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A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Full text: content.pdf (228,375 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Akinsola A, Dawood N, Hobbs B

Construction planning process improvement using information technology

Abstract: "Construction is a multi-organisation and interactive process. Successful completion of a project therefore depends on the accuracy, effectiveness and timing of communication and exchange of information and data between the supply chain. Unfortunately, the inefficiency of the existing method of communication has become a barrier to several innovative construction processes developed for the industry over the past four decades. Thus, research efforts and direction have since changed. Several studies now focusing on integration of the construction process with communication and standardisation of data exchange, taking advantage of evolving computer technologies. The capability of these technologies, object-oriented technology and the Internet has made a significant impact on other economic sector such as finance, manufacturing, insurance, etc., with significant improvement in performance and productivity. Thus the technology is available but the challenge is utilising the technology to develop method of improving the construction process. To ensure efficient utilisation of IT as enabling tools, formalisation and understanding of the construction processes are required. This will enable the identification of the problems and opportunities of the strategy, and its implementation and performance in practice. The paper presents a detailed model of pre-construction and construction planning processes, based on an on-going research project, that form the basis of the developed planning system. The detailed process mapping methodology using CASE tools and the associated integration of IT tools, as an enabler to aid and improve the planning process, are described. The system provides an interface for integration of CAD data, using IFC objects, within the system. The application of the system offers a promise of significant improvement in both pre-construction and construction processes."

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Full text: content.pdf (375,439 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.028439) class.environment (0.027790) class.impact (0.027062)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Amor R, Hosking J, Mugridge W

A declarative approach to inter-schema mappings

Abstract: The requirements for the specification of mappings between tools in an integrated and interactive design system are described in this paper. The declarative mapping language, VML, is introduced. VML allows a high level, bidirectional specification of mappings between two arbitrary schemas. To illustrate the utility of VML, a demonstration system consisting of plan definition and code conformance tools is integrated via a common data model using VML mappings. The VML mappings are capable of handling both relational and object-oriented style schemas as well as interactive and batch style design tools. We illustrate the use of VML to specify correspondences between classes, conditional application of correspondences, different styles of equivalence, initialisation conditions as well as method handling for interactive systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,068,779 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.030558) class.software development (0.027038) class.represent (0.019168)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Turk Z, Hyvarinen J, Finne C

CONNET: a gateway to Europe's construction information

Abstract: "The EC funded project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/) has developed a set of Internet-based information services for Europe. These services are linked through a European gateway for the construction industry which provides a ""virtual technology park"", accessible to the whole industry regardless of national boundaries. The gateway provides mechanisms to link all information services for the construction industry, and to establish national gateways to services which can then inter-operate across Europe. The CONNET consortium is moving to establish the existing services in all European nations, and to encourage further existing or planned information services to be linked. A suite of five Internet based services has initially been developed, comprising: a technical information centre; a waste exchange centre; manufactured product services; a calculation and software centre; and an electronic news service as described below: 1. The Technical Information Centre provides a single point of entry to locate technical information from quality providers, initially in the UK. The centre draws upon information held by the major publishers in the UK, with over 200 identified to link into the service. Once a publication is identified a user is able to place an order to purchase, or browse, the item. An automated notification service for users, based on their areas of interest, is also available as part of this centre. 2. The Waste Exchange Centre extends the current UK based system to better enable the disposal and reuse of site waste across organisations Nationally and in Europe. Availability of, and requests for, waste materials are automatically matched in order to broker greater reuse of materials. 3. The Manufactured Product Service enables Finnish and export-market users to identify manufactured products which match their design specification by incorporating product attributes into the selection system. Users are able to identify certified products and drag-and-drop CAD information into their designs. 4. The Calculation and Software Centre provides the European entry point for information on all software products available for the civil engineering domain (over 3,900 collated to date). Online demonstrations, online purchase, and even pay-per-use software is available. 5. The Electronic News Service enables members of the construction industry to register an interest in specific topics and to be notified of any Internet published news that matches their interest. The news sources are drawn from the main information providers and professional institutes in the industry, both within the UK and Internationally. Currently over 14,300 Internet sites have been identified and indexed for this service. This paper describes the infrastructure which has been developed for the European gateway and the benefits it can offer to linked services within a single nation, or across Europe. The virtual technology park infrastructure developed in CONNET provides for user identification, centralised user profiling and profile management, automated and periodic user profile servicing, classification system management and mapping, discussion groups, secure communication and service validation, etc. The way in which these technology park services are able to be used and adapted in independent, but linked, national services is highlighted in the paper. The five individual services are also described briefly, highlighting the benefits they offer to the European construction industry and the possibilities they offer in terms of ensuring national services are inter-operable across all of Europe."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.014414) class.communication (0.010000) class.man-software (0.007679)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Aparna Perikamana, Steven K. Ayer, Michael A. Beauregard and Suleiman Alsafouri

