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Bohms M, Tolman F

Building and construction eXtensible mark-up language (bcXML)

Abstract: The EU IST-10303 eConstruct project aims to develop an XML Vocabulary for the Building and Construction industry. The vocabulary, called bcXML (from building and construction XML), supports eCommerce and eBusiness in BC, both nationally and over the borders of the different European member states. Especially the communication of meaning over the national borders is of crucial importance for the future usage of the Internet as a means to increase the industry’s competitiveness, its ability to co-operate, reduce cost of failure, and enforce the European market of BC products and services. This paper will present current ideas about bcXML; what it should look like and why. The model is written in UML (“Class Diagrams”). Basically the idea is to develop an XML Vocabulary that supports XML-based communication on a sliding scale of complexity. The end-users of bcXML will be provided with the simplest XML-based communication possible. Simple in the sense that notions like boiler, or roofTile have meaning, and simple in the sense that users can use their own language and dictionaries also for communication over the borders. Advanced users or software applications will be provided with more complex functionality. The model presented is meant as an explanation to the BC industry of what bcXML is about. As such it can be seen as the concept design. A more detailed UML model, the implementation design, focusing on implementation issues, is available separately. This UML model is in its turn is transformed into an “XML Schema” schema.

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Full text: content.pdf (200,816 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.standards (0.147275) class.represent (0.052791) class.commerce (0.042206)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


E Hjelseth, N Nisbet

Capturing normative constraints by use of the semantic mark-up RASE methodology

Abstract: The AEC industry is highly regulated by a large number of rules given by public laws, codes, and regulative standards at both national and international levels. The relevant information in these documents need to be captured as rules for model checking in a time and cost effective way. The foundation for the RASE concept is using mark-up based on the four operators; requirement (R), applicabilities (A), selection (S) and exceptions (E) on normative text. The RASE technology has been tested on following three categories of documents: standard (case: NS 11001-1.E:2009 Universal design of building constructions - Part 1: Work buildings and buildings open to the public), standards with tables (Dubai regulations) and guidelines (case: GSA court design guidance document, USA). In each case expectations have been documented using free prose. On examination, the key clauses and phrases can be identified along with their role, allowing a testable, logical statement to be generated. The logical statement is then ready to be used by a compliance-checking engine to apply tests to a description of the facility. The results indicate that the RASE methodology can operate on a different types of normative documents with a trustworthy results.

Keywords: Knowledge representation, Semantics, Ontology, Classification, Model checking

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Earl M

Conceptual modeling through a conceptual structure

Abstract: This paper reports on a computer aided design system which I have developed to handle problems of ambiguity in the description of architectural objects during the schematic design phase. The knowledge base underlying this system is referred to as a "conceptual structure'', Within the "conceptual structure", an ambiguous "child" object may inherit attributes from many alternative kinds of "parent" objects. The "conceptual structure'' can also accommodate a design process through which a "child" object such as a "wall" can become less ambiguous over time. The end of this design process is the "disambiguated" specification of the final designed object. This system was first developed as part of my Ph.D. Dissertation at Harvard University (Mark 1993).

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Full text: content.pdf (2,348,456 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.033789) class.software development (0.008893) class.analysis (0.008488)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Eilif Hjelseth, Nick Nisbet

Exploring Semantic Based Model Checking

Abstract: This paper is exploring the foundation of semantic based model checking concepts. Development of computable rules in a pure semantic based concept is characterized by “soft coding” by following a pre-defined system (mark-up) methodology for linguistic (text and numbers) analyze, organization, execution and reporting. The software programming of this can be done automatic or semi-automatic based on predefined procedures. This enables an AEC skilled person to develop applicable rules without support of programmers. The rules can be applied on then semantic content BIM file in e.g. IFC format.Whether it is possible to develop a valid and reliable system applicable to rule sources (laws, codes, standards) depends on testing two key hypothesis:The use perspective is basis for the first hypothesis: Can a pre-defined semantic system or toolset be used (by an AEC skilled person, not software programmer) on the variation of how rule sources are expressed. The answer on this is based on the constraints of the systems. Negative experiences by Artificial Intelligence based on natural language and the ambiguity in the language itself (Sowa, 2000 and 2006) indicates that there is not a straight forward procedure. Introduction of prerequisite and constraints indicate that trustworthy results are possible (Hjelseth, 2009 and Bell, Bjørkhaug and Hjelseth, 2009). Whether this will result in too limited area of application is discussed. The ISO/DIS 21542 standard for accessibility and usability will be used as case.The second hypothesis is: A system for automatic, or semi-automatic, generating of applicable rule sets for software implementation can be developed. This must rely on the applicability link predefine commands to adjacent actions for the semantic analyses. Limitations and possibilities will be in focus.A thorough perspective will be about challenges above are related to ICT-systems or the complexity of the semantic of world itself.References: Bell, Bjørkhaug and Hjelseth, 2009. Standardized computable rules. Pilot study of methods for development of computable rules Project at Standards Norway, http://www.standard.no/en/Sectors/Bygg-og-anlegg/Digital-byggeprosess/ISO-BIM-standards/Computable-rule-project/ (Visited: 2010-04-01). ISO/DIS 21542 Building Construction, Accessibility and usability of the built environmentISO standard under development of ISO committee TC 59/SC 16 http://www.iso.org/iso/standards_development/technical_committees/list_of_iso_technical_committees/iso_technical_committee.htm?commid=291991 (Visited: 2010-04-01). Hjelseth, E. 2009. Foundation for development of computable rules. Presented at CIB-W78, Turkey, Istanbul, Oct. 1-3th 2009. http://www.optima.no/BIM/PhD_Eilif_Hjelseth/Eilif_Hjelseth_UMB-Norway_Paper_73_CIB-W78_2009.pdf (Visited: 2010-04-01).Sowa, J. F. 2000. Knowledge representation: Logical, Philosophical and Computational foundations, Thomson Learning. ISBN 0 534-94965-7

Keywords: Model checking, semantic, BIM, IFC

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Johannes Dimyadi, Guido Governatori and Robert Amor

Evaluating LegalDocML and LegalRuleML as a Standard for Sharing Normative Information in the AEC/FM Domain

Abstract: Legal text is typically conveyed in natural language and thus not readily suitable for computer processing. Numerous work-around approaches have been proposed by researchers in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Facilities Management (AEC/FM) domain over the last four decades to create computable representations of normative data that can be used to automate some of the processes in the domain. The transition from human-readable text to a structured representation can occur in many possible ways, e.g. through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, manual annotations, or through direct coding. In all cases, however, the human-readable document at the source remains the sole point of reference. Ideally, however, one digital structured representation should also be available and recognised as the single digital point of reference.Research in the AEC/FM domain has shown that automated compliant building design processes would benefit from a single standardised and manageable digital representation of normative data. Recent efforts in the legal domain have shown promising developments in legal mark-up languages such as LegalDocML and LegalRuleML as emerging open standards for legal knowledge interchange. In this article, we explore the potential of adapting these emerging standards to accommodate specific requirements of the AEC/FM domain.

Keywords: Legal Knowledge Model, Normative Information, Automated Compliance Audit, LegalDocML, LegalRuleML

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0012

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Kaka A P

A intelligent knowledge-based system for capturing projects’ performance and initiating tendering strategies

Abstract: "The paper will describe a knowledge-based system developed to capture, process and analyse records of past performance in ordered to help contractors to initiate future strategies and actions. A detailed study of the of a major contractor’s Management Information Systems showed, inter alia, that the “Cost Value Reconciliation” forms (CVR’s), produced on a monthly basis by the contractor’s Surveyor, held a large amount of data unused by the contractors except for the purpose of performance control. Examination of the data revealed that if processed and stored in a central database, it could provide invaluable source of information to contractors for analysing performance and initiating strategies both on the project level and the company level. A subsequent survey of fifteen other contractors revealed that substantially identical CVR procedures were in universal use. It was therefore decided, in order to facilitate the adoption of the proposed system by contractors, to use a CVR format as a data capture facility for the system. Actual CVR sheets used by different contractors were studied, The type of records used in these sheets were examined in terms of their usefulness to management in terms of measuring progress and initiating future actions other than cost control. Further variables that are not currently in use in CVR sheets were introduced. A mathematical model was developed to process these monthly records into useful information subsequently called performance variables (i.e. variables used to measure the contractor’s performance with respect to the project). Finally, further variables were introduces to the system in order to facilitate the sharing of information between different projects. These variables were called Contract Classification Variables (i.e. variables used to describe the project) and contract performance variables) and included nine criteria by which a contract is defined or grouped (e.g. method of tendering, method of procurement etc.). These criteria were identified by contractors as the most important factors influencing contracts’ characteristics and performance. The Contract Performance Variables are the information that can be extracted from the CVR sheets and used to form new strategies (e.g. rate of mark-up on different projects, payment delays etc.). The model was developed in such a way that when a contract is started, the contractor enters the classification and the performance variables in the Individual Project Module. As the contract progresses and actual data become available, the contractor starts to fill the CVR sheets on a monthly basis. When the contract is completed, a the model process the CVR sheets and as a result summarise the performance of the project in terms of the performance variables and the data (including contract classification variables) are sent to the central Database. When a new contract is considered, the contractor defines the project in terms of its classification variables. The model queries the Database for the characteristics of past projects that match the same classification. Once the data is retrieved and processed a set of contract performance variables is predicted for that particular contract. The above method will work as long as adequate similar past projects are found and retrieved from the Database. However, finding adequate data is not always possible, particularly in the early years of applying the proposed model. Also, certain classification variables are not finite in terms of the options available (such as the client for the contract). An Intelligent Data Retrieval system has therefore been developed to overcome this problem. This paper will also explain this system and how the knowledge behind it was elicited."

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Full text: content.pdf (301,794 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.022609) class.processing (0.020626) class.analysis (0.019940)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Mark A Shelbourn, Dino Bouchlaghem, Chimay Anumba and Patricia Carrillo

A Decision Making Framework For Planning And Implementing Collaborative Working

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Mark O. Danso-Amoako, Raja R.A. Issa, and Robert Cox

Developing A Framework To Support Data Exchange From Heterogeneous Sources Via IFC And Web Services

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R. P. West, A. V. Hore

CITAX: defining XML standards for data exchange in the construction industry supply chain

Abstract: The current methods of ordering, delivering and invoicing of products in the construction industry is enormously inefficient, with vast quantities of paperwork, duplication of effort, scanning, re-keying and resolving mis-matches between invoices, delivery dockets and purchase orders. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Con-struction IT Alliance eXchange (CITAX) project and, in particular, to outline the work carried out-to-date by a special interest group within the project. They are seeking to define a universal set of eXtensible Mark-Up Language (XML) message standards that will allow suppliers and contractors to exchange information with each other in supply chain activity. While the group cannot ensure that suppliers and contractors use the standard, the ultimate goal of the project is not only to have the standard in place, but also to provide the impetus to ensure that as many stakeholders as possi-ble use them. How this might be achieved is also part of the project and its success will be judged by the extent of the adoption of the standard by the industry.

Keywords: e-procurement, standards, trading, XML

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Full text: content.pdf (224,010 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Seda Dogruel, Gary F. Dargush, and Mark L. Green

Evolutionary Aseismic Design And Retrofit Of Buildings

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