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A Akanmu, C J. Anumba, J I. Messner

Mechanisms for Bi-directional Coordination between Virtual Design and the Physical Construction

Abstract: There is considerable growth in the use of virtual models in the construction industry. Many projects are now based on fairly sophisticated models but the use of these models is often limited to the design and tendering/bidding stage. Much more benefit can be derived from these models by extending their use to the construction, operation and maintenance phases of a facility’s lifecycle. A good way of achieving this will involve real-time bi-directional coordination between as-designed models and the physical construction. This will enable improvements in progress monitoring, construction process control, archiving as-built status and active control of building components and sub-assemblies. To maintain bi-directional coordination, computational resources are required to tightly integrate the virtual models and the physical construction. This is termed a Cyber-Physical systems approach. This paper focuses on describing the role of the Cyber-physical systems approach in enhancing bi-directional coordination. It highlights the mechanisms necessary to facilitate this and presents future deployment scenarios to illustrate the potential benefits to the construction industry.

Keywords: Bi-directional coordination, Building Information Models, Cyber-Physical Systems, Physical Construction

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Akcamete

An Approach to Capture Facility Maintenance and Repair Information to Store Change History

Abstract: During operations, changes happen to facilities frequently due to maintenance and repair (M&R)work, upgrades and renovations. Consequently, corresponding facility information needs to be updatedso as to provide reliable information to facility operators and managers. Moreover, the record offacility changes is necessary to understand the patterns of failures and to support proactivemaintenance decisions. Therefore, there is a need to enable storing of the information about suchchanges at the time that they occur. In current practice, facility documents are not frequently updatedand a complete history of changes is not available for supporting facility management decisions. Theauthors_ objective is to streamline the capturing of M&R information when these activities areperformed, so as to have a history of facility changes that can be used to understand how a building isdeteriorating and to support facility information updates. By observing M&R work records, weidentified the need for capturing different types of facility and change information for different typesof M&R work. Moreover, we observed the need for a spatial database to support pattern analysis byidentifying clusters that may not be found by using traditional databases. We developed a taxonomy ofM&R work that classifies various types of work on different types of facility components and listsassociated information modules that represent data required to be collected in the field. This approachenables a formal approach for capturing change information as a result of M&R work by providingcustomized templates for each type of work. The focus of this paper is to present the need forcustomization of information capture templates. The paper also gives a description of the approach offormally generating customized templates based on a taxonomy of M&R work and linking thecaptured history information with a facility information model. Enabling such a linkage will be thefirst step towards reasoning about the M&R history in order to analyze how a building deteriorates,identify problems in the building, and inform the users of facility information update needs.

Keywords: Facility maintenance, maintenance changes, change history, maintenance planning

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Almarshad, I Motawa, S Ogunlana

INVESTIGATING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC BUILDING MAINTENANCE IN KUWAIT

Abstract: Public Building Maintenance (BM) departments in Kuwait have the duty of maintaining buildings that vary in shape, type, size, complexity and purpose. The services provided by the departments extend from minor repair works to bespoke renovation and reconstruction projects making the process of maintenance complex. Knowledge Management (KM) is being implemented by organisations to improve their business performance. This paper is based on a study that investigated the current state of KM in the public part of the BM sector. Interviews were conducted to identify BM process, current KM activities and tools, barriers to knowledge sharing and perception to KM implementation. Findings of the study have assisted in modifying a proposed BM process based on procedures followed by the majority of interviewed departments, where knowledge capturing, organising, and retrieval activities can then be embedded in the process. The study revealed that there is lack of formal knowledge management techniques carried out within departments. Furthermore, there is no established communication links between branches of the same department resulting in lack of experiences and knowledge exchange between colleagues. Cultural/ethnic differences, fear of losing job, not knowing how to share knowledge and lack of time were the main barriers to knowledge sharing. However, the participants showed a positive attitude toward the introduction of a KM system with added activities and roles in the BM process related to KM.

Keywords: Building maintenance, Knowledge management, Kuwait, Public sector.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Almarshad, I Motawa

BIM-based Knowledge Management for Building Maintenance

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Series: w78:2012 (browse)
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A Asadi, A Hadavi, R J. Krizek