Development of a Collaborative Process Mapping Activity to Improve Students' BIM Process Mapping Understanding

Abstract: The use of BIM has become increasingly common, which has led to a growing demand for construction professionals with BIM knowledge and skills. BIM education is a solution to meet this growing need. Prior research suggests students associate BIM with a software solution rather than as a process illustrating a need to modify the current educational paradigms. This paper explores a pedagogical approach to developing BIM process planning skills among construction students. The research extends the findings of prior work that tasked students with developing process maps in a peer-reviewed context. This current iteration of the research explores the use of a collaborative, team-based, activity to generate Level 1 and Level 2 process maps, as defined by a previously published BIM Project Execution Planning Guide. The students were asked to create the process maps individually at first, and then again in groups of three. Pre- and post-questionnaires were given to analyse the studentsÕ perception of their knowledge. The primary objective of the research was to elicit a perception based response with respect to (i) studentsÕ ability to create a process map, (ii) enhancing the learning process, and (iii) students' perception about their own knowledge of the BIM execution process. In addition to perception based questions, the authors made observational analysis of completed process maps. The studentsÕ confidence in their ability in creating a process mapping dialogue box appears to have increased because of the activity. However, the studentsÕ perception about their ability to arrange the activities in sequence and parallel and the ability to create process map did not have any significant improvement. Based on the questionnaires and the suggestions given, it can be concluded that in both activities, the students had difficulties understanding the process mapping language. Future research may address the implementation of new pedagogical methods, incorporating the findings identified in this research thereby improving the measurable outcome of the students understanding of Process Mapping specific to BIM implementation.

Keywords: BIM, BIM Process Mapping, BIM Education, Collaborative Activity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0061

Full text: content.pdf (419,325 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Bento J, Azevedo J, Oliveira C S

Predicting ground otion descriptions through artificial neural networks

Abstract: "The present paper addresses the problem of predicting the description of an expected earthquake through the associated ground motion record that would be recorded at a given site. For that purpose, a number of previous ground motion records referring to 100 different earthquakes occurring within a reasonably small geographic area (Northern California) have been acquired and processed in order to extract some of the features that could describe them more synthetically than the full records. The attributes thus generated were used to train a feedforward network in order to map them into what can be called higher level descriptors of each earthquake, such as the magnitude or the peak accelerations, for example. Once such mapping is obtained, one may infer a number of attributes that would allow the artificial generation of the accelerograms corresponding to ""expected earthquakes"" described resorting to those higher level descriptors"

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Full text: content.pdf (408,837 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.031791)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Brien M J O', Al-Biqami N

XML, flexibility and systems integration

Abstract: "O'Brien (1997) outlined the two primary ways in which data can be integrated. One invloves the establishment of a centralised data store that meets all the needs of a construction project; the other recognises the geographical and functional fragmentation of the industry and views data integration as a conceptual process. From a purely technical point of view the first is perhaps the easiest, but it fails to meet the organisational and economic demands of the construction industry. Thus the second approach is more likely to be adopted by the participants of that industry. The problem then becomes one of mapping the meta-data structures of one participant onto those of another. Various efforts at the development of standards have attempted to address this issue. However, standards can be both complex and inadequate. The complexity is a demand of the industry while the inadequacy stems from the impossibility of coping with every eventuality - a severe problem given the essential uniqueness of each building product. This is not to say that standards are not required, merely that their limitations are fully realised from the outset and that expectations are not raised to the point where disappointment sets in and they fall into disrepute. EDI is a perfectly good standard but has failed to make a great impact on the construction industry. The volume of application-to-application communications remains small. This paper argues that while standards such as EDI can form the backbone of data communications - and therefore provide a vehicle for data integration in the construction industry - they are insufficient to cope with the desired flexibility demanded by the industry. The paper then develops this idea by suggesting that something more is required, something flexible. Extensible markup language (XML) is a tool which can help provide the necessary flexibility. XML is a language which provides a common syntax for expressing the structure of data. While it can be seen as an extension of the commonly used Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) this fails to recognise that XML has uses beyond the creation of Web pages. In its broadest sense XML allows systems developers to define the structure of a document. Currently its main uses are for data interchange between humans and machines, but the ability to facility machine-machine interactions is the most exciting concept for construction industry systems. Now EDI is a perfectly good tool for such interactions but in the event of any new requirements the standards need to be extended. This is such a long process that by the time it is completed it is of no use to the original users. XML however provides a dynamic mechanism which can be adapted as required to meet the needs of the users. This is its great strength for the construction industry - an industry that is ""document-rich"". In effect by using XML to specify meta-data structures one overcomes the differences between the data structures of different trading partners. No longer will we require all parties to conform to the tramlines of a strictly enforced standard, but rather those parties will be able to exchange data merely by changing the XML description of their documents. Thus in conclusion this paper shows that the use of XML within the construction industry will facilitate data, and hence systems, integration. O'Brien, M.J. 1997. Integration at the limit:construction systems, International Journal of Construction Information Technology, Vol 5, No 1,pp 89-98."

