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A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Full text: content.pdf (228,375 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A.V. Hore, R.P. West & A. Redmond

The Future Scenario of Creating a Digital SME Community in the Irish Construction Industry

Abstract: The problems associated with the Construction Industry not being able to manage and communicate electronically product and project data between collaborating firms and within individual companies is compounded by the large number of small companies that have not adopted advanced Information Communication Technology (ICT). The typical nature of the service provided in construction, being an on-site and often highly customised service are generally identified as the reason for the low ICT uptake. The majority of Irish companies in the construction sector are Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs). As eBusiness opens up the Irish economy to international competition Irish SMEs should use ICT as a generator of competitive advantage to become more effective and efficient with eBusiness technologies. The Construction IT Alliance in Ireland has identified a programme that can create a digital SME community that will promote ICT services in the Irish Construction Industry in order to compete in the global economy.

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Full text: content.pdf (193,989 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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A.V. Hore, R.P. West

CITAX: A COLLABORATIVE ICT STANDARDS MODEL FOR THE IRISH CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Abstract: The Irish construction industry is facing a series of fundamental challenges that is affecting every player in the AEC lifecycle, from architects to engineers to quantity surveyors to owners to tenants. Despite technological advances in recent years, the Irish construction industry lags behind other industries in respect to ICT investments. Although there is a pressing need for innovation, existing procurement and tendering procedures in Ireland largely discourage new ideas and put further pressure on thin margins that characterise the competitiveness of the construction sector. The low level of inter-company ICT connectivity reflects the general fragmented and adversarial nature of the Irish construction industry, where the absence of dominant players has precluded the imposition of de facto inter-company ICT standards, as has been the case in the retail supermarket sector. This paper will present the results of a two-year research project which sought to demonstrate that, by the adoption of readily available ICT tools, particular business processes in construction could be dramatically improved. The paper goes on to describe the opportunities and challenges that have arisen as the project draws to a close. It will, in particular, focus on the introduction of ICT standards within the Irish construction industry. The ultimate goal is not only to have ICT standards in place, but also to provide the impetus to ensure that as many stakeholders as possible use them. How this might be achieved is also part of the project and its success will be judged by the extent of the adoption of the standard by the industry.

Keywords: Construction, ICT standards, re-engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (170,868 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Abrantes, V.

Thermal Exchanges Through Attics: The Effect of Insulation and Low Emittance Floor

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Full text: content.pdf (823,908 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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Aisha Abuelmaatti, Vian Ahmed

Collaborative Environments and its Effects on Construction Companies: The Current Context

Abstract: The ability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve and enhance organisation’ productivity as well as their competitive situation has never been greater. Emerging technologies in the UK offer the construction industry many opportunities for computer supported collaborative environments, with regards to addressing some of the aspects that result in a complicated and complex construction process. However, the organisations adopting these technologies usually fail in achieving the full benefits from their implementations. Previous studies in the area have shown that 80 to 90 per cent of ICT investment did not meet their performance objectives. The fact of the matter is that collaborative environments have been evolving and effectively employed in large organisations and are believed to have high potential for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), but the use of collaboration technology remains low among 99% of enterprises in the UK construction industry usually referred to as SMEs employing less than 250 employees. The growing popularity of collaborative environments in the construction industry has, unfortunately, not been matched by parallel empirical research for SMEs.The work reported in this paper serves two purposes. First, the results of an intensive literature review reveals general causes of failure in ICT implementations, and the key areas to focus on during ICT implementation for collaborative working. Second, results from exploratory case study that was conducted in order to assess the use of collaborative environments and their adaptation approaches are analysed in order to further explain what issues are preventing SMEs from achieving their utmost collaboration potential. Therefore, the paper blends a combination of factors which may affect the success of collaborative environments for SMEs and are believed to contribute towards the improvement and implementation of collaboration systems.

Keywords: Construction, ICT standards, re-engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (102,812 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Ammar Al-Bazi

ENTERPRISE SIMULATION OF THE PRECAST CONCRETE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Abstract: The lack of applied innovative tools, for improving the performance of the precast concrete products manufacturing industry, has led the researchers in this paper to develop an Enterprise Simulation Precast Concrete (ESPC) model, to improve the performance of the precast industry. As an initial stage, a detailed layout for the precast concrete production processes is developed in order to understand the relationships amongst the manufacturing processes in such industry. In addition, simulation methodology is developed to analyse the precast manufacturing system and identify the resource bottlenecks. Heuristic searching rule is developed in order to simulate the accommodation process of the produced items in a temporary stockyard area.The results indicated low utilisation of the used resources due to using only one curing area for storage and retrieval processes.