Bridge Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks

Abstract: Life-Cycle Cost analysis can significantly assist in making investment decisions. Several recentstudies have recognized the potential benefits of Life-Cycle Cost analysis and call for use of suchanalyses when making infrastructure investments, including investments in bridges. The Life-CycleCost of a bridge consists of the total investment throughout the life of the bridge. This includes theinitial construction cost, repair and rehabilitation costs, and all maintenance costs. The ability toaccurately determine the Life-Cycle Cost of a bridge will help agencies evaluate the asset value ofexisting bridges, make better decisions on the design and construction of new ones, and chooseimproved methods and approaches for rehabilitating existing structures. Research has shown thattimely maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation can lower the Life-Cycle Cost of a bridge. However, thisis a complex and nonlinear problem, and previous studies have failed to develop a satisfactory model. One effective technique for solving nonlinear problems with complicated functions is an ArtificialNeural Network. A neural network is a powerful data-modeling tool that captures and representscomplex input/output relationships. Using a set of input and output data belonging to a particularproblem, a neural system can be trained to predict outcomes for new versions of the same problem.Accordingly, an extensive set of data (bridge dimensions, age, initial cost, and Life-Cycle Cost) for 14Chicago bridges was used to quantify the degree of success that could be achieved with this model.Sixty percent of the data was used as input to train the model and the remaining forty percent was usedto assess the success of the model for predicting the Life-Cycle Cost. The results achieved wereencouraging and suggest that the neural network model is a promising tool for predicting the LifeCycleCost ofa bridge.

Keywords: life-cycle cost, artificial neural network, Chicago Trunnion Bascule bridges. initial cost, repair and rehabilitation cost

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A Galach & Z Kotulski

Risk assessment in disaster recovery strategies development

Abstract: The paper describes the model for selecting disaster recovery strategies for information system. The risk assessment covers the threats and vulnerabilities related to the problem of losing the availability of information processes in the particular information system model. The analysis takes under consideration the relationships between the components of information system in order to find the risk of availability lost propagation within the system. That is the basis for finding the candidate disaster recovery strategies, which have to fulfil these basic requirements. Such an approach allows sifting these ones, which are basically not suitable for the security requirements of the information system. The preliminary accepted strategies are to be analyzed regarding to the estimated cost of implementation and maintenance. The next phase covers the detailed analysis of confidentiality and integrity risks in the candidate strategies. The level of risk related to the confidentiality and integrity of information processed in the disaster situation using given strategy is to be estimated.

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Full text: content.pdf (232,912 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A Grilo, R Jardim-Gonçalves & A Steiger-Garcao

Shifting the construction interoperability paradigm, in the advent of Service Oriented and Model Driven Architectures

Abstract: A major difficulty construction companies are currently facing is the lack of interoperability of software applications to manage and progress in their business. Organizations are being pressured up by new business relationships, driven for instance by new contractual challenges, which the exchange of information and documents with new partners are often incapable of being executed automatically and in electronic format. This is principally due to problems of incompatibility with the information representation adopted by the software applications they are working with. This problem arises not only during the project phase but also across the whole life cycle that includes operation and maintenance stages. In order to create the enabling conditions for the deployment of the electronic collaborative and commerce platforms it is fundamental to understand the variables that may influence its development, and how they determine the configuration of the e-platform. This paper, after present technology driven standards for the construction industry data management, it proposes the adoption of the emerging Service Oriented and Model Driven Architectures to shift forward the interoperability paradigm in this industrial sector. The paper illustrates some scenarios where significant impact is expected when adopting the proposed methodology.

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A Kiviniemi & J Haymaker

Integration of Multiple Product Models

Abstract: The development of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) started from the vision that an integrated building product model would cover all necessary information for a buildings’ entire lifecycle: from requirements management, through different design processes to construction and maintenance processes. Although the IFC model specification covers a substantial part of the required information, AEC projects still have encountered many problems putting this model into practice. AEC professionals still find it difficult to have dynamic, lossless, truly effective data flow amongst the different participants and applications. It is obvious that file based data exchange alone is not a feasible solution - some other solution for integrating project information is necessary. This workshop discusses some viewpoints and potential solutions to the above issues and problems.

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A Kiviniemi, M Fischer & V Bazjanac

Integration of Multiple Product Models: IFC Model Servers as a Potential Solution

Abstract: The development of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) started from the vision of an integrated building product model which would cover all necessary information for buildings' whole lifecycle: requirements management, different design activities and construction and maintenance processes. Although the IFC model specification covers a substantial part of the required information its implementations into practical applications have shown several serious problems. One of the main problems is that the internal structures of the different software products do not support the information needs for the whole process. Thus, the idea of lossless, incremental data flow through the different applications used by the project participants has not come true. It is obvious that file based data exchange is not feasible solution, and some other solution for integrated project data model is necessary for the AEC industry. This paper discusses some viewpoints and potential solutions to the above problem.

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Ahmed Laaroussi, Bruno Fiès, Rémi Vankeisbelckt, Julien Hans

Ontology-aided FMEA for construction products

Abstract: The goal of improving the quality and the maintenance of building products, and the will to integrate the sustainable development objectives led us to propose an original method based on the use and adaptation of the Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMEA). This method relies among others on ontology use. It facilitates the FMEA proceeding. This paper aims to introduce innovative software specifically developed to perform more easily FMEA on building components. This software takes advantages of a structured knowledge base and an inference rule engine that allow a complete and formal description of the product to be analysed and an exhaustive analysis of all failures (degradations) that may occur.

Keywords: FMEA, ontological approach, knowledge capitalisation, degradation analysis, construction product

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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