnership outsourcing, companies have started to establish remote affiliated offices to bilaterally manage the outsourcing of projects. This closed partnership approach is deemed less risky as it allows local implementation of established production processes and company styles of the client. The paper deals with the challenges that both types of outsourcing practices pose to the management of remote collaboration.

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Full text: content.pdf (437,233 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.041493) class.commerce (0.031747) class.collaboration (0.023738)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Björk B-C

Document management - a key IT technology for the construction industry

Abstract: The IT infrastructure of today offers excellent opportunities for the construction industry to workmore efficiently by managing its documents in a digital form on the Internet. Nevertheless IT has sofar had more effect on the production of documents than on their efficient transfer and retrieval. Inthis paper the historical developments in construction computing over the last decades are outlined;how technical innovations such as photocopying, the fax, the personal computer, local areanetworks and finally the Internet have effected the production, storage, duplication and transfer ofinformation. Key features in current web based document systems are shortly described, withspecial emphasis on alternative search methods such as hierarchical folders or meta datarepositories. The integration of document management systems with other Internet based ASPservicesin vertical construction industry portals is also discussed. The paper finishes by outliningsome current trends, which seem to be leading towards the survival of a few dominant systems.

Keywords: Construction, document management, Internet, ASP

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Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Ciftcioglu O, Durmisevic S, Sariyildiz S

Building design support by hierarchical expert networks

Abstract: "Rapid advances in parallel processing technologies gave essential impetus to intelligent information processing, which became the driving source of an emerging technology known as soft computing. This calls for intelligent systems that are able to process information which may be complex, uncertain even incomplete or contradictory. In this context, neural networks and fuzzy logic are the essential tools. Considering the merits of each approach separately, most suitable computational intelligence method can be used for a specific application. Additionally, the combination of these methods can provide enhanced information processing for decision-making with enhanced reliability. For building design, the computational intelligence system use a knowledge base formed by means of neural network and fuzzy logic (neuro-fuzzy) techniques, from a building design database. The application of such a system to a building design task was preliminarily demonstrated earlier [1]. The present research describes a systematic neural fuzzy modelling of data that form a knowledge base in a hierarchical form (s.figure below). Each sub-knowledge base represents a local expert, being level-one expert and the association of local experts forms a more comprehensive expert that becomes a global domain expert as level-two. The association of the experts is accomplished by means of fuzzy-logic-driven gating network that performs, the information handling as required. Although, the present paper describes two-level hierarchical experts as local and global, the associations can be done in more subtle form, i.e., in more than two steps so that the level of experts can be categorised in multi-level form. In such more complex structures, multi-level experts require related gating network that could similarly be designed. The building design support system with the expert network developed, as a whole, is generic enough for decision-makings with a novel systematic approach concept using appropriate database. Accordingly, the research deals with a particular architectural building design with efficiency and consistency features using the hierarchical expert network system described [1] Ciftcioglu O, Sariyildiz S. and Veer P. v.d., 1998 , Information Ordering for decision support in building design, D and DSS, Design and Decision Support Systems 4th International Conference on Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Castle Vaeshartelt, Maastricht, July 26-29, The Netherlands"

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Full text: content.pdf (519,213 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.064229) class.synthesis (0.019630) class.man-man (0.013152)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Ciftcioglu O, Durmisevic S, Sariyildiz S

Soft computing in construction information technology

Abstract: Purpose: With this paper a data driven model of knowledge representation for use in construction information technology (CIT) is introduced as a novel implementation and it is effectively implemented by artificial intelligence methods. Although for CIT knowledge base systems as a general framework is available where the user can place the information. Such systems are eventually mere data warehouses or in a more sophisticated form they are decision support systems in the form of rule based expert systems. However, in the case of a framework structure to organise the knowledge base is difficult and cumbersome task to establish an effective product. In the case expert systems, the inference is deductive and therefore the effectiveness of the system is limited to the prescribed rules. Therefore in place of high level data base management software like Prolog ©, the integration of new computational information processing methods and technologies into CIT would be much informative and therefore they are much effective and finally desirable. From the viewpoint of computation, CIT the data are rather soft requiring special methods and techniques to deal with. In this respect, computational intelligence is one of the emerging technologies, which provides CIT with ample possibilities and techniques for the enhancement of CIT products. Computational intelligence is a part of artificial intelligence (AI) and can be defined as a branch of soft computing methodologies including Expert Systems, Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computation. Methodology: For the CIT data soft computing methods are invoked. Soft Computing is an emerging approach to computing which parallels the remarkable ability of the human mind to reason and learn in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In plain terms, it is the processing of uncertain information with the methods, methodologies, and paradigms of artificial NN, fuzzy logic and evolutionary algorithms. The equivalence of neural networks and fuzzy logic applications is well established. However, the effectiveness of either method is still dependent on the application itself. Each method has its strong merits. However, in general, best performance is obtained when both methods are used in hybrid form. Especially neural system can cope with complex systems while it is relatively difficult for fuzzy systems. On the contrary, it is easier to deal with linguistic variables by fuzzy systems. Such a hybrid model is implemented in the knowledge model accomplished. Results: A novel concept of soft computing in CIT is introduced using actual building design data for design evaluation. The knowledge base contains all the local and global information and their inherent relationships among themselves. The knowledge representation is performed by means of a series of fuzzy systems having their both fuzzy input space and output space. The associations between the spaces are established by learning techniques of AI using the data at hand. Such an 'intelligent' knowledge base can make inference resulting in 'intelligent' due outcomes, which are not explicitly coded, in advance. In other words this is an inductive and computational inference for decision-making compared to conventional knowledge base systems where inference is deductive prescribed by rules. Conclusions: The soft computing in CIT is an important step for processing the relevant effectively and efficiently. In this respect, the paper describes ongoing advanced research and its verifications by actual data at hand.

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Full text: content.pdf (204,669 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.064489) class.synthesis (0.025964) class.deployment (0.019220)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


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