Keywords: Precast concrete products, enterprise simulation model, discrete event simulation modelling, manhole manufacturing system, heuristic searching rule

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Full text: content.pdf (1,004,348 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Andresen J, Baldwin A, Betts M, Carter C, Hamilton A, Stokes E, Thorpe T

A Framework for Measuring IT Innovation Benefits

Abstract: This paper presents a new framework for measuring the benefits of IT in construction. The framework is based on the principle that benefits realisation must be managed by: planning for strategic alignment and business-driven exploitation, managing the process of predicting benefits, and by measuring resulting benefits after a system or innovation is implemented. Three distinct types of benefits are identified within the new framework associated with business efficiency, business effectiveness and business performance. A key barrier to the more effective exploitation and application of IT in the construction sector has been the lack of investment on a scale comparable with other sectors. A primary reason cited for the low level of investment is the low level of perceived benefits from IT investments amongst construction business managers. Many benefits evaluation methods exist and are widely applied in other sectors. Benefits evaluation methods in construction are under-utilised. One reason for this is the lack of fit between these methods, and their associated language, with the peculiarities of the construction sector. The new framework presented in this paper has been derived for specific application to the construction sector. The framework has been subjected to testing and application within UK construction organisations. The results of this testing suggest a number of improvements in the benefits realisation process.

Keywords: information technology, business benefits, innovation, evaluation framework

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2000/4 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2000 (browse)
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Annie Guerriero, Gilles Halin, Sylvain Kubicki

INTEGRATING TRUST CONCEPTS IN A DASHBOARD INTENDED FOR THE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Abstract: The growing complexity of AEC projects leads to increase the importance of the building construction coordinator’s role. Moreover, the uncertainty linked to the environment of the building construction activity makes way for the notion of trust. The coordinator canmake use of a multiple tools/views for accomplishing his mission (e.g. planning, meeting report) but these views offer only a limited vision of the cooperation context. So we suggest analyzing data coming from these different views to obtain some trust indicators informing the coordinator about trust in the good progress of the building construction activity. Our approach distinguishes 4 aspects of the activity conditioning the global trust level: task progress, actor’s performance, documents required to perform the task, and building elements resulting from the task. Our proposal suggests introducing these trust indicators in a dashboard included in a multi-view interface allowing the coordinator identifying the tasks with a low level of trust and understanding the nature of the potential dysfunctions.

Keywords: Building construction, Coordination, Trust, IT-support, Dashboard, Model-Driven Engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (484,486 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Anumba Chimay

Industry uptake of construction IT innovations - key elements of a proactive strategy

Abstract: There is general agreement that the construction industry's uptake of innovations in Construction IT is disappointing, particularly when considered in relation to the huge research effort and expenditure being invested in this field. This is of growing concern to research funding agencies, Construction IT researchers, and some industry practitioners, albeit for very different reasons. This paper examines some of the reasons for this low uptake of Construction IT innovations, drawing on examples of specific technologies and research projects, where appropriate. It highlights the need for partnerships and closer working arrangements between the key actors and stakeholders - researchers, funding agencies, software developers, end-users and industry managers. The paper outlines the key elements of a framework within which technology transfer from research to practice will thrive, and concludes with a review of several initiatives that seek to address the low uptake of Construction IT innovations.

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Full text: content.pdf (45,709 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.022337) class.education (0.014975) class.strategies (0.009723)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Appelqvist I, Keiljer U

Building integrity - interactions between building parts, systems and the actors of the building process

Abstract: Many of the problems concerning poor effectivity, low quality and increased cost in the building process pertain to the area of interaction between building parts, elements, spaces and systems. The industrialisation of the building industry requires a more profound understanding of these interactions. An increasing number of actors and suppliers are involved in the building process which implies interactions related to the organisation of the process. Thus, the interaction problems do not confine themselves to physical parts and technical issues. The organisation of the process, responsibilities and liabilities of consultants, subcontractors and other actors contribute to the growing implications of the variety of interactions that constitute the problem in its whole. An analysis of the general problem, which has been addressed as Building Integrity, BI, has commenced From a systems design point of view, BI is related to the ongoing research on building modelling, which is discussed briefly.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,870,258 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.041949) class.social (0.017435) class.analysis (0.010768)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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