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Full text: content.pdf (154,537 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.051918) class.standards (0.032166) class.software-software (0.030798)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


C Mastrodonato, A Cavallaro, M Hannus, J Nummelin, N Jung

ICt for Energy Efficienct buildings: proposed approach for a stakeholders-based strategic roadmap

Abstract: ICT4E2B Forum project aims to bring together all relevant stakeholders involved in ICT systems and solutions for Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Moreover the project has the objective of identifying and reviewing the needs in terms of research and systems integration as well as at accelerating implementation and take-up. ICT4E2B Forum bases its roadmapping activities on the outputs of REEB project that has already developed a high-level roadmap on ICT for Energy Efficient Buildings. Starting from this expert-based work, ICT4E2B Forum intends to promote, through community building activities, a better understanding, a closer dialogue and a more active cooperation between researchers, end-users/practitioners, building owners, technology-suppliers, and software. The exploitation of ICT is consider the adding value in order to support informed decision-making (both human and automated) in the current delivery and in the use of sustainable and energy-efficient buildings and districts. By accomplishing these objectives, ICT4E2B Forum is mapping the sector-specific priorities into a common view and vocabulary, thereby enabling communication and understanding between experts in different sectors that need to join forces in order that fundamental improvements in energy efficient buildings can be achieved. All this coordination work will support in defining future research directions as well as in channelling efforts, while favouring consensus buildings on the roadmap itself.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, ICT4E2B Forum project, REEB project, Strategic Roadmap, Stakeholder-based.

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Full text: content.pdf (174,418 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Chen Y, Amor R

Identification and classification of A/E/C web sites and pages

Abstract: Current search engines are not well suited to serving the needs of A/E/C professionals. The general ones do not know about the vocabulary of the domain (e.g., so 'window' is a meaningless word) or rely on human classification (which severely limits the percentage of sites which are indexed). Domain specific databases and hot lists tend to be the only other option. While these have very good information they reflect a very small proportion of what is on the web. This paper looks at a system for automated classification of web sites and pages in the A/E/C domain. In particular, we concentrate on web sites and pages in New Zealand, and use the common classification system for the New Zealand construction industry (CBI). For this particular problem it is clear that no single approach to classifying web information gives a perfect answer. We therefore combine several approaches for automated classification, including: · Identifying web sites that are already classified by other Internet portals and mapping these classifications to the CBI classification system. · Extracting keywords from web pages and sites and then finding the relationships between the extracted keywords and topics in the CBI classification system. · Using link analysis to find related web pages on a certain topic in the CBI classification system. When an A/E/C professional searches with our system we determine metrics for each approach above, and find the best combination of approaches to determine a classification and hence the resultant web sites and pages. This paper describes the components of the search engine which has been created and provides an analysis of the classification approaches.

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Full text: content.pdf (171,531 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.067651) class.retrieve (0.043347) class.man-software (0.025151)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Cheng J,Deng Y,Du Q

Mapping between BIM models and 3d GIS city models of different levels of detail

Abstract: Modeling the built environment of a city digitally in three dimensions can support navigation, urban planning, disaster management, and energy consumption analysis. City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) was developed in recent years as a Geographic Information System (GIS) data standard to represent the geometry and geographical information of buildings in digital 3D city models. CityGML supports modeling on various Levels of Detail (LoDs) from simple box models to models with interior partitions. This paper presents the theoretical framework that we have developed for mapping between Building Information Modeling (BIM) models in the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format and CityGML models of different LoDs. The framework consists of two major parts – (1) transformation between BIM models and high level CityGML LoD4 models, and (2) harmonization among the four LoDs of CityGML. For the first part, a reference ontology was developed to transfer semantic information between BIM models in the IFC format and CityGML models. To reduce the file size of the generated CityGML models, a new geometric transformation algorithm was developed for the mapping from Swept Solid or Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) representations, which are commonly used in BIM models, to Boundary Representation (BRep) which is used in CityGML models. For the second part, schema mediation techniques are used to convert CityGML models from one LoD to another LoD. Based on the reference ontology, an application domain extension (ADE) called “Semantic City Model (SCM)” was developed for CityGML. The SCM ADE enriches CityGML models by providing more semantic information such as the linkage relationship between walls and building stories. This paper presents the developed mapping framework with an illustrative example of a residential building.

Keywords: 3D city models,Building Information Modeling (BIM),Geographic Information System (GIS),Industry Foundation Classes (IFC),Schema mapping

